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Nanotechnology and its process on computing:

Nano and technology: * a Nanometre is a unit of length in the metric system,equal to one billion of ametre(10-9). * Technology is the making usage and knowledge and tools,techinques and machines,in order to solve a problem or to perform specific function | |

“ Nanotechnology is the art and science of manipulating in a nanoscale”

Nanotechnology in computing:
Computing includes designing, developing and building hardware and software systems; processing, structuring, and managing various kinds of information; doing scientific research on and with computers; making computer systems behave intelligently; and creating and using communications and entertainment media.
Nanocomputing:”A nanocomputer is a computer whose physical dimensions are microscopic. The field of nanocomputing is part of the emerging field of nanotechnology . Several types of nanocomputers have been suggested or proposed by researchers and futurists.”
Nanocomputing, as defined in this report, refers to computing systems which are constructed from nanoscale compo- nents. The issues that need to be faced for successful realization of nanocomputers relate to the scale and integration of the components. nanotechnology and its type:

Electronic nanocomputers would operate in a manner similar to the way present-day microcomputers work. Most engineers agree that technology has not yet come close to pushing this limit. By 1970s standards, today's ordinary microprocessors might be called nanodevices.
Chemical and biochemical nanocomputers would store and process information in terms of chemical structures and interactions. Biochemical nanocomputers already exist in nature; they are manifest in all living things. But these systems are largely uncontrollable by humans.. Engineers must figure out how to get individual atoms and molecules to perform controllable calculations and data storage tasks.
Mechanical nanocomputers would use tiny moving components called nanogears to encode information. Such a machine is reminiscent of Charles Babbage 's analytical engines of the 19th century..
Quantum nanocomputer would work by storing data in the form of atomic quantum states or spin. Technology of this kind is already under development in the form of single-electron memory (SEM) and quantum dots.

Nanotechnology and its impact on modern computer
“silicon transistors in your computer may be replaced in ten years by transistors based on carbon nanotubes.”
Faster and smaller
"I don't believe that it will be cheaper to build transistors from another material than silicon, but carbon nanotubes can be used to produce smaller and faster components. This will also result in computers that consume less energy" says Johannes Svensson.

Increase thespeed

By exchanging the silicon in the channel for a carbon nanotube, the transistors can be made both smaller and faster than today's transistors. Some carbon nanotubes are semiconducting, and this means that they can be used in transistors, although there are several problems that must be solved before they can be connected together to form large circuits.
Electric guidance
"Carbon nanotubes grow randomly and it is not possible to control either their position or direction. Therefore I have applied an electrical field to guide the tubes as they grow," says Johannes Svensson.

Good contacts
Another problem that must be solved when integrating nanotubes into larger circuits is the difficulty of manufacturing good metal contacts for the tubes. Johannes' research has shown that the properties of the contacts depend on the diameter of the nanotubes. Choosing the correct diameter will allow good contacts with a low resistance to be achieved. APPLICATION OF NANO COMPUTING & TECHNOLOGY
Nano-robotics Motion Planning
Although the ultimate goal in nanotechnology is to build systems in nano-scale, the starting point is to design workable macro-scale systems that are conceivably constructable in a smaller scale. In the following two subsections we discuss two of our recent results in motion planning that may be applicable to nanotechnology, or at least technology involving small objects.

Its benefits: * Nanotechnology is helping to considerably improve, even revolutionize, many technology and industry sectors: information technology, energy, environmental science, medicine, homeland security, food safety, and transportation, among many others. * Most benefits of nanotechnology depend on the fact that it is possible to tailor the essential structures of materials at the nanoscale to achieve specific properties, thus greatly extending the well-used toolkits of materials science. Using nanotechnology, materials can effectively be made to be stronger, lighter, more durable, more reactive, more sieve-like, or better electrical conductors, among many other traits. There already exist over 800 everyday commercial products that rely on nanoscale materials and processes: * Nanoscale thin films on eyeglasses, computer and camera displays, windows, and other surfaces can make them water-repellent, antireflective, self-cleaning, resistant to ultraviolet or infrared light, antifog, antimicrobial, scratch-resistant, or electrically conductive. * .

