Free Essay

Multi Agent System

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By adels22
Words 4773
Pages 20
Volume 2, No. 4, April 2011 Journal of Global Research in Computer Science
RESEARCH PAPER
Available Online at www.jgrcs.info
A MULTI AGENT BASED E-SHOPPING SYSTEM
Sougata Khatua*1, Zhang Yuheng 2, Arijit Das 3 and N.Ch.S.N. Iyengar 4
School of Computing Science and Engineering, VIT University, Vellore-632014, Tamil Nadu, INDIA sougatakhatua@yahoo.com*1, yuer.zhang1987@gmail.com2, arijitdasmid@yahoo.com3and nchsniyengar48@gmail.com4
-------------------------------------------------
Abstract: Current e-shopping systems use the Internet as its primary medium for transactions. e-shopping has grown in popularity over the years, mainly because people find it convenient and easy to buy various items comfortably from their office or home. This paper has proposed a personalized e-shopping system, which makes use of agent technology to enhance the automation and efficiency of shopping process in Internet commerce. The agent technology is used to enhance the customer‟s needs which include availability, speedy response time, and efficiency. Agent for e-Shopping creates connectivity on an anytime-anywhereany-device-basis to provide the specific goods required by the consumers based on transaction cost optimization and scalability. The client agent connects with the controller agent which controls all the agent information. The controller agent sends the item information to the client agent and the client chooses items and puts in to the shopping cart. Finally the conclusion shows that the system performs efficiently and can help customers to save enormous time for Internet shopping.
-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------
Keywords: JADE, multi-agent, client agent, controller agent, e-shopping

INTRODUCTION The e-shopping is defined as the use of computers and electronic networks to organize shopping with customers over the internet or any other electronic network. Online shopping has grown in popularity over the years, mainly because people find it convenient and easy to buy various items comfortably from their office or home. One of the most advantages of online shopping, particularly during a holiday season, is that it eliminates the need to wait in long lines or search from store to store for a particular item. The unpredictable growth of the Internet users in world opened a new business opportunity to the whole world. Shopping activities over the internet have been growing in an exponential manner over the last few years. One of such environments in which there is a prominent job for the agents would be e-shopping in which a user is able to give those agents the responsibility of buying and selling, instead of searching the e-shopping himself [5]. There are no proper mechanisms to facilitate electronic transaction and automate shopping process on behalf of customers. So a human buyer is still responsible for gathering commodity information from multiple suppliers on Internet, making decisions about each commodity, then making the best possible selection, and ultimately performing the e-payment. So it takes lot of time to buy things over the Internet [2]. Hence, to reduce the time and to enhance the automation of the e-shopping system a multi agent environment is used. LITERATURE REVIEW
Related Work Software agent technologies provide a new scenario that is used to develop the new-generation e-commerce system, in which the most time-consuming stages of the customer‟s shopping process will be automated [9].
© JGRCS 201 Moreover, there are now many different shopping sites on the Internet; however, most of these sites lack a userfriendly interface design, which is essential for the success of online software [6]. The interface of e-shopping systems must be pleasing to the eye, effortless to learn and easy to use [2]. Otherwise, people in general will likely become less interested in e-shopping applications. The JADE technology can be used [7] to build a user friendly, easy to learn and pleasant. At now on the internet most of the e-shopping systems are using the normal webpage implementation. That will take the more heavy work for the web servers [1]. In some paper, the intelligent e-shopping system has been proposed using data mining [12]. But it is too slow. The agent technology can be used to reduce the enormous time taken by the e-shopping system based on web application and data mining. Amazon, a well known online book seller, uses web based application which is relatively slow and less efficient because it has the following disadvantages [3]: 1. It requires user‟s direct interventions. 2. It is time consuming. 3. Product comparison is difficult. Besides these, the web based applications are difficult to scale [5], but the agent based applications are very easy to scale.
Proposed Work To address all the above said disadvantages, the JADE technology is used in this project. Using the JADE technology, all the disadvantages of the existing e-shopping systems can be overcome. JADE is a completely distributed middleware system with a flexible infrastructure allowing easy extension with add-on modules. The framework facilitates the development of complete agent-based applications by means of a runtime environment implementing the life-cycle support features required by agents, the core logic of agents themselves, and a rich suite of graphical tools. As JADE is written completely in Java, it benefits from the huge set of language features and third-party libraries on offer, and thus offers a rich set of programming abstractions allowing developers to construct JADE multi-agent systems with relatively minimal expertise in agent theory. JADE was initially developed by the Research & Development department of Telecom Italia s.p.a [10]. The JADE agent has the following advantages [1]: * Agent is Autonomous: the JADE agent is Autonomous, the each of the agent have own thread of execution, they can control own life-cycle and decide autonomous when to perform which actions. * The system is peer-to-peer: each agent can be identified by globally name, and using the name join and leave a host platform any time, they also can discover other agents through both white-page and yellow-page services. * Is fully distributed system: the each of the agent running as a separate thread, they can running in different machines, and also can communication between them. * A library of interaction protocols: they already give some of the protocol option in the JADE library, when need just using the function implementation. * Support for J2SE, J2EE, J2ME platform and wireless environment. * Platform independent: It can be used in any operating system. Architectural diagram

