Free Essay

Museum Report: Sarcophagus with Scenes from the Life of Achilles

In: Other Topics

Submitted By sickofthis
Words 955
Pages 4
Sarcophagus with Scenes from the Life of Achilles; artist anonymous;
180-220 AD; marble, very high-relief carving, some elements are sculpture in the round;
52x83x57 in; well preserved with some damages on the right and left sides.

I. This is a three-dimensional rectangular object with a massive lid that has a shape of a flat couch with two figures reclining on it. Even though both figures look alike and their faces are unfinished, they are slightly different. The figure in the front is a female. She has long hair, small breast, and a round face. The other figure is a male. He has a beard; details of his face are more masculine and angular. Both figures have long clothes. All four sides of the rectangle are carved. The back is not visible because the object is placed up against the wall. The central figure on the front relief is a man holding a big shield. He steps into a chariot with two horses and listens to another man who probably shows him a direction. Another naked male figure is on the ground. He seems to be tied up to the chariot. There are other male figures on this relief; some of them are naked, and others are dressed. They all are in different movement postures. On the right side is a relief of a young naked male with a big shield. His right leg is in front; his head is turned to the opposite direction. He is probably leaving and is looking at those who stays. A woman puts her hands around the young man's neck and falls on her knees. On the right side is a bearded half dressed man seating on a chair with three women by his side. There is another bearded man on the left in a hat. All are looking at the young man. The relief on left side doesn't have much action. The central figure is a man in a helmet with a shield behind him. He is being help by other men: one is in the front, and the other is on the side attaching some details to his garments. II. This work of art has a three-dimensional form. The front section is highly polished and has a very smooth texture. The right and left sections have some damages; therefore, their textures are rough. The space on the front and right sections is fully used. Their scenes are very dynamic. The proportions of some figures were not completely observed. For example, horses on the relief in the front are very small comparing to humans. Another example is the man on the left section. The sculptor had to give him an unnatural posture awkwardly bending his legs, so that the man did look taller than the central figure. III. The subject-matter of all three visible sides of the sarcophagi is the scenes from the Achilles' life. He is a Greek mythical hero of the Trojan War. The subject-matter of the relief on the right is the discovery of Achilles hiding among the daughters of Lykomedes. According to the myth, Achilles’ mother, Thetis, wants to prevent her son's death and sends him to the court of Lykomedes on the island of Skyros where Achilles is hidden among the young girls. Soon he is discovered by Odyssey (the bearded man on all three relieves) with whom he goes to Troy. On the relief in the front, Achilles mounts his chariot to drag Hector's body before the walls of Troy. Hector was the son of the Trojan king Priam. Hector mistakenly killed Achilles' friend Patroclus. Overwhelmed by his grief, Achilles kills Hector. The relief on the left side depicts Achilles putting on his armors with Odysseus' help. The relief in the back is unfinished and is not visible. Its subject-matter is the scene of the battle between the Greeks and the centaurs, which is unrelated to the Achilles' life. IV. Cremation was the most common funerary practice in Roman Empire. Under the influence of Christianity, inhumation became widespread by the third century CE. As a result of this shift, a sudden demand for sarcophagi and their decoration arose. Sarcophagi were subject of commerce in Roman Empire. Some of them were custom made, but the majority were manufactured in workshops and stored until a "customer" was found. Therefore, the faces of the couple on the lid are unfinished: features of deceased and other details could be added later. V. This sarcophagus could belong to the Greek culture. First of all, the subject-matter of this work of art was taken from the myth about the Greek hero Achilles. Second of all, people on this work of art look alike, and none of them has any emotions except for the archaic smile that is inherent to Archaic Greek sculptures. Many males are nude. This is another feature of Greek sculptural art called heroic nudity. Wet drapery is another originally Greek element. All this aspects identify this sarcophagus as Greek work of art, but we should remember that Romans were great admirers of Greek art. They copied many Greek sculptures and adopted their sculpture techniques and traditions. Moreover, sarcophagi were not used in Greece. The Greeks buried deceased in graves. Inhumation was Roman funerary practice. This sarcophagus was probably made in Greece, but this work of art belongs to Roman culture. Bibliography:

James Hunter, Achilles, Encyclopedia Mythica, “n.d.” 1997, revised 2005, http://www.pantheon.org/articles/a/achilles.html, May 5 2012.

Kleiner, Fred S. Gardner’s Art Through the Ages: A Concise Western History (Boston: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, 2010).

Toynbee, J.M.C. Death and Burial in the Roman World. (Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1971).