* | * High-resolution image of a polymer-silicate nanocomposite. This material has improved thermal, mechanical, and barrier properties and can be used in food and beverage containers, fuel storage tanks for aircraft and automobiles, and in aerospace components. (Image courtesy of NASA.) | * Nano-engineered materials in automotive products include high-power rechargeable battery systems; thermoelectric materials for temperature control; lower-rolling-resistance tires; high-efficiency/low-cost sensors and electronics; thin-film smart solar panels; and fuel additives and improved catalytic converters for cleaner exhaust and extended range. * Nano-engineered materials make superior household products such as degreasers and stain removers; environmental sensors, alert systems, air purifiers and filters; antibacterial cleansers; and specialized paints and sealing products. * Nanostructured ceramic coatings exhibit much greater toughness than conventional wear-resistant coatings for machine parts. In 2000, the U.S. Navy qualified such a coating for use on gears of air-conditioning units for its ships, saving $20 million in maintenance costs over 10 years. Such coatings can extend the lifetimes of moving parts in everything from power tools to industrial machinery. * Nanoparticles are used increasingly in catalysis to boost chemical reactions. This reduces the quantity of catalytic materials necessary to produce desired results, saving money and reducing pollutants. Two big applications are in petroleum refining and in automotive catalytic converters. * Nanotechnology is already in use in many computing, communications, and other electronics applications to provide faster, smaller, and more portable systems that can manage and store larger and larger amounts of information. These continuously evolving applications include: * Nanoscale transistors that are faster, more powerful, and increasingly energy-efficient; soon your computer’s entire memory may be stored on a single tiny chip. * Magnetic random access memory (MRAM) enabled by nanometer‐scale magnetic tunnel junctions that can quickly and effectively save even encrypted data during a system shutdown or crash, enable resume‐play features, and gather vehicle accident data. * Displays for many new TVs, laptop computers, cell phones, digital cameras, and other devices incorporate nanostructured polymer films known as organic light-emitting diodes, or OLEDs. OLED screens offer brighter images in a flat format, as well as wider viewing angles, lighter weight, better picture density, lower power consumption, and longer lifetimes. * Other computing and electronic products include Flash memory chips for iPod nanos; ultraresponsive hearing aids; antimicrobial/antibacterial coatings on mouse/keyboard/cell phone casings; conductive inks for printed electronics for RFID/smart cards/smart packaging; more life-like video games; and flexible displays for e-book readers. * Researchers are developing wires containing carbon nanotubes to have much lower resistance than the high-tension wires currently used in the electric grid and thus reduce transmission power loss. * To power mobile electronic devices, researchers are developing thin-film solar electric panels that can be fitted onto computer cases and flexible piezoelectric nanowires woven into clothing to generate usable energy on-the-go from light, friction, and/or body heat. * Nanotechnology could help meet the need for affordable, clean drinking water through rapid, low-cost detection of impurities in and filtration and purification of water. For example, researchers have discovered unexpected magnetic interactions between ultrasmall specks of rust, which can help remove arsenic or carbon tetrachloride from water (see image); they are developing nanostructured filters that can remove virus cells from water; and they are investigating a deionization method using nano-sized fiber electrodes to reduce the cost and energy requirements of removing salts from water. * | * | * Gold nanoparticles can be used to detect early-stage Alzheimer’s disease. * Molecular imaging for the early detection where sensitive biosensors constructed of nanoscale components (e.g., nanocantilevers, nanowires, and nanochannels) can recognize genetic and molecular events and have reporting capabilities, thereby offering the potential to detect rare molecular signals associated with malignancy. * Multifunctional therapeutics where a nanoparticle serves as a platform to facilitate its specific targeting to cancer cells and delivery of a potent treatment, minimizing the risk to normal tissues. * Nanoscale sensors and devices may provide cost-effective continuous structural monitoring of the condition and performance of bridges, tunnels, rails, parking structures, and pavements over time. Nanoscale sensors and devices may also support an enhanced transportation infrastructure that can communicate with vehicle-based systems to help drivers maintain lane position, avoid collisions, adjust travel routes to circumnavigate congestion, and other such activities. * | * Future sensor systems will be able to use multiple physical phenomena to sense many analytes simultaneously for a variety of applications, some of which are noted above. Illustrated here are (left to right) an optical tranducer, which measures light; an electro/chemical tranducer, which measures electrical properties; a magnetic tranducer, which measures changes to the local magnetic field; and a mechanical transducer, which detects changes in motion. (Image by N.R. Fuller, Sayo-Art.) |