Using the JADE agent technology, the proposed e-shopping system has the following characteristics [8]: 1. Autonomy: The system has the autonomous transaction facility. It reduces the user intervention during purchasing activity. 2. User adaptability: The user preference changes all the time. The system reflects the user‟s up to date preferences in an adaption mechanism. 3. Multiple store server access: It compares the price at different shopping systems and provides the best price for the commodity product chosen by the customer. 4. Scalability: Using JADE technology, the system can easily scale up to 1500 agents and 300000 ACL messages. 5. Faster: The proposed e-shopping system is faster than the existing systems. DESIGN ANALYSIS
The design of the e-shopping system is divided into two parts: Architectural diagram: It describes the overall design of the system how it works and what are the functional components and what is their functionality.
Sequence flow diagram: It shows how the how the components of the e-shopping communicate with each other the messages with respect to time. Fig.1. Architectural Diagram Client Agent (CA): When the customer logs in to the eFunctional Components and their functionalities shopping system, the customer must prove his/her |

authenticity to the system. The Client Agent (CA) checks the username and password of the customer and if these are correct, then only the customer can enter into the e-shopping system. After that the CA show different items available in various shops in the e-shopping system. The customer can choose any number of items from any shop. After putting items into the shopping cart, the customer enters the credit card number and password. These two information is checked by the CA and produces a receipt if the credits card number and the password provided by the customer, is correct. System Server: The system server stores all the information into a database. The system server does not perform the task of checking user name and password and the credit card information. It only stores all those information. If the credit card information is correct, then it passes it to the merchant bank. Controller Agent (CTA): The controller agent (CTA) performs the entire task on behalf of the system server. It supplies the commodity information or the item details to the Client Agent (CA) according to the customer demand. It also helps the system server to store the customer details in to the system server‟s database. Besides these, one of the main function of the CTA is the capability to kill a Client Agent (CA). Database Server: The database server stores all the data. It stores the following information: * The user information. * The username and password of the customer. * The credit card number information. * The commodity or the item details available for shopping in the shopping system.

Merchant bank: The bank which has a business relationship with the e-shopping system receives the data from the eshopping system. This type of transaction is called as business to business transaction. The merchant bank first checks, if the customer is the user of this bank or not. If the customer is a user of this bank, then it transfers the money from customer‟s account to the e-shopping system‟s account. If the customer is not a user of this bank, then the data sent by the e-shopping is sent to the customer‟s bank. Customer’s bank: It receives the data from the merchant bank. This type of transaction is called as business to consumer transaction. The merchant bank first checks, if the customer is the user of this bank or not. If the customer is a user of this bank, then it transfers the money from customer‟s account to the merchant bank and the money is credited to the e-shopping system‟s account. After that the merchant bank sends an approval message to the e-shopping system and then the e-shopping system verifies the delivery address and then sends a confirmation to the customer. Post manager: The post manager receives the receipt document from the Controller Agent (CTA) and then post to the brought commodity items through the post office. The confirmation message is in the form of a number which is called as “receipt number”. The receipt number is unique for each shopping. This number is generated only after the successfully completion of the transaction. The customer should keep the receipt number so that he/she can verify the receipt number at the time of delivery of the items which he/she has brought. Sequence flow diagram Fig. 2. Information Flows for Transactions |
As illustrated in Fig. 2, following are the steps: 1. At first the Client Agent (CA) sends request to the Controller Agent (CTA) to create the CA. 2. After that the CTA creates the Client Agent (CA). 3. Then, the customer login to the system by providing userID and password through the CA and CA passes this information to the CTA. * CTA passes this information to the system server. * The system server sends the validation information to the CTA 4. The e-shopping system returns validation success to the CTA if the customer is an authenticated user of the e-shopping system and the customer enters into the e-shopping system. 5. After that the CA requests to the Controller Agent (CTA) for commodity items. * Then the CTA requests for the commodity items to the system server. * After getting the message, the system server sends the commodity items to the CTA as per customer demand. 6. Then the CTA receives the information from the system server and supply this information to the CA which displays this information to the customer. 7. The customer selects items and put into the shopping cart or deletes items as he/she wishes. 8. The CA make payment request on behalf of the customer to the CTA. 9. Then the CA make payment and send this information to the CTA. 10. After receiving this information, the CTA sends this information to the system server. 11. After getting the customer‟s details, the shopping system (merchant) it contacts to the merchant bank for customer authorization and payment. 12. Merchant‟s bank will contact to the customer‟s bank and send authorization request. 13. If the customer is authorized, then customer‟s bank will send authorization response to the merchant‟s bank. 14. Merchant‟s bank i.e. the e-shopping system‟s bank will send authorization approval to the e-shopping system. 15. Then the system server sends the balance information to the CTA. 16. After getting the balance information from the system server, the CTA forwards it to the CA and CA displays it to the customer. 17. The customer, then sends the confirms the transaction through the Client Agent (CA). 18. After, that CTA, sends the transaction information to the system server. 19. After receiving the transaction information from the CTA, the system server sends it to the merchant bank. 20. Then, the merchant bank sends it to the customer bank and it processes the transaction. 21. When, the transaction successfully completed, it sends a message to the merchant bank. 22. Then, the merchant bank sends a message to the system server that the transaction has successfully completed. 23. Then the system server sends the commit transaction message to the Controller Agent (CTA). 24. At last, CTA sends the confirmation message to Client Agent (CA). IMPLEMENTATION To implement the agent based e-shopping system, we are using JADE (Java Agent Development Environment) 4.01. JADE is a software platform that provides basic middleware-layer functionalities which are independent of the specific application and which simplify the realization of distributed applications that exploit the software agent abstraction. A significant merit of JADE is that it implements this abstraction over a well-known objectoriented language, Java, providing a simple and friendly API. The following simple design choices were influenced by the agent abstraction. Server Initialization The execution of the following java file, “database.java”, the following tables ,”iteminfo”, “shopcardinfo” and “useragent” is created in the database server in the system server. The “useragent” table contains the following information which is shown in Table I:
Table I. Useragent table Sr. No. | Data Field | Value Constraints | 1 | Username | 20 characters | 2 | Password | 10 characters | 3 | Name | 40 characters | 4 | Gender | 5 characters | 5 | Age | 3 bit Integer | 6 | Phone | 10 bit Integer | 7 | E-mail | 40 characters | 8 | Address | 100 characters | 9 | Item1 | 10 characters | 10 | Item2 | 10 characters | 11 | Item3 | 10 characters | 12 | Item4 | 10 characters | 13 | Item5 | 10 characters | 14 | Item6 | 10 characters | 15 | Item7 | 10 characters | 16 | Item8 | 10 characters | 17 | Item9 | 10 characters | 18 | Replay No. | 9 characters |

