Free Essay

Mrsa

In: Science

Submitted By bdreppy
Words 1227
Pages 5
Global pandemic: Of the Purple Cocci

March 1st 2014

Abstract
Hard to believe that a very common bacterium that is nearly present on everyone’s skin has been the cause of thousands of deaths every year. It has gained virulence that helps it survive a host’s immune system and many common antibiotics. This bacterium produces biofilms and toxins which allows it to survive in a host’s body. This bacterium has increasingly new strains that have evolved genetically. With new genetic strains it because more resistant to many different antibiotics.
Global pandemic: Of the Purple Cocci
Bacteria are living organisms and just like any other living organism, it wants to live and survive, even when it’s trying to be killed. It is this survival instinct that has lead certain bacterial strains to evolve and grow, to become a global pandemic. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA is a group of bacteria leads to thousands of deaths every year. In order to understand MRSA, you first need to know about the bacteria’s original characteristics, and then you learn about this bacterium’s evolution over the years, and finally learn the current way in which MRSA is treated with antibiotics.
S. aureus is a very common bacterium that lives on or in people; it usually lives on the skin, inside your nostrils, stomach and intestines. Many people are carrying it and are totally unaware that it is colonizing in or on them. Colonization is the establishment and growth of pathogens without causing signs or symptoms of it being there (Lilley, Collins, Harrington & Snyder, 2011, p. 584). S. aureus is normally harmless, however it does cause problems if it is able to enter the body and the body’s immune system is unable to kill it. 82% of patients in a study of bacteremia of S. aureus infections indicated the infections are usually caused by the identical colonizing strains in their nasal cavity (Gordon & Lowy, 2008, p. s350). S. aureus can be spread easily by contact with an infected person or contact with objects, like clothing, dressings, and medical equipment which came into contact with an infected area or person even weeks later.
S. aureus has many different ways of causing severe diseases and has been shown to cause toxic shock syndrome and cause infections of the skin, joints, and heart, all of which if untreated properly can lead to death. According to a 2009 report more than 90,000 life-threatening illnesses and nearly 19,000 deaths associated with MRSA occur yearly in the United States (Jarnagin, 2010).
Every pathogen has its own virulence or capability to cause disease (Tortora, Funke, & Case, 2013, p. G-17). “When S. aureus is able to grow on the tissues it attached to, it can form biofilms, a slime-like substance. It is also able to form small-colony variants (SCVs); SCVs are able to “hide” in host cells without causing significant host-cell damage (Gordon & Lowy, 2008, p. s351).” Both of these characteristics allows S. aureus bacteria to evade host immune system and defenses. These characteristics of S. aureus are the ones known to result in recurring infections and the infections of joints and the heart. S. aureus is able to produce many chemicals, or enzymes, that have their own way of avoiding the immune cells in the host. These numerous chemicals, enable it to invade and destroy host tissues and metastasize to other sites. S. aureus is also capable of producing septic shock by interacting with and activating the host immune system and coagulation pathways (Gordon & Lowy, 2008, p. s350).
