Computers and Technology
Submitted By heyitsnova
Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS)
The progress in the CMOS arena has made this technology well suited for RF and microwave operations at the high level of integration,1 and the continuous improvement of the device performance has made it a contender for low-power and eventually low-cost radio front-end. The paper introduces the RF speci¯cations of the latest nm (nanometer) CMOS node and present the evolution of the RF-FOMs2,3 with gate downscaling over the past nanometer generations. Whether we discuss the digital, analog, or RF performance of a technology, ¯gures-of-merit are used to quantify its potential. Since 45 nm CMOS is the next generation to be available in production we present here its RF performance estimated from the simulations.
First, we introduce the devices considered in this work followed by a validation of the simulation results. Then we present their estimated RF speci¯cations. Finally, we illustrate the e®ect of gate downscaling on the peak RF performance of bulk planar
Estimated RF speci¯cation for 45 nm CMOS are 240/290 GHz (fT/fMAX), and an extended set of speci¯cations as been established including boundary conditions and other RF-FOMs. The actual RF power and bandwidth performance of a 45 nm device can be reduced up to 25% compared to the speci¯cations because realistic bias conditions can be far o® from the one used in the de¯nition for the RF speci¯cations.
Downscaling is more bene¯cial to the cuto® frequency, the voltage gain bandwidth for low DC gain, and the noise ¯gure than to the RF power, the maximum frequency of oscillation of a cross-coupled pair, and the voltage gain bandwidth for large DC gain.
Resources used: * Virtual library
KAKKAR, V. (2011). PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF CMOS FOR HIGH SPEED MIXED SIGNAL CIRCUITS. Journal Of Circuits, Systems & Computers, 20(6), 1067-1074.