In the above table, Table I, the attribute “Replay No.” denotes the status of the item. It is 9 characters long means that at a time at most 9 items can be purchased by the customer. If the value of one character is 0, then it is empty, if it is 1, then it is active state and 2 mean that the item is delivered to the customer.

The “iteminfo” table contains details information about all the items stored in the database server of the system server. This information is illustrated in the Table II as follows:
Table II. Iteminfo table Sr. No. | Data Field | Value Constraints | 1 | Shop | 20 characters | 2 | Item name | 20 characters |
3

Price Integer 3 Price Integer

The “shopcardinfo” table contains the information about the credit/debit card. That means it stores the information of credit card number, name and the Pin number of the customer. This information is illustrated below in Table III:
Table III. Shopcardinfo table Sr. No. Data Field Value Constrai nts 1 Card Number 16 characters 2 Password characters
10

3 Name 30 characters 4 Balance Float Table III. Shopcardinfo table Sr. No. Data Field Value Constrai nts 1 Card Number 16 characters 2 Password characters
10

3 Name 30 characters 4 Balance Float

JADE Architecture JADE platform is composed of agent containers that can be distributed over the network. Agents live in containers which are the Java process that provides the JADE run-time and all the services needed for hosting and executing agents. There is a special container, called the main container, which represents the bootstrap point of a platform: it is the first container to be launched and all other containers must join to a main container by registering with it. The containers are identified by simply using a logical name; by default the main container is named „Main Container‟ while the others are named „Container-1‟, „Container-2‟, etc. When the main-container is launched, two special agents are automatically instantiated and started by JADE [10]. 1. The Agent Management System (AMS) is the agent that supervises the entire platform. Every agent is required to register with the AMS (automatically carried out by JADE at agent startup) in order to obtain a valid AID. 2. The Directory Facilitator (DF) is the agent that implements the yellow pages service, used by any agent wishing to register its services or search for other available services. The JADE DF also accepts subscriptions from agents that wish to be notified whenever a service registration or modification is made that match some specified criteria. This GUI which is illustrated in Fig. 3, is actually provided by a JADE system agent called the Remote Monitoring Agent (RMA) and allows a platform administrator to manipulate and monitor the running platform.

Fig. 3. Jade GUI Controller Agent (CTA) | | The Controller Agent (CTA) is created by executing the program “ControllerAgent.java” and the design frame of controller is created by “ControllerAgentGui.java”. The controller works as the agent manager of the e-shopping system. It creates the Client Agent (CA) as per request and it has the ability to kill the Client Agent (CA) to stop any malfunction of the system. It also sends the commodity | information or the item details from the server side to the Client Agent (CA). By executing the java program “listitem.java”, the CTA automatically counts the number of available items for each shop and also any number of items can be added into or deleted from the database. The controller agent GUI is illustrated as follows: | build by executing the java program “ClientAgentGui.java”. The CA sends the credit card information to the CTA and CTA checks verifies and updates the agent information to the database. Besides these, CA shows the customer the various shops in the e-shopping system and the total amount which is received from the CTA. This is illustrated in the Fig. 5, 6, 7 and 8:

Fig. 4. Controller Agent GUI
Client Agent (CA) In the Figure 4 if we click the button “Login agent” then a new Client Agent will be created. After that, customer provides the password. If it is correct, then the customer enters into the e-shopping system with the help of Client Agent (CA). The design frame of the Client Agent GUI is

Fig. 6. Item details When we click the button “Post” in Fig. 10, the details The e-shop manager can see the “Receipt No” and the corresponding order details of the customer and using this information, the manager post the corresponding order to respective address which is shown in Fig. 9, 10 and 11. which is selected Figure 9 in post management system of the corresponding receipt number will be deleted and the new receipt will be generated. The post manager sends the receipt bill and it is delivered to the customer.

Fig. 7. Transaction details Fig. 8. Billing details
Fig. 5. Client Agent GUI When the customer gets the bill as illustrated in Fig. 6 and gets the message and “Receipt No.” as illustrated in Fig. 7, the transaction successfully completed. The message as illustrated in Fig. 7 is treated as the confirmation message. The customer keeps the “Receipt No.” and later it verifies this number when the shopping items are to be delivered to the corresponding address.