MRSA’s beginning starts in the 1940s in Europe when it was discover that S. aureus had made an enzyme called penicillinase which was resistant to the antibiotic penicillin and within a decade this resistant bacteria lead to a pandemic in hospitals and the community (Otto, 2012, p. 1513). Penicillinase is a type of bacterial resistant enzyme, beta-lactamase, can that break the chemical bond between the carbon and nitrogen atoms in the structure of the beta-lactam ring (Lilley et al., 2011, p. 590). Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) came about in 1960s after methicillin, a semisynthetic antibiotic, was introduced a hope to overcome the pandemic of penicillin-resistant S. aureus (Otto, 2012, p. 1513). It was discovered not only was this bacteria resistant to Methicillin but also was resistant from the entire class of beta-lactam antibiotics; this high resistance to methicillin is no longer used in the United States (Tortora et al., 2013, p. 568). Beta-lactam antibiotics, including penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams, use their beta-lactam ring structure to inhibit the synthesis of the peptidoglycan cell wall of a variety of gram-positive bacteria (Lilley et al., 2011, p. 590). After twenty of MRSA being a pandemic for Europe it became a worldwide pandemic that is still continuous problem today.
Bacteria are able to pick up virulence factors by genetic recombination. Genetic recombination refers to the sharing of genes between to DNA molecules to form new combinations of genes on a chromosome (Tortora et al., 2013, p. 231). Bacteria can pass DNA by contact to other living bacteria or in some cases can pick up the DNA from lysed bacteria. Once bacteria has received the new donated DNA it makes it part of its own and then passes it on every time the chromosomes are duplicated (Tortora et al., 2013, p. 232-233). “Methicillin resistance in staphylococci is due to the acquisition of a mobile genetic element (MGE) called the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) which is a DNA fragment (Otto, 2012, p. 1514).” The SCCmec types and the numbers of SCCmec is increasing, all of these have the mecA gene; the mecA gene encodes for the low affinity penicillin-binding protein PBP2a, allowing the beta-lactam antibiotics to be so ineffective to S. aureus (Otto, 2012, p. 1514). With resistance to these antibiotics, the bacteria have been able to continuously grow and clone itself.
Because MRSA is resistant to a number of different commonly used beta-lactam antibiotics, it is harder to treat and there are only a few treatments available. The drug of choice against MRSA is Vancomycin, which is primarily used to treat gram-positive bacteria. Qinuinupristin/dalfopristin is a combination drug is approved for intravenous treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections caused by S. auerus including MRSA (. Lilley et al., 2011, p. 615). “A new class of antibiotics known as lipopeditdes, binds to the gram-positive cells in a calcium-dependent process and disrupts the cell membrane potential. Daptomycin currently is the only drug of this class used to treat complicated skin and soft tissue infections caused by gram-positive bacteria including MRSA (Lilley et al., 2011, p. 616).” For the skin there is a topical antibiotic called bacitracin used. “Bacitracin inhibits the synthesis of the cell wall; it does this by inferring with the synthesis of the linear strands of peptidoglycan (Tortora et al., 2013, p. 569).”
Over the past seventy years S. aureus has been able to change its genetics, learning how to gain resistance too many antibiotics being used against it. These resistant bacteria stains started in Europe and now are a global pandemic. With new antibiotics coming out and with S. aureus ability to adapt there may be no end to these bacteria’s pandemic effects.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Mrsa

...Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is produced by a strain of staph bacteria that's become resistant to the antibiotics generally used to treat normal staph infections. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was first discovered in 1961. Today In present time MRSA has turned out to be a dangerous health problem, Bacteria are always altering because of genetic reasons and the continustened change. Therefore, because of the change numerous bacteria begin to increase the resistant to a specific antibiotic. As soon as the less resistant and weaker bacteria come into contect with that identical antibiotic, and so they stop living. However, the resistant and more stronger bacteria remain before they disappear. If these more tougher and stronger bacteria happen to live then they can duplicate. The newly Once more the dublicated bacteria hold the same to the antibiotic and extra variations diffrenceces in their genetic influence refer that a large number of these off-spring bacteria will be even morestronger and tougher. As time goes on, the frequently change of bacteria genetics and the population favoring of one form of a medication over another has indicated to the more thougher and stronger types of Staphylococcus aurous. But normally these though forms are only stronger of one or two antibiotics; nevertheless, MRSA is frequently indicated to as the “superbug” because it can be thouhger to even more antibiotics. ("What Is Mrsa? Why......

Words: 1899 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Mrsa

...Cause and Effects of MRSA By: Danielle Ingrassia Abstract In this essay I will be describing what MRSA is, how it is transmitted, what the effects of it are and how it can be prevented. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) is a bacterium that causes infections in different parts of the body. It's tougher to treat than most strains of staphylococcus aureus (staph) because it's resistant to some commonly used antibiotics. The symptoms of MRSA depend on where you're infected. Most often, it causes mild infections on the skin, like sores or boils. It can also cause more serious skin infections or infect surgical wounds, the bloodstream, the lungs, or the urinary tract. Though most MRSA infections aren't serious, some can be life-threatening.. Because it's hard to treat, MRSA is sometimes called a "super bug." Staph is a common bacteria that can live in our bodies. Plenty of healthy people carry staph without being infected by it, one-third of everybody has staph bacteria in their noses. Staph can be a problem if it manages to get into the body, often through a cut or leasion. Once there, it can cause an infection. Staph is one of the most common causes of skin infections in the United States. These are usually minor and don't need special treatment. Sometimes, staph can cause serious problems like infected wounds or pneumonia. Staph can usually be treated with antibiotics. But over the decades, some strains of staph, like MRSA, have become......

Words: 1106 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Mrsa

...Chintan Shah 11/19/12 English 101 MRSA Paper In 1968, the United States experienced its first MRSA outbreak. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, or MRSA, was first discovered in the Boston City Hospital and the amount of infections was slowly increasing by the years. This was due to the fact that when someone gets MRSA, they actually have an infection of the staphylococcus aureus. The staphylococcus aureus are a group of bacteria that already reside within the human being. The general population is not even aware that 25 to 30% of them consist the staphylococcus aureus bacteria primarily on their nose and skin. (McCaughey, 07). However, it is not a concern until these bacteria are able to enter the body through a cut or some type of wound. Furthermore, MRSA is tougher to treat because of the fact that it is resistant to most antibiotics known to present day. MRSA is a bacteria infection that is resistant to most antibiotics and is caused by the entrance of staphylococcus bacteria into the body; MRSA has also exponentially increased as the years have progressed causing it to be more common within humans now. MRSA is described as many doctors to be a “flesh-eating” infection due to the severity of the infection. Many of the signs and symptoms may seem common and one may not even know if they have MRSA or not. Some of the symptoms are high temperature, chills, dizziness, and bites that may be similar to spider bites or small red bumps that resembles pimples...

Words: 443 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Mrsa

...Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in state of Michigan MRSA is methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. MRSA is a potentially dangerous type of staph bacteria that is resistant to certain antibiotics and may cause skin and other infections. According to Haddadin and Fappiano in “Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the intensive care unit” MRSA is a Gram positive organism. The individual cocci measuring from 0.5-0.7 μm in diameter; it can come singly, in pairs or in short chains (2002). There is both MRSA that is developed while in the hospital and out. Community Associated (CA) MRSA starts as red bumps or boils which can turn into more serious painful puss filled bumps. Healthcare Associated (HA) MRSA can lead to more severe illness to the vital organs and can lead to widespread infections. According to Methicillin- Resistant Staphyloccus aureus Infections by John Jernigan and Alex Kallen, once acquired, MRSA can be long-lasting. A patient that gets MRSA during a hospital stay has increased risk for MRSA infections after they are released. MRSA carriers also have the potential to further transmission as they move through and across healthcare facilities. The quality of MRSA control in one facility may influence the MRSA experience in others. If MRSA is not controlled it can result in severe illness. For example, if it reaches your blood, lungs, or joints more serious illness can happen or even pneumonia. The......

Words: 468 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Mrsa

...MRSA decontamination using octenidine-based products Mindaugas Danilevicius, Audra Juzéniené, Indré Juzénaité-Karneckiené, Anželika Veršinina Key words: Decontamination ■ Hospitalised patients ■ Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ■ Octenidine Mindaugas Danilevicius, 2UAB ‘Apiterapija’, Vilnius, Lithuania, Audra Juzéniené, Indré Juzénaité-Karneckiené, Republican Vilnius University Hospital, Department of Infection Control, Vilnius, Lithuania Accepted for publication: July 2015 S36 I British Journal of Nursing, 2015 (Tissue Viability Supplement), Vol 24, No 15 © 2015 MA Healthcare Ltd Abstract Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are an increasing problem worldwide with a high risk of severe illness and mortality in hospitalised patients. Patients with chronic wounds are at particular risk of developing MRSA infections. As octenidinebased products have shown promising success in decontamination in the past, the aim of the present study was to determine its efficacy, safety, and tolerability in decontaminating hospitalised MRSApositive patients. Methods: From 1 April 2011 until 9 November 2012, 36 patients were screened MRSA-positive at the Republican Vilnius University Hospital, Vilnius, Lithuania. At least three swab tests were performed for each patient to screen for MRSA, one from each nostril and one from the perineum. In patients with wounds, an additional swab was taken from the wound......