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Achilles

...The Character of Achilles The Iliad by Homer is an epic poem that tells us about the famous Trojan War. Throughout this poem, Homer presented every character with their specific characteristics such as the role they played in each other lives, their flaws, and strengths and emotions that they evoked at particular settings in the course of this tremendous story. Achilles, the great Greek Warrior and principal character of this epic all along said things, did things and made choices that essentially took the story to a different direction. However, the question that still remains is if any of those choices changed Achilles himself. An analysis of books one, nine, sixteen, eighteen and twenty four from the Iliad will help us bring more clarity to this assertion. In book 1, Achilles expressed various types of feelings. As the greatest warrior of this whole war, he felt strong, powerful, proud and all mighty because he always came back victorious from battles with his army of Myrmidons for the past nine years. On the other hand, he also felt disrespected and concerned because Agamemnon decided to take possession of his “Timé” and members of his troops were dying. For all those reasons, Achilles decided to leave with the remaining members of his troops and go back home: “So home we sail…if we can escape our death-if war and plague are joining forces now to crush the Argives.” (68-70) In book 9, a delegation of 3 people (Odysseus, Phoenix and Ajax) was formed by Agamemnon to......

Words: 887 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Life Stages Interviews and Reports

...Life Stages Interviews and Reports Unexpected Loneliness: Bobbi Hoskins Loneliness is a common issue in any stage of life, however the elderly are more susceptible to it for several reasons; the sudden loss of a spouse, retirement, moving to a new location, and health problems. Loneliness is defined as an unbearable feeling of separateness (Mind infoline, 2012). Loneliness can cause feelings of anxiety, depression, being unloved, and insecurity. There are three basic degrees of loneliness which are, circumstantial, developmental, and internal. Circumstantial loneliness is caused from retiring, moving, losing a loved one; the list goes on and on. Some people retire and they want to be on their own, this is the case for Bonnie. She has always considered herself a loner and she is happy being by herself for several reasons. She likes her freedom, she does not like people telling her what to do, and she does not agree with how some people handle getting old. “They do not like to do stuff.. they just sit on their butts and wait to die.(Appendix B)” These are the people that loneliness takes a hold of and they just want to die, because they feel there is nothing left to do. Developmental loneliness is caused from being in a state of constant despair, and not fully being active in daily affairs. Some people develop loneliness because they do not have anything better to do. As long as the person is doing something they stand a better chance of not getting lonely. In some......

Words: 1063 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Life Stages Interviews and Reports

...Life Stages Interviews and Reports Everyone perspectives on lifestyle changes in all phases of adulthood have changed drastically over the years. Different choices, influences, and situations play a part in adult’s choices that they make throughout his or her young early, middle, and late adulthood years. Team A has conducted three interviews that focus on each stage of adulthood. The interview will cover some of the biological factors, cognitive factors, psychosocial factors, and cultural factors that influence the interviewees. All of the issues help to explain many of the lifestyle changes that adults make over the years. Young Adulthood The first interview conducted focused on the early stage of adulthood. A young woman age 25 by the name of Kelsey was asked a series of questions to help us gain some insight on her stage of development and allow her responses to be analyzed. I began with questions regarding her physical stage of development. I asked Kelsey how she feels about her physical state and what she does to take care of herself. Her response explained that she believes that she is in pretty good health although she does not have to do too much to stay that way. She reported that she eats fast- food a few times a week due to her busy schedule, but she does make time to exercise at least three times a week. She is a college student at the local college and she is also working part-time. I asked if there are any apparent differences between your previous......

Words: 2253 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Life of Galileo Scene 7

...Life of Galileo, Scene 7: Brecht delineates the important episodes of the life of Galileo Galilei. The main matter of his life was the conflict between him and the Church. The church ultimately did shut him up but Galileo was still adamant to send his theory wherever he could. He wanted every person in the marketplace to know what he had discovered. And that is why in the very beginning when he faked the telescope he had allowed anyone and everyone who wanted to see the telescope to come and see it. Nicholas Copernicus gave a theory that he earth and the planets revolve around the sun. No one believed him and thought that his theory was not sensible enough. But Galileo through his experiments proved the Copernican theory to be accurate. He wasn’t afraid to express his views regarding the theory despite of the consequences it may lead to. The church thought that Galileo’s and the Copernican system challenged a normal man’s concept of the universe he was living in and the God they worshiped. This was not acceptable by the Church as it contradicted their teachings. In the 17th century the church was had the power of authority. It was the ideology of the ruling class. Why did the church silence Galileo? Because realist Galileo challenged the power and he was true. The church’s attitude and behavior is juxtaposed. They wanted Galileo to completely stop his research on the Copernican system but at the same time they want to make profit out of him. Besides, Galileo wasn’t......