Fig. 9. Post management system
Fig. 10. Post Details In Fig. 9, the post management system is shown and the corresponding receipt number is shown which is
“1302366736468sougata1” and equals to the previous one. Post manager When we click the button “Post” in Fig. 10, the details which is selected Fig. 9 in post management system of the corresponding receipt number will be deleted and the new receipt will be generated and delivered to the customer by the post manager.

Fig. 11. Sales Receipt and Client Agent, Controller Agent, RMA, AMS, DF using Message passing between the agents a series of requests through JADE agent ACL Messages. From proposed system design viewpoint, Fig. 12 represents message sequence for the connection between the GUI agent

Fig. 12. Message passing between the agents

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Time
------
>
Agent based e
-
Shopping System
General e
-
Shopping System 0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Time
------
>
Agent based e
-
Shopping System
General e
-
Shopping System PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS After the completion of the development phase, the performance of the e-shopping system is analyzed against the existing e-shopping systems most of which use normal web application without agent technology. Analysis of execution time Here, the analysis of the agent based e-shopping system is done with the existing e-shopping system which do not use the agent technology. Platform: Intel Core 2 Duo processor @ 2.2 GHz with 3GB RAM, Windows XP using JDK 1.7, NetBeans 6.9.1 and JADE Agent. The comparison table and chart to analysis the performance in terms of execution time is given below: Table IV. Comparison table | Fig. 12. Analysis of execution time From the above figure, Fig. 12, it is clear that agent based e-shopping system needs much less time about 37% less | Sr. No. | Systems | Execution Time | 1 | Agent based eshopping system | 58 sec | 2 | General web based e-shopping system | 95 sec | time than the normal e-shopping system which does not uses the agent technology. Analysis of CPU Utilization The value from the above table (Table IV) is plotted in to the following bar chart to compare the execution time of the two systems: | Here, the analysis of the agent based e-shopping system is done with the existing e-shopping system which do not use the agent technology. Platform: Intel Core 2 Duo processor @ 2.2 GHz with 3GB |
RAM, Windows XP using JDK 1.7, NetBeans 6.9.1 and JADE Agent.

The comparison chart to analysis the performance in terms of CPU Utilization is given below:
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
P e r c e n t a g e Agent based e
-
shopping
Without agent normal e
-
shopping system 0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
P
e r c e n t a g e
Agent based e
-
shopping
Without agent normal e
-
shopping system Fig. 13. CPU Utilization From, the above figure, it is clear that, the agent based eshopping system uses little bit more resource i.e. CPU utilization than the normal e-shopping system which does not use the agent technology. Hence, from the above, it is clear that the agent based eshopping system performs better than the general web implementation of e-shopping system. Agent based eshopping system saves enormous time taken by the general web based e-shopping system with the cost of little bit more using the resources. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK The rapid development of the Internet and e-commerce including online shopping made it important that the need to automate shopping process on Internet and provide more personalized information services for customers. The above analysis suggests that the agent based e-shopping system performs better than the e-shopping system which is not based on the agent technology. It out performs the general web based e-shopping system in terms of execution time. In future, an intelligent shopping system can be developed. In this work, a multi-agent system to provide shopping service for the commodities that a consumer does not buy frequently. The system integrates built-in expert knowledge [4] and the customer‟s current needs, and recommends optimal products based on multi-attribute decision making method. To reduce the effort of systemcustomer interactions, the system utilizes customer-based collaboration filtering approach [11] to recommend the products. Besides, in order to maintain a semantic conversation with sellers, the commodity ontology is also utilized to support sharable information format and representation. REFERENCES [1] Zhang Yuheng and N.Ch.S.N. Iyengar, "Agent Based Architecture Media On Demand With Service
Continuity" International Journal of Advances in Science and
Technology,Vol. 2, No. 1, 2011 [2] Ziming Zeng, "An Agent-based Online Shopping System in Ecommerce", Computer and Information Science,Vol.2, No. 4,
November 2009 [3] Michał Drozdowicz,Maria Ganzha, Maciej Gawinecki, Paweł Kobzdej, Marcin Paprzycki,"DESIGNING AND
IMPLEMENTING DATA MART FOR AN AGENT-BASED E-
COMMERCE SYSTEM", IADIS International Journal,Vol. 6, No.
1, pp. 37-49,ISSN: 1645 – 7641,2008 [4] Zeng Zi-ming and Meng Bo," An Intelligent Shopping System Based on Multi-agent Collaborative Working Model", CCECE/CCGEI, Saskatoon, May 2005, 0-7803-8886-0/05,©2005
IEEE

[5] Braz, Christina,Ncho, Ambroise, "MBAOS: A Mobile Bargain Agent for Online Shopping", IFT6862 ARTIFICIAL
INTELLIGENCE (WINTER 2003) [6] Kwang Hyoun JOO, Tessuo KINOSHITA,Nario SHIRATORI, "Design and Implementation of an Agent Based Grocery Shopping
System", IEICE, Vol.E83-D,NO.11,November 2000 [7] Courtney McTavish,Suresh Sankaranarayanan, "Intelligent Agent based Hotel Search & Booking System", Proceedings of the 9th WSEAS International Conference on Telecommunications and
INFORMATICS,2009