Words: 3211 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Mrsa

...Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) With a show of hands, how many of you have heard the term “super bug”? How many of you have heard the term “MRSA” or mersa? Tonight it is my goal to educate you on MRSA. First, we need to understand what a super bug is or what does this term mean. It does, in reality, sound quite science fiction and quite scary doesn’t it? A “super bug” is defined as a strain of bacteria that is resistant to antibiotics. Now, how many of you are familiar with the term staphyloccus aureus or “staph” for short. All of us have many microorganisms that live in harmony on our skin and for the most part, we don’t even know they are there. Staph is one of these microorganisms, or “bugs” that live on our skin. When we get a cut on our skin and it becomes infected, most of the time staph is the responsible party. Next, lets break down the big scarry words methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureaus. Methicillin is a drug. It is in the penicillin family and is most commonly used to treat infections caused by staph. So, if you combine the words methicillin resistant ……. It simply means it is a strain of staph infection that is resistant to the antibiotic most commonly used to treat staph infections. So, methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureas simply means it is a staph infection resistant to the drug methicillin. It is also resistant to amoxicillin, oxacillin, penicillin, and many other antibiotics. Are there drugs available to treat MRSA? Of......

Words: 456 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Mrsa Infection

...MRSA, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Cris Lambdin HCA240 Deborah A. Branham June 29, 2012 MRSA Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus or MRSA is a type of staph bacteria, a methicillin-resistant strain of the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. Meaning it is resistant to certain antibiotic medications such as methicillin, oxacillin, penicillin and amoxicillin, four of the more commonly used antibiotics. The Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, typically live in nasal passages and on the skin of healthy individuals, and enter the body through a cut, catheter or breathing tube during a stay in a hospital. Potentially life-threatening MRSA infections most often occur within health care settings (CDC, 2011). Septic shock (result of a severe infection) can occur as a result of the body’s inflammatory response to toxins released by the MRSA infection. The inflammatory response of MRSA can cause potentially fatal damage to organs such as the brain, heart, kidneys, liver and intestines. Septic shock symptoms can include; hands and feet appearing pale and feel cool to the touch, because of the body’s redirection of blood flow away from the extremities, and to the internal organs. This body’s inflammatory response, septic shock, can result in cardiac or respiratory failure or death (CDC, 2011). Mild cases of MRSA infections may start with and look like a red rash or small red bumps similar to pimples, boils, or a spider bite, there could be a yellow, pus filled......

Words: 1144 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Mrsa: Teaching Providers

...Communication Techniques in a Professional Setting Media Project October 27, 2012 Facts on Diversity MRSA infections can affect anyone of any age, race, culture, and socio-economic status. However there is a higher incidence in people in areas of poverty, mainly because of poor hygiene practices and people over 65 years of age. High risk venue can include gyms, correctional facilities, and anywhere conditions exist that include close skin to skin contact, people with poor hygiene, and overcrowded living conditions (CDC, 2010). Treatments The treatment for skin infections is drainage of wounds with purulent drainage as well as antimicrobial medications. Obtaining wound and blood cultures are recommended to ensure proper antimicrobial therapy. It is also very important to teach patients not to attempt to drain wounds themselves, and to return if the infection worsens without improvement over 48 hours after treatment is started. As a health care provider it is your responsibility to be familiar with MRSA. Educating the community as well as the patients you treat is the key to prevention. * Proper hand washing techniques. * Avoid contact with other people’s wounds such as skin to skin contact and towels. * Disinfect all exercise equipment before use. * Only prescribing necessary antimicrobials. * Teaching patients to wash clothes in warm or hot water as well as drying clothes in a dryer and not air drying because heat kill......