Words: 1724 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Cultural Event Report - the Philadelphia Art Museum

...attending the Philadelphia Art Museum on March 15, 2013. The museum is Located in Philadelphia, PA and the exhibition that caught my attention was Journeys to New Worlds it explores the artistic exchanges between Spain and Portugal and their colonies in the Americas and Asia during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. (The Philadelphia Museum of Art, p. Philadelphia Art Museum). A journey to New Worlds originates The exhibition is magnificent and two pieces that I enjoyed were Our Lady of Mount Carmel with Bishop Saints, and Our Lady of Pomata, a coquera. It is extremely quite as people stop in different areas to look around at so much art. I personally found some place to sit and absorb as much information as I could. My fiancé came along with me only because it is a long drive from where I live and I do not like driving far by myself. He enjoyed it as much as I did; we both sat there and studied different pieces for quite a while. Although Our Lady of Mount Carmel with Bishop Saints interested me you seem to understand the comparison while looking at it after being there, I feel that this picture focuses on the child because he is the center of this image, and the mother's love and caring that is expressed in her face and in the way that she is holding the kid. Looking for some reference about the painting I found that it is Roberta and Richard Huber’s collection reflects the arts at continuing to promote Latin America. It amused me since I am from Latin origin,......

Words: 657 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Achilles

...Rodriguez 1 Priscilla Rodriguez English 4 Mrs. Pla 7 December 2011 Achilles People posses both negative and positive personality characteristics in themselves as an personality. Achilles in the Iliad in an example to this statement. In the Iliad Achilles is a great warrior, also fights in the Trojan War. The big leader Agamemnon that hates Achilles takes all the credit when he wins the battles. There's a Prince names Hector that Achilles later wants revenge on for killing his best friend Patroclus. The anger rages, the people fight, day of the Trojan War arrives thats when the tragedy and the life of Achilles is taken. Achilles demonstrates negative and positive behavior. Achilles is loyal, brave, and obeys the gods, but he is also revengful, quick to feel anger, and has no remorse for who he has killed. Achilles has a cold heart at times but also is a great warrior. He fights anyone that gets in his way. Fearless for the decisions he makes, also fearless against the gods. As Achilles saids, "As my life came frome you though. it's brief, honor at least, from Zeus who stormed in heaven I call me due" (Book I ). This means Achilles is a valorous warrior among the greeks. Also earned hands of Briseis for himself. He rages his anger and goes by himself to kill Hector. He goes on his own will instead o ftaking the whole troop with him. Achilles is capable of feeling sympathy. His caring side of knowing that is his father will sooner feel the same......

Words: 1232 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Museum Report

...in order to create an illusional three-dimensional artwork. This method enabled Dali to highlight the most precious moments in his life through visual context. The middle section, the adolescence for example is one of the key areas with lighter value because it was a pivotal part in Dali’s life. Time shows the movement of Dali’s life by illustrating a chronology of events. The static motion of the three stages of life invites the spectator to relate to Dali’s passage of time. As the viewer visualizes the art, we gain to speculate that the image engraves a sense of spiritual feeling because of the way our eyes unfold the events of time within this painting. The way Dali seeks to tell his story through time in this artwork is motionless yet illusionistic. We are able to see time in one single frame as an overall image. This may imply that the three stages of life are intertwined rather than being separate. The principles of design are important elements of Dali’s artwork which creates vitality and evokes a sensual interaction with the audience. Unity defines Dali’s artwork in whole which combines the unique elements within the piece to create a complete balanced and harmonious design. Even though this artwork is clustered together, there is a sense of visual harmony between each element. The landscape changes as the eye reads the image from right to left along with the juxtaposition of the characters creates the illusion of the human heads. The brick wall seems to be......