[8] Hesham M. Kamel,Moza Al-Nasseri,Maryam Al-Aryany, Hamda Al-Awar, "The Smart Shopping System (SSS): An
Adaptive Eshopping Application for Reflecting the User‟s Personal Model", ftp://amd64gcc.dyndns.org/WORLDCOMP06/EEE4609.pdf [9] Tan Xueqing , Zeng Ziming "A Shopping Model in Agentmediated Electronic Commerce" http://www.seiofbluemountain.com/upload/product/200911/2006zx qyhy09a1.pdf [10] Developing Multi-Agent Systems with JADE Fabio
Bellifemine, Giovanni Caire, Dominic Greenwood
Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd [11] Javier Bajo, Ana de Luis, Angelica Gonzalez, Alberto Saavedra and Juan M.Corchado, "A Shopping Mall Multiagent
System: Ambient Intelligence in Practice", http://bisite.usal.es/webisite/archivos/publicaciones/otrosCongresos
/2006/wucami06-shoppingmallambientintelligencev2.pdf

[12]http://trichy.quikr.com/study-on-intelligent-e-shoppingsystem-based-on-data-mining-Education-Learning/study-onintelligent-e-shopping-system-based-on-datamining/x18222208482?page=17

SHORT BIODATA OF ALL THE AUTHOR
Sougata Khatua has received his B.Sc (Computer Science) degree from Midnapore College under Vidyasagar University, Paschim
Medinipur , West Bengal, India. Currently he is a final year post graduate student of M.Sc (Computer Science) at VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, and India. His areas of Interest are Intelligent Distributed Computing, Cryptography and Information Security.

Zhang Yuheng Zhang Yuheng received BSc (Computer Science) degree from Central South University of Forestry and Technology,
Changsha,Hunan Province, China and also Vellore Institute of Technology University, T.N, India in 2009 under 3+1 top up programme. Currently he is a final year post graduate student of M.Sc(Computer Science) at VIT University,Vellore,T.N.India. His areas of Interest are Intelligent Distributed Computing and cryptography.

Arijit Das received B.Sc (Computer Science) degree from Midnapore College under Vidyasagar University, Midnapore, Paschim Medicipore, West Bengal, India. Currently he is a final year post graduate student of M.Sc (Computer Science) at VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India. His areas of Interest are Intelligent Distributed Computing, Cryptography, Network Security and Information Security.

Dr.N.Ch.S.N. Iyengar ( M.Sc,M.E,Ph.D) is a Senior Professor at the School of Computing Science and Engineering at VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India. His research interests include Agent based Distributed Computing, Data Privacy and Security, Cryptography, Intelligent computational methods and Bio informatics. He has authored several textbooks and had nearly 100 research Publications in International Journals. He chaired many international conferences and delivered invited/ technical lectures/ keynote addresses besides being International program committee member.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Multi Agent System

...Trabalhadores e Trabalhos Relat´rio intercalar o Tema 7 Grupo 3 Jos´ Oliveira e Leonardo Faria Vitor Teixeira November 8, 2015 1 Index 1.Enunciado, 3 Descri¸˜o do cen´rio, 3 ca a Objetivo, 3 Resultados esperados e forma de avalia¸˜o, 3 ca 2.Plataforma/Ferramenta, 4 Repast, 4 Sajas, 4 3.Especifica¸˜o, 5 ca Faseamento do Projeto, 7 Identifica¸˜o e caracteriza¸˜o dos ca ca agentes, 5 Algoritmos Utilizados, 5 Arquitetura, 5 Protocolos de intera¸˜o, 6 ca 2 1 1.1 Enunciado Descri¸˜o do cen´rio ca a Numa cidade circulam agentes de diferentes tipos, cujo objetivo ´ acumular e riqueza. Os agentes ganham dinheiro pela execu¸˜o de determinados trabalhos. ca Os trabalhos incluem a aquisi¸˜o, assemblagem ou transporte de produtos, e ca podem ser criados quer pelo sistema (ambiente) quer por outros agentes. H´ dois tipos de trabalhos: com pre¸o e leiloados. Um trabalho com pre¸o anuna c c cia desde logo o valor ganho pelo primeiro agente a complet´-lo. Um trabalho a leiloado ´ atribu´ atrav´s de licita¸˜es. O valor licitado corresponde ao valor e ıdo e co ganho ap´s a execu¸˜o do trabalho. A licita¸˜o de valor mais baixo ganha a o ca ca atribui¸˜o do trabalho. Se o trabalho n˜o for completado a tempo, o agente ´ ca a e multado. Os agentes tˆm que decidir que trabalhos completar e como, isto ´, onde obter e e os recursos necess´rios e como navegar no mapa, tendo em conta destinos como a lojas, armaz´ns,......

Words: 1397 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

I Just Want to Join !!!

...jonker@tudelft.nl Tim Verwaart LEI Wageningen UR tim.verwaart@wur.nl Keywords: trade, culture, agents, uncertainty avoidance, negotiation Abstract A model is presented of the way that our cultural attitude towards the unknown influences the decisions we make in trade. Uncertainty avoidance is one of Hofstede’s five cultural dimensions. The paper presents a model of how this dimension affects trade. This influence has been explicated for the decisions regarding trade: partner selection, negotiation behavior, trust, and the interpretation of the trade partner’s behavior. It has been verified in simulations showing that the generic tendencies as attributed to uncertainty avoidance are reflected in the simulation results. Our approach is an example of instantiating generic knowledge on the influences of culture on decision-making in general. INTRODUCTION The international food economy is rapidly changing. Important issues are concentration and globalization, growing information intensity, consumer demands, and social responsibility [Kinsey 2001]. An important issue in current food trade research is the emergence and performance of international supply chain networks [Lazzarini et al. 2001]. Agent-based modeling extends the understanding of processes in society and economy. It enables simulation of the emergence of macro-level phenomena from micro-level interactions between individual agents [Tesfatsion and Judd 2006]. It is therefore well-suited for modeling the emergence......