Words: 898 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Screening and Decolonization of Mrsa in the Preoperative Patient

...Screening and Decolonization of MRSA in the Preoperative Patient Suzanne Miller Aspen University HUM410 Abstract Staphylococcus aureus is the most common organism responsible for surgical site infections. The colonization of Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been identified as a significant risk factor for patients undergoing orthopedic surgery, putting this patient at a higher risk of developing a surgical site infection. Screening preoperatively and treating colonization is a tool to aid in the prevention of surgical site infections in patients undergoing elective joint surgery. Results of various studies of patients undergoing elective joint replacement surgery have been reviewed. A nasal swab was obtained and cultured during preadmission testing. If the culture showed that the patient was positive for MRSA colonization they were treated with nasal mupirocin. They also were instructed to bathe with surgical wipes containing chlorhexidine prior to the procedure. The results of the research suggest that the use of a screening protocol prior to surgery can decrease the risk of MRSA in the postoperative patient. Table of Contents 1. Literature Review........................................................................................................................4 2. Discussion....................................................................................................................................7 3. Conclusion................

Words: 2617 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Methicillin

...doesn’t cause a disease. Antibiotics are known to help fight off infections, the type of antibiotic you need depends of the sensitivity of the staphylococcal. Unfortunately, the overuse and misuse of antibiotics has made the microbes become resistant to the drugs that help treat the infections. This can be seen with a staph infection called Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, MRSA. The first case or report of MRSA was in 1968 in the United States. MRSA is a type of staphylococcus (staph) bacteria that is resistant to various antibiotics. MRSA is different than any other type of staph because it is not treatable with some types of antibiotics like methicillin. The only time that staph becomes a problem is when it causes an infection. Infections could become serious for people who are weak and ill. Since Methicillin and other types of antibiotics don’t have any effect on the infection, the infection becomes even harder to get rid of. So MRSA is difficult treat than any other type of staph infections. When the antibiotics aren’t used properly or when they are used too frequently it makes the MRSA bacteria...

Words: 1314 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Unit 6 M2

...assignment I will be explaining how an outbreak of MRSA in a health and social care setting will be managed. The setting I have chosen is a hospital. MRSA, short for Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterial infection that is resistant to various types of anti-biotic, meaning this is a lot harder to treat compared to other common types of bacteria. It is carried on the skin, inside the nostrils and the throat and spread through skin-to-skin contact with an individual who is infected or colonised by the bacteria. It is very common for someone to develop MRSA when they are in hospital due to people who are staying in hospital are commonly wounded, burnt, using a catheter or intravenous tube which means they are at a higher risk of bacteria entering the body. MRSA can also cause infections in people outside hospital; however it is far less common than in hospitalised people. This is known as community-acquired MRSA and is usually found in nursing and residential homes. MRSA colonisation occurs when MRSA grows in or on your body with no signs or symptoms of an infection. Many people carry MRSA without it causing any symptoms whatsoever. The most common place for colonisation is your armpits, nostrils, skin (especially if you have eczema), throat and urine. This colonisation can act as a reservoir which means that MRSA infections can later either develop in your body or spread to other people. The number of MRSA infections in hospital can be kept to a minimum if...

Words: 1115 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Chain of Infection

...How can communicable diseases be broken at a link within the communicable disease chain? Are there steps that a nurse can take to facilitate this process? Give a specific example. Use an example that is different than the postings of other students.   There are six links in the Chain of Infection. Those areas include:  1. The infectious agent itself-  2. The reservoir where the infectious agent can live and multiply or lie dormant until the organism can find the opportunity to cause disease  3. The susceptible host  4. A means of Transmission 5. A portal of exit  6. A portal of re-entry    Each link in this chain must be intact for a disease to be transmitted and infect another person. There is the potential to defeat a communicable disease process by disrupting the link in this chain at any point along the way thus preventing infection in another person.  An example of the simplest chain of infection is an infected patient cared for by a health care worker who doesn't wash their hands before caring for another patient. Human sources of microorganisms are healthcare workers, patients themselves and visitors, any of whom may be individuals who are in some stage of an incubation period of a disease process, may already have a disease, or may be a chronic carrier of an infectious agent. The patient may be their own source of infection. (Baldwin, 2008)   The bacteria must be able to find a susceptible host. Some individuals are immune to infection or are able to......