Words: 2902 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Getty Villa Museum Paper

...Getty Villa Museum Paper Sarcophagus with Scenes of Bacchus A sarcophagus was a method of cremation and burial that was widely popular in the later Republican Period. It was most commonly carved in a block of stone, or in this case a marble, where the body was usually placed. The ‘Sarcophagus with Scenes of Bacchus’, being one of the exquisite Roman funerary arts in the 1800s, showed remarkable detail in their marble work. Especially seeing how small the real object was in-person, it did surprise me on how much the sarcophagus was ornamented. This certain sarcophagus is evident that it was from the Roman period because of the style that it portrayed. It was usually made with marble and had full-length relief sculptural portraits of the deceased that were halfway wrapped around the block. The portraits on this sarcophagus are very precise and comprehensive, yet very smooth on the lines. It is clear that the sculptor did take a lot of time and energy on this piece, knowing that a wealthy and powerful person could only have purchased these funeral receptacles. As for the process of the carving, I would have to say, based on the decorativeness and compacted size, the tools were similar to what a traditional sculptor would use to carve marble, but a much smaller size. Some basic implements used for marble were tooth chisel, point chisel, the drill, and a rasp. There were also other techniques that might have been used to smooth out the overall sculpting, which was to sand it...

Words: 295 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Report from Interview

...Report from Interview Student’s Name Institution Report from Interview Work at an airline calls for undivided attention, focus and stamina. Top executives find themselves torn between balancing work and family. While work is important in ensuring employees meet their family needs, it has become increasing important for senior executives to try to strike a balance between the two (Masuda & Chinchilla, 2010). Ability to ensure both sides are well catered for requires careful examination of ones conduct and building a clear time frame. Success may be achieved at workplace through putting more efforts and time. This means less time and personal touch with family members, which may be harmful to the wellbeing of all parties. In the long run, it does more harm than good. Maintaining a balance between work and family is crucial as it will ensure support from family members as one pursues their goals at the working place. Undergoing a thorough self transformation to achieve a win-win situation will entail time adjustment, more efforts to complete task within given time frame so that time to see ones family is available and is not disrupted (Masuda & Chinchilla, 2010). Not only will the top executive ensure strict adherence to the schedule but will also need to ensure the entire labor force is moving in the same direction, since failure to do so will mean their family time will be consumed solving institutional problems. An interview with the Chief......

Words: 1054 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Crime Scene Report

...investigating team could have faced while processing a crime scene. The crime scene appears very messy, which might cause certain difficulties and danger to process it. In this case the crime scene should be investigated for any hazardous substances and/or explosives to ensure the safety of the investigating personnel. After the crime scene was secured and personnel can safely process the scene their main concern is to protect evidence from destruction and/or cross – contamination. Finally, if there is a dead body discovered at the crime scene it should be investigated and collected first. Investigation of the dead body could give an approximate scenario of the incident and establish an overall flow of the investigation process. Messiness of the crime scene not just cause difficulties to preserve and collect trace evidence, but it also may pose a danger to the personnel of the investigating team. Explosives, hazardous substances and many other dangerous objects could have been hidden underneath all of that mess. To reduce the investigation team’s risk of getting harmed the scene, first, should be investigated by specially trained personnel. Also, each and every individual entering the crime scene should wear appropriate protective clothing such as overalls, gloves, shoe covers, glasses, masks, and etc. to eliminate skin contact with poisons chemicals or any other dangerous/ hazardous objects/substances present at the crime scene. Also, the photographs of the deceased show......

Words: 756 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Exhibition Report Benoit Aquin, Untitled – from the Series “L’odyssée”, 1997, Print 2003, Ink-Jet Print, 1/5, Montréal Museum of Fine Arts.

...The Montréal Museum of Fine Arts presents 11 photographers who have taken photographs since the 1970’s. Each photographer has his own space in the exhibition for approximately fifteen of his photographs, mainly in black and white framed with a light brown frame, realizing in a whole a retrospective of how society has changed in Quebec throughout the years. It conveys the photographers’ concerns and interests in the quality of urban lives. The photographers transmit a reflection of society, collectively, individually and creatively by the use of a keen critical sense, while respecting the subject in its environment. This exhibition will conduct the visitor to ask itself some questions, “Where are we going?” “What is reality?”. In fact, the role of the photographers in this exhibition is to present artistically, a documentary on the society with its diverse values and inhabitants. In this exhibition Benoit Aquin’s photographs portray the after hours bars, between three and five in the morning, in the streets and nightlife places of Montreal. It is a look at the people living during the night, always having fun, detached from the daytime life and somehow perverted by society. The ideas of shock and surprise are present. It is a contrast with the other photographers, who have depicted residential areas and working class everyday life. Instead, Benoit Aquin shows the hidden side of a city, what citizens cannot see if they do not wander into the night. We can observe in......