Words: 6864 - Pages: 28

Premium Essay

Business Information Systems

...no.3, pp.238-249, 2004. Emerald Publishers. An agent-based intelligent environmental monitoring system Ioannis N. Athanasiadis and Pericles A. Mitkas ABSTRACT Fairly rapid environmental changes call for continuous surveillance and on- line decision- making. Two areas where IT technologies can be valuable. In this paper we present a multi-agent system for monitoring and assessing air-quality attributes, which uses data coming from a meteorological station. A community of software agents is assigned to monitor and validate measurements coming from several sensors, to assess air-quality, and, finally, to fire alarms to appropriate recipients, when needed. Data mining techniques have been used for adding data-driven, customized intelligence into agents. The architecture of the developed system, its domain ontology, and typical agent interactions are presented. Finally, the deployment of a real-world test case is demonstrated. Keywords : Multi-Agent Systems, Intelligent Applications, Data Mining, Inductive Agents, Air-Quality Monitoring Introduction Environmental Information Systems (EIS) is a generic term that describes the class of systems that perform one or more of the following tasks: environmental monitoring, data storage and access, disaster description and response, environmental reporting, planning and simulation, modeling and decision- making. As the requirements for accurate and timely information in these systems are increasing, the need for incorporating......

Words: 4327 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

Exxonmobil

...Running head: PROJECT PORTFOLIO Project Portfolio Project Portfolio ExxonMobil is one of the largest publicly traded petroleum and petrochemical enterprises in the world. It started out as a regional marketer of Kerosene. They have three familiar brand names which are: Exxon, Esso and Mobil. The first oil well was built in 1859 (exxonmobil.com). ExxonMobil uses different types of technology every day like surveillance, network computers, communication devices, etc. Being a big corporation like this requires an IT Department. We’ve learned these past eight weeks about the use of technology tools, Porter’s Five Forces Model, Agent based technologies, business planning, and technology in present and future. Throughout this paper I will relate the information that I have learned and talk about how these areas can help it remain a competitive business. People, Information and Information Technology play an important role when it comes to helping the company remain competitive in the industry. ExxonMobil tries to teach their employees to have the best technical and leadership capabilities. They provide their employees with formal training and a broad range of global experiences to prepare them to be the next generation of ExxonMobil leaders. Not only do they want to hire exceptional employees at the corporate headquarters, but also at all their branch locations as well. The employees throughout the organization set goals, carry out tasks, make decisions, and serve......

Words: 2101 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Peer-to-Peer

...On Exploiting Agent Technology in the design of Peer-to-Peer Applications Steven Willmott, Josep M. Pujol and Ulises Cort´s e Universitat Polit`cnica de Catalunya e a Llenguatges i Sistemes Inform`tics Campus Nord, M´dul C5-C6, C/Jordi Girona 1-3, Barcelona (08034), Spain o {steve, jmpujol, ia}@lsi.upc.es Abstract. Peer-to-peer (P2P) architectures exhibit attractive properties for a wide range of real world systems. As a result they are increasingly being applied in the design of applications ranging from highcapacity file sharing and global scale distributed computing to business team-ware. The objective of this paper is to outline a number of areas in which Agent techniques for the management of social problems such as decision making or fair trading amongst autonomous agents could be used to help structure P2P actions. In particular we focus on approaches from mechanism design, argumentation theory and norms / rules and electronic institutions. 1 Introduction Peer-to-peer (P2P) architectures exhibit attractive properties for a wide range of real world systems. As a result they are increasingly being applied in the design of applications ranging from high-capacity file sharing and global scale distributed computing to business team-ware. In addition their benefits however, P2P systems also fundamentally change the networking paradigm used in an application often causing tensions with other application goals such as security, predictability, performance guarantees...

Words: 3969 - Pages: 16

Free Essay

Learning English

...Project group “Learning Agents in Dynamic Environments III” Homework “Reinforcement Learning” Multiagent Reinforcement Learning Michael Baumann, Timo Klerx 06-Nov-2012 Foreword 23-Nov-2012, 11:59 PM Hand in your solutions as PDF and the source code (whole eclipse project) as zip archive via eMail. 27-Nov-2012 Presentation and discussion of your results. Scenario Consider the scenario shown in Figure Figure 1: The two agents should learn to reach their respective goal area as fast as possible. Although there are explicit start areas, the learned policy should cover all possible states. Admissible actions for the agents are moving one cell in one of the four cardinal directions. If an agent tries to leave the world or crashes into a wall, it remains on its position. The same holds for collisions between agents: on each cell at most one agent is allowed and thus, both agents remain on their positions, if they would collide. This rule implies, that only one agent can pass the small opening at a time! An episode ends either if both agents are situated on their goals region or after imax iterations. Exercises 1. Discuss the following strategies for giving reward and choose one for your model / your implementation: a) Each agent gets an individual reward, i.e. agent Aj gets reward rj when it reaches goal Aj . b) Both agents get an identical reward r if both agents are on their correct goals. 1 Goal A2 Goal A1 1 2 Start A1 Start A2 Figure......