Words: 2021 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Research Summary and Ethical Considerations

...Effects of Isolation on Patients with MRSA Jeffrey W. Lyter Grand Canyon University: NRS 433 August 2, 2013 Effects of Isolation on Patients with MRSA Methicillin-resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a dangerous and common occurrence within the healthcare setting. The methods to prevent the spread of MRSA infection are well known such as: covering wounds, cleaning hands, not sharing of personal items and maintaining a clean environment are well established (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2010). This, however, can subject patients to decreased contact with medical staff, treatment times, and use to facilities and equipment for rehabilitation. Patients in isolation often develop feelings of seclusion and depression. Nursing staff faced with increasing time constraints and responsibilities may also find donning of personal protective equipment (PPE), each time when entering a patients room, unreasonable and frustrating. While the current methods of isolation have proven effective and best practice, it is imperative to acknowledge and be mindful to the potentially adverse effects that accompany the isolating patients with MRSA. Examination of the study, “Patient experience of source isolation: Lessons for clinical practice”, will reveal the issues, methods, implications and ethical concerns familiar with patients isolated due to MRSA. Research Summary The mounting rates of MRSA infections reported worldwide have prompted the......

Words: 1193 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Pathogenics

...1. Clostridium difficile (C. dif) a. What is Clostridium difficile? Clostridium difficile is a gram positive bacteria of the genus Clostridium. C. difficile bacteria naturally reside in the body and this bacteria is capable of forming spores. b. What are the symptoms of C. difficile disease? Symptoms of C. difficile disease include watery diarrhea, fever, loss of appetite, nausea, and abdominal pain/tenderness. With the elderly population being more susceptible to complications of dehydration, this disease is of great concern for them. c. How is C. difficle disease transmitted? C. difficile is transmitted through contact. Infection can occur if surfaces become contaminated with feces and an individual touches that surface and introduces the bacteria into their mouth or mucous membranes. This is important to remember when using commodes, bath tubs, and rectal thermometers. All of these things can be reservoirs for C. difficile spores. d. How can one prevent the spread of C. difficile infection? Preventing the spread of C. difficile can be accomplished by being diligent with hand washing and by cleaning surfaces regularly with disinfectants. Hypochlorite based disinfectants have shown the most success in hospital cleansing routines. Hospitals must take special precautions when cleaning a room after a patient with C. difficile has occupied it. Patients with C. difficile will usually be on isolation precautions in a private room or be...

Words: 2632 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Questions

...BIOS275 Week 6 Homework 12. What serious adverse effect has been linked to the drug Accutane? The serious adverse effect that has been linked to the drug Accutuane is depression and suicide. This drug is only used to treat severe acne and not common acne. 15. What is a herpes zoster infection and what drugs are used to treat it? Herpes zoster infection or shingles occur from the reemergence of the same virus that first caused chickenpox in the patient. The virus remains dormant in the body until later in life, when stress or illness triggers it to emerge. The following drugs are used to treat this infection: acyclovir (Zovirax), famciclovir (Famvir), and valacyclovir (Valtrex). 17. What is unusual about the origin of the popular drug Botox? The toxin in Botox is the same toxin produced by Clostridium Botulinum, the bacterium that causes food poisoning. The trade name Botox comes from the letters botulinum toxin. 2. Discuss the use of silver nitrate versus erythromycin to prevent newborns from developing eye infections due to gonorrhea. When babies are born, most states require a topical anti-infective drug be applied to prevent possible infection or blindness due to gonorrhea. Silver nitrate is less expensive but has drawbacks like conjunctival irritation and swelling. This drug also is ineffective in preventing eye infections due to Chlamydia. Erythromycin is more expensive but will treat and prevent what silver nitrate cannot. 4. Name three categories of drugs that...

Words: 849 - Pages: 4