Words: 764 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Life from the Perspective of the Lonely

...Life from the perspective of the lonely Every one i life has experiences that define who thy are and the why they act this is what character sizes them and their behavior and if every ones past would be revealed explained we all will have better understanding of each other but heres my story Earlier on in my about life, i had often found my self in the awful dilemma of wether to inconveniencing myself to help a friend or put myself first. After lots of experience living the door mat lifestyle and having people who do not appreciate the sacrifice, I realized I was having skewed relationships and I finally drew the line. Although I still help people in need I gauge where to stop and say no saving my self from fighting myself. In the words of Carl Sagan "an organism in conflict with itself is doomed". Being born an only child growing up as an only child and alone took a tole on my and my outlook toward life i appreciated every one who came into my live and accepted them as my own. i was also a person who had more than enough of what ever i needed or wanted at the time so sharing or even giving up items for the comfort of another person was never really a problem. because of the fear of loneliness i found my self doing more and more to keep people around me may be because i get attached to them because of my childhood background. i felt i have to create some sort of attraction to keep people in my life. i never knew where to draw the line i was a person who would take the......

Words: 828 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Life Lessons from Sonic

...knowledge we acquire outside of school is the most important. Which view do you agree with? Every day we gain knowledge from many sources like lessons in school or experience from outside of school. Manny people prefer to gain through life, but I would rather learn from school lessons. I think getting knowledge from lessons in school is much easier and secure. Starting with advantages of lessons in school, I say it’s much easier to learn because the lessons are taught by trustworthy teachers. For example, my math teacher used to spend half of his period explaining the solution to a difficult exercise for me until I understood. Without him, maybe I never understand the solution. Besides, the knowledge we get from school is always secured. Therefore, there’s no need taking risky mistakes to verify the knowledge again. On the other side, getting knowledge from outside of school is really risky and time-consuming. For example, in order to learn how to run a business, in case of having no former lessons, one needs to try several times, and makes several mistakes before being successful. However, the process itself really takes a lot of time, and if mistakes during the process were too severed, one might not recover to continue. Many people argue that schools only give us theories some of which are impractical, and useless, while all the knowledge gotten from outside of school can be applied right away. Now schools provide us with plenty of opportunities to apply what......

Words: 289 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Report on Chicago Art Museum Greek Classics

...Cl 100 Art Museum Reflection Introduction As a class assignment, I recently went to the Art Institute of Chicago last Friday. In hindsight, this was a little late to be going, but I found the trip to be enriching nonetheless. I browsed over several sections, like the Indian and Native American, but I spent most of my time in the Ancient Mediterranean area, chiefly the section displaying ancient Greek art. My task was to find several different items, each representing an aspect of Greek civilization. After a process of elimination, I chose four items that I felt best depicted the daily lives of Greeks in the past. In this paper I will attempt to briefly identify them. Part I- An item of custom The first item I chose was one that showcased Greek cultural norms. For this I chose a grave stele depicting a small child playing with his pets. According to the museum, this artifact was made sometime around 330 B.C.E., so it is from the transition time between the Classical and Hellenistic Periods. It was found in Athens and the museum identification number is 88.2012. It was donated anonymously (AI info). Relatively intact, the image on its front is very easy to interpret. It is very clearly a young Greek boy, playing with his pet dove and dog. He holds the dove outstretched in his right hand and the dog appears to be jumping towards it, perhaps out of excitement. This stele is about 3-4 feet high and maybe a foot and a half wide. At one point it was painted, because there is...

Words: 2048 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

An Episode from the Life of Publius Cornelius Scipio

...Elliot Shimonov An Episode from the Life of Publius Cornelius Scipio Giovani Bellini is a widely known painter of Venetian descent whose work is fundamental in the understanding of the Venetian High Renaissance. His works were inspired by social and political elements which was atypical of the Renaissance culture. However, the Venetian Renaissance came later than the Florentine or Roman Renaissance and by the time of its assumption, studies of sciences such as astronomy, dynamism of the universe, and navigation made Venetians question the nature of everything around them, referring to history for answers. Accordingly, artists focused on the nature of color and other observable natural occurrences, whereas the Florentine and Romans focused on the composition and geometry of that which they depict. Bellini’s 1506 painting An Episode from the Life of Publius Cornelius Scipio is no exception to the Venetian trend; it is nature-inspired and though-provoking, depicting the Roman General Publius Cornelius Scipio and his men gathering hostages after a victory in Carthage. The artwork functioned as a work for a private patron who wanted to honor his old ancestor. The Patron was of Roman descent and it is likely he may have been related to Scipio. Furthermore, Venetians were known to adhere to the past in order to further humanist learning, which suggests that the painting might have also functioned to provoke learning. The text to Scipio’s right, translates to: “To exact love is......

Words: 1064 - Pages: 5