Words: 810 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Artificial Intelligence

...Artificial Intelligence 1. Explain how Intelligent Agents influence the development of applications or Software. The Intelligent Agents are used in the creation of machines (hardware / software) to display intelligent behavior. Such systems can be simply personal computers; or may be robots. To perform tasks that if a human's conduct, require hard work and a high level of concentration and intelligence.   2. Identify and explain as a model of software engineering for distributed systems using Intelligent Agents. The Software Engineering model uses the following features of an Intelligent Agent: reasoning abilities, skills, services, sensors, effectors, groups they belong and class. ABLE is an example; is a tool for building IBM Systems Intelligent Agents where its entirety, including agents, are constructed by composition AbleBeans, an extension of JavaBeans. Interest are a set of specialized systems that implement AbleBeans statistical learning (self-organizing maps, neural networks, connection maps) and symbolic control (forward chaining reasoning and predicate logic). ABLE also incorporates a visual development environment where AbleBeans interconnect. The interest of this platform is that visually solves the construction and communication of agents.   3. When does an agent is considered autonomous? The main point about the agent is that they are independent: able to act independently, exhibiting control over their internal state. 4. Analyze each of the......

Words: 971 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

How to Describe a Nation’s Economy?

...every year http://www.transparency.org/cpi2014/results Criterion You should use the 7 criteria from the course textbook to structure your profile (pg 64): 1. Type of economy: Is the nation an advanced industrial state, an emerging economy, a transition economy, or a developing nation? 2. Type of government: Is the nation ruled by a monarchy, a dictatorship, or a tyrant? Is the nation dominated by another state, or is it a democracy with a multiparty system? Is it an unstable or terrorist nation? 3. Trade and capital flows: Is the nation characterized by almost completely free trade or incomplete free trade and is it part of a trading bloc? 4. The commanding heights: (e.g. the transportation, communications and energy sectors) Are these sectors state owned and operated? Is there a mix of state and private ownership? Are they all private, with or without controlled prices? 5. Services provided by the state and funded through taxes: Are pensions health care and education provided? Do privatized systems dominate? 6. Institutions: Is the nation characterized by transparency, standards, the absence of corruption, and the presence of a free press and strong courts? Or is corruption a...

Words: 441 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Traffic Control Algorithm

...Simulation of Intersection Signal Control based on Multi-agent Jian Zhang Ling Yan Yin Han Gao Song Xue-li Fang Traffic Engineering Research Institute Business School, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology Shanghai 200093, China E-mail:08zhangjian@gmail.com Abstract—On the basis of analyzing development actualities and trends of urban traffic control system, this paper applied the modeling idea and method of multi-agent, constructed an intersection agent, a section agent and a phase agent for isolated intersection control system based on multi-agent technology, studied their structure, function and each agent’s mission, and discussed the relationship among the three types of agent. By control simulating of three actual intersections, it is indicated that the control effect based on multi-agent is much better than the effect of fix-time. The results indicate that the multi-agent technology is an effective method to improve the effect of the current traffic control system, has research value and application value. Keywords-adaptive traffic signal control system; multi-agent; intersection agent; section agent; phase agent artificial intelligence technology, traffic signal control system is developing gradually in the direction of intelligent direction and integrated direction, the research on Intelligent Urban Traffic Control System based on the distribution-coordination has become a new trend[1,4]. Luckily, the agent technology[2,5,6,7] provides an ideal......

Words: 3284 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Paper on Database Management Systems

...International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 3, Issue 3, March -2012 ISSN 2229-5518 1 A Distributed Transaction Model for a Multidatabase Management System Omar Baakeel and Abdulaziz Alrashidi Abstract— This paper examines the distributed transaction issues that are present in multi-database management systems (DBMSs) and how the distributed transaction in database technology differs from other distributed processing systems. Some common issues that arise with the distribution of transactions over a multi-DBMS while dealing with concurrency control and recovery are highlighted, such as site failure, network failure, and time failure. This study proposes an exceptional distributed transaction model for processing transaction queries in multi-DBMS based on the idea that a complete database can be constructed at any stage. Index Terms— Database management system (DBMS), distributed transaction, transaction management, transaction network —————————— —————————— 1 INTRODUCTION ENERALLY, a distributed transaction is defined as a transaction that updates data on two or more networked computer systems. Different conceptual structures for processing transaction elements are required to meet certain needs of applications that must update distributed data in terms of peer to peer connection. Developing a transaction model is difficult because most of these techniques are customized for a single transaction point, and many types of failures, such as client......

Words: 2094 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Global Multi-Product Chile

...Global Multi-Products Chile “They want to sell integrated solutions but are not integrated themselves” The company’s vision was to be the most innovative enterprise and the preferred supplier and the preferred supplier by developing technologies and products that created a new basis of competition and by helping customers grow their businesses. STEEPLE factors have a massive impact on how things turnout for a company in a particular country. Multi-Products Inc. encountered many problems in Chile as well. Socially, Chilean culture tends to be more reserved. People here are self-centered and don’t look beyond their immediate circle of friends and family. Difference in educational backgrounds and differences regarding recent political history have polarized society. Technology plays a pivotal role as well in bringing in clients and aligning work in an integrated system. When one looks at how Chile has moved from a command economy to a market economy you can actually look at the massive change that has taken place. Numerous companies have been privatized after decades of being in the public sector. U.S retailors that have moved in from North America have also caused a change in nature of Chilean retailors. Environmentally, small central area dominates in terms of population, north Chile has mineral wealth and the southern region is rich in forests and grazing lands. Politically, Chile moved to having a very stable government compared to the anarchy in the pre-90’s era.......

