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In: Philosophy and Psychology

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Perspective or Movement | Key Figures | Key Concepts/Terms | Major Influences on behavior | Behavior | Ivan Pavlov | Classical Conditioning: | Conditioned Response : The response to the Conditioned Stimulus once classical conditioning has been establishedConditioned Stimulus: Initially neutral with respect to the Unconditioned Response which is, by conditioning, associated with the Unconditioned StimulusUnconditioned Response: An automatic or inherent response to the Unconditioned StimulusUnconditioned Stimulus: A stimulus which produces an Unconditioned Response without conditioning being required | Biological | Charles Darwin | Evolution | Natural Selection: gradual natural process by which biological traits become either more or less common in a population as a function of the effect of inherited traits on the differential reproductive success of organisms interacting with their environmentCommon descent: a group of organisms share common descent if they have a common ancestor | Cognitive | George Kelly | Cognitive theory: | Cognitive theory is a learning theory of psychology that attempts to explain human behavior by understanding the thought processes. The assumption is that humans are logical beings that make the choices that make the most sense to them. | Learning | Lev Vygotsky | Social Development theory | Internalization: the process of consolidating and embedding one's own beliefs, attitudes, and values when it comes to moral behavior Appropriation: Cultural mediation: a profession that studies the cultural differences between people, using the data in problem solvingInterpersonal communication: exchange of information between two or more people | Feminist | Karen Horney | Psychoanalysis | Neurotic needs: 1.) The neurotic has a desperate need for acceptance and affection. Anxiety will occur without these. Neurotics see life as if everything is reasonable and suitable to fit their needs but in reality it is impossible.
2.) The neurotic has a need for love when in an intimate relationship and expect their partners to take over their lives by solving their problems.
3.) The neurotic need to make things more simpler by having no routine or rules. Also, when at the point of stress, they want to be unnoticeable and avoid confrontation that may add to their frustration.
4.) The neurotic needs to have control and power over others.
5.) The neurotic has a need to manipulate others. They have this need because of their concern of being used or looking stupid. Practical jokes that may be funny to others are often not funny to the neurotic.
6.) The neurotic has a need to be recognized socially. They are extremely concerned with appearance and popularity. So, they strive to be outgoing.
7.) The neurotic has a need for others to admire their inner qualities. They are desperate perfectionists, fearing being unimportant or meaningless to others.
8.) Neurotics need personal accomplishment. They are obsessed with it. They want to be leader of everyone, being top of the world and number one at everything.
9.) Neurotics need independence. They refuse help from others, thinking they can accomplish things by themselves. Also, if they did receive assistance than it would not be just themselves recognized but the other person as well. They rather have all the attention focused on them individually.
10.) Neurotics need perfection, hoping that everything in life is just going to get better and better. They fear failure and people finding out that they make mistakes. They feel it is important to be in charge of the all situations. | Humanistic | Abraham Maslow | Hierarchy of needs | Self-actualization: the final level of psychological development that can be achieved when all basic and mental needs are essentially fulfilled and the "actualization" of the full personal potential takes place | Sociocultural | Alfred Adler | Social interest | Compensation: Motivation to overcome inferiority, to strive for higher levels of developmentInferiority complex: Condition that develops when a person is unable to compensate for normal inferior feelings | Sociocultural | Eric Erickson | psychosocial stages of development: | Eight stages: 0-2 years: Hopes. Trust vs. Mistrust.2-4 years: Will. Autonomy vs. Shame and doubt4-5 years: Purpose. Initiative vs. Guilt.5-12 years: Competence. Industry vs. Inferiority.13-19 years: Fidelity. Identity vs. Role confusion.20-24 years: Love. Intimacy vs. Isolation.25-64 years. Care. Generativity vs. Stagnation.65-death: Wisdom. Ego integrity vs. Despair.epigenetic principle of maturation: the idea that human development is governed by a sequence of stages that depend on genetic or hereditary factors | Learning | B.F. Skinner | Operant conditioning: | a type of learning in which an individual's behavior is modified by its consequences; the behavior may change in form, frequency, or strength | Sociocultural | Albert Bandura | Social Cognitive theory: | portions of an individual's knowledge acquisition can be directly related to observing others within the context of social interactions, experiences, and outside media influences. In other words, people do not learn new behaviors solely by trying them and either succeeding or failing, but rather, the survival of humanity is dependent upon the replication of the actions of others |

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