* Besides moving forward to capture these and many other benefits of nanotechnologies, the NNI is also committed to addressing the potential environmental, health, and safety impacts and various societal, legal, or ethical implications of nanotechnology to avoid or minimize any undesirable or unintended effects of nanotechnology.
Advantages of Nanotechnology: * To enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of nanotechnology, let us first run through the good things this technology brings: * Nanotechnology can actually revolutionize a lot of electronic products, procedures, and applications. The areas that benefit from the continued development of nanotechnology when it comes to electronic products include nano transistors, nano diodes, OLED, plasma displays, quantum computers, and many more. * Nanotechnology can also benefit the energy sector. The development of more effective energy-producing, energy-absorbing, and energy storage products in smaller and more efficient devices is possible with this technology. Such items like batteries, fuel cells, and solar cells can be built smaller but can be made to be more effective with this technology. * Another industry that can benefit from nanotechnology is the manufacturing sector that will need materials like nanotubes, aerogels, nano particles, and other similar items to produce their products with. These materials are often stronger, more durable, and lighter than those that are not produced with the help of nanotechnology. * In the medical world, nanotechnology is also seen as a boon since these can help with creating what is called smart drugs. These help cure people faster and without the side effects that other traditional drugs have. You will also find that the research of nanotechnology in medicine is now focusing on areas like tissue regeneration, bone repair, immunity and even cures for such ailments like cancer, diabetes, and other life threatening diseases.

Disadvantages of Nanotechnology:

* When tackling the advantages and disadvantages of nanotechnology, you will also need to point out what can be seen as the negative side of this technology: * Included in the list of disadvantages of this science and its development is the possible loss of jobs in the traditional farming and manufacturing industry. * You will also find that the development of nanotechnology can also bring about the crash of certain MARKETS due to the lowering of the value of oil and diamonds due to the possibility of developing alternative sources of energy that are more efficient and won’t require the use of fossil fuels. This can also mean that since people can now develop products at the molecular level, diamonds will also lose its value since it can now be mass produced. * Atomic weapons can now be more accessible and made to be more powerful and more destructive. These can also become more accessible with nanotechnology. * Since these particles are very small, problems can actually arise from the inhalation of these minute particles, much like the problems a person gets from inhaling minute asbestos particles. * Presently, nanotechnology is very expensive and developing it can cost you a lot of MONEY. It is also pretty difficult to manufacture, which is probably why products made with nanotechnology

Conclusion * As the development of nanotechnology progresses in several disciplines including physics, chemistry, biology and material science, computer scientists must be aware of their roles and brace themselves for the greater advancement of nanotechnology in the future. This paper has outlined the development of nanotechnology. It is hoped that this gentle review will benefit computer scientists who are keen to contribute their works to the field of nanotechnology. We also suggested the possible opportunities that computer science can offer, which can benefit other nanotechnologists from other fields by helping them * 33 For more information, see * be aware of the opportunities from computer science. This paper is intended to promote collaboration between computer scientists and other nanotechnologists. * As computer scientists who are interested in the field of nanotechnology, one of our future works is to build a system that consists of a large number of particles automatically forming into a designed structure. By using the PPSO algorithm to control the swarm of particles, each particle performs lightweight computations and holds only a few values. It is anticipated that models such as these will lead to successful bottom-up nanotechnology systems in the future.

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