Words: 775 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Phd Student at University of Marylan

...National Scholarship; Merit Student in Heilongjiang Province (Top 5/180). College of Ship Engineering, Harbin Engineering University (HEU) Harbin, China B.S., Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering│GPA 3.65/4.00 Sept.2008 ~ Jun.2012 Minor, Business Administration│GPA 3.53/4.00 Sept.2010 ~ Jan.2012 nd  Awards: Graduation with Honors, Merit Student, 2 Class Scholarship and etc. (7times). PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE PROJECT EXPERIENCE Scheduling Modeling & Coordination Mechanism Based on MAS for Marine Equipment Project Researcher│China Natural Science Foundation Project Jun.2013 ~ Jun.2014  Built scheduling model and coordination mechanism based on Multi-agent System (MAS) theory.  Developed a collaborative scheduling system using Oracle database and MyEclipse.  Designed Improved Genetic Algorithm (IGA) for multi-objective scheduling under resource conflicts. Information Management Technology of Jack-up Drilling Platform Construction Analyst│China National 12th Five-year Plan Major Scientific Project Mar.2013 ~ Jun.2014  Collected, organized and summarized data and materials and made presentation for review meetings.  Made needs analysis for scheduling and cost management. Construction Management Software Development of Floating Platform Project Responsible Person│National High-tech Ship Engineering Project Mar.2012 ~ Mar.2014  Conducted investigations to make analysis of process...

Words: 711 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Artificial Intelligence

...as reading electrocardiograms. With artificial intelligence, we have been able to reduce the time that it takes an actual human to do something. These systems are in place so that we spend more time on the more critical things. There are four types of artificial intelligence. The four types are expert systems, neural networks (and fuzzy logic), genetic algorithms, and agent-based technologies. All of the these systems have their benefits as well as their not so good features. For starters, we will examine expert systems. Expert systems, which is also referred to as knowledge-based systems, is an artificial intelligence system that applies reasoning capabilities to reach a conclusion. These systems are used for diagnosing problems. They also help with coming up with a solution to the problem. These systems are built for a specific domain that they will be ran on. The knowledge base for these systems contain both factual and heuristic knowledge. This means that the factual information could be found in textbooks while the heuristic information is going to be derived from experimental cases. Systems of this nature are widely used. They can be found in accounting firm for tax planning and in hospitals for diagnosing diseases. The experts found a way that the system could search the internet for the answers that it needed. The systems would gather the facts and then the computer...

Words: 1325 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Aunik

...The Ontology problem in eCommerce applications Rasheed M. Al-Zahrani Information Systems Dept., KSU PO Box 51178, Riyadh, 11543 rasheed@ccis.ksu.edu.sa Abstract Originating in AI semantic networks, ontologies are becoming an essential component of many modern systems. An ontology is a set of specifications, relationships and constraints that describe a certain domain. These specifications capture the concepts pertaining to the domain. Research in this domain is now witnessing intensive efforts due to the growth and success of distributed computing systems in real world applications such as eCommerce, eHealth, eLearning and other eServices. Though at the core of modern distributed technologies, such as multi-agent systems, the ontology issue has sometimes been considered secondary and related issues are underestimated. In this paper, we attempt to address the ontology issue in modern distributed services, and the various problems to be investigated, with special emphasis on eCommerce systems. Our paper illustrates how the semantic-web initiative integrates with ontology. It critically appraises existing solutions, and offers ideas for tackling major ontological issues in eServices. 1. Introduction Distributed systems is the future computing model. This fact is proved by the success of the client-server model and the recent extensions to that model. Maturity of cheap PC, networking and communication technologies contributed to the wide spread adoption of this model. The......

Words: 3300 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Abc Analysis

...RightNow PAGE 3 LESSONS IN CONTACT CENTER LEADERSHIP eGain PAGE 6 DOING MORE WITH LESS IN CUSTOMER SERVICE: Strategies and Best Practices Kana PAGE 7 HOW TO MAKE EVERY CUSTOMER CONVERSATION INTELLIGENT Oracle PAGE 8 TRANSFORMING SERVICE IN THE AGE OF THE CUSTOMER Verint PAGE 9 THE POWER OF WHY Astute Solutions PAGE 10 ENSURING CONSISTENT, ACCURATE AND TIMELY INFORMATION DELIVERY ACROSS ALL CHANNELS SYKES PAGE 11 INSIGHT TO CUSTOMER LOYALTY Using Customer Support to Observe Customers in Motion Convergys PAGE 12 LISTENING TO CUSTOMERS AND PROFITING FROM THEIR ADVICE Best Practices in VPI Voice Print Int’l PAGE 13 Contact Center FIVE PROVEN WAYS TO PROACTIVELY DELIVER AN EXCEPTIONAL CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE SOLUTIONS Produced by: CRM Media, LLC Autonomy etalk PAGE 14 UNSTRUCTURED AND UNDISCOVERED: Enabling the Intelligent Contact Center to Tap into a Hidden Wealth of Information 2 April 2007 Sponsored Content CRM magazine Best Practices Series: Contact Centers... The Heart (and Eyes and Ears) of CRM Multichannel contact centers are at the heart of one of the most exciting transformations in the way organizations communicate with their customers. It is this collaboration between people, process, and technology that promises to bring the best customer service to users, while enabling a crucial feedback channel to host organizations. We’re all familiar with the reasons why superior customer...

Words: 11002 - Pages: 45