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1 – The symphony is an important genre that was created during the Classical period. Using examples of symphonies by Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven and Brahms, describe two [2] main features of the genre, and describe two [2] important changes or innovations that took place by the time Brahms composed his Symphony no. 1.

Two main features of the genre are that there are four movements: sonata allegro, theme and variation, minuet, and then finale or rondo.Fast, usually an allegro and in what became known as sonata form.

Slow and often in a simple form such as ternary form.
Minuet and trio, a dance borrowed from the Baroque period and in ternary form.
Fast and usually an allegro, often light-hearted in style and in a form such as rondo form, theme and variations or sonata form. strings, a woodwind section of a flute, two oboes, two clarinets and two bassoons, with some brass instruments, two French horns, sometimes two trumpets and normally only timpani from the percussion section. symphony no. 5 by Beethoven. Haydn, “Father” of the Symphony, Symphony No. 104 In D Major, “London” and Mozart, Symphony no. 40 in g-minor all focused on absolute music.

Brahms began composing his Symphony no. 1 in 1854 and completed it in 1876 which was during the romantic period. The range of musical materials used by composers expanded enormously. Romantic composers looked for a greater freedom in the design and structure of their music, and more intense and personal expression of emotion. Melodies became more lyrical and song-like. The piano was improved and developed, and there was an increased in the size of the orchestra, offering composers a far wider range in pitch, volume and timbres.

Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)

• Born near Vienna, a skillful, ambitious businessman and entrepreneur, with a deep sense of seriousness and natural humor: talented for satisfying his patrons and pleasing his audiences. Exemplified the ideals of the Enlightenment.

• Learned to play violin and harpsichord, and was a choirboy in Vienna’s St. Stephen’s Cathedral. In 1757, became music director for Count Morzin, and began to compose his first symphonies. In 1761, entered the service of Hungarian Prince Anton Esterhazy, and continued to work for his family for the rest of his life.

• Duties included composing on demand, presenting concerts or operas weekly, and assisting with daily chamber music. He composed at an unusually rapid rate, which resulted in him hearing his music played well all of the time, allowing for him to experiment with new ideas all the time. Met Mozart in 1783 in Vienna, and they formed a strong relationship.

• Publication of his music brought him recognition and fame throughout Europe. Made 2 successful trips to London (1790, 1795), which brought him the invitation to be music director for Prince Nikolaus Esterhazy II.

• “Father” of the symphony (wrote 104) and the string quartet (wrote 68). Well known for his operas, concertos, piano trios, masses, and keyboard works.

Haydn reached a place in music that set him above all other composers except perhaps George Frideric Handel. He took existing ideas, and radically altered how they functioned—earning him the titles "father of the symphony" and "father of the string quartet".
The Farewell Symphony, No. 45 in F♯ Minor, exemplifies Haydn's integration of the differing demands of the new style, with surprising sharp turns and a long adagio to end the work. In 1772, Haydn completed his Opus 20 set of six string quartets, in which he deployed the polyphonic techniques he had gathered from the previous era to provide structural coherence capable of holding together his melodic ideas

One of the forces that worked as an impetus for his pressing forward was the first stirring of what would later be called Romanticism—the Sturm und Drang, or "storm and stress" phase in the arts, a short period where obvious emotionalism was a stylistic preference. Haydn accordingly wanted more dramatic contrast and more emotionally appealing melodies, with sharpened character and individuality. This period faded away in music and literature: however, it influenced what came afterward and would eventually be a component of aesthetic taste in later decades

marks “mature” classical style
Haydn, having worked for over a decade as the music director for a prince, had far more resources and scope for composing than most and also the ability to shape the forces that would play his music. This opportunity was not wasted, as Haydn, beginning quite early on his career, sought to press forward the technique of building ideas in music. His next important breakthrough was in the Opus 33 string quartets (1781), in which the melodic and the harmonic roles segue among the instruments: it is often momentarily unclear what is melody and what is harmony. This changes the way the ensemble works its way between dramatic moments of transition and climactic sections: the music flows smoothly and without obvious interruption. He then took this integrated style and began applying it to orchestral and vocal music.

Machaut was an important late Medieval/early Renaissance composer and Gesualdo was a late Renaissance composer. Using Machaut's La Messa Nostre Dame and Gesualdo's Tenebrae Responseries, discuss one [1] important similarity and one [1] important difference between the way these composers created religious works for chorus

Machaut is hymn-like, with the cantus clearly using a Gregorian chant. Messe de Nostre Dame is a polyphonic mass with 5 movements, the Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei, followed by the dismissal Ite, missa est and it has four voices rather than the more common three. The Notre Dame Mass is the first known setting of the Ordinary of the Mass by one composer. It utilizes all the techniques which Machaut had developed in his secular works. In the Medieval spirit, the music does not attempt to follow the subtleties of each phrase and word, but is more concerned with general symbolism.

The other uses more independent melodic lines and no chant-like sounding melodies. Tenebrae responsories are like madrigals, except that they use texts from the Passion, a form (Tenebrae) used by many other composers. They use particularly sharp dissonance and chromatic juxtapositions, especially in the parts of the text that have to do with Christ's suffering. These also have a maximum of 6 voices.

One important similarity is the idea that they emphasize the parts in the text and music which show Christ’s suffering. They also both are also have high and low vocal levels with two alto and two tenor parts.

HAYDN

Duties included composing on demand, presenting concerts or operas weekly, and assisting with daily chamber music. He composed at an unusually rapid rate, which resulted in him hearing his music played well all of the time, allowing for him to experiment with new ideas all the time. Met Mozart in 1783 in Vienna, and they formed a strong relationship

The First performance of Beethoven’s 9th most of major works premiered in vienna. The symphony was the first example of a major composer using voices in a symphony[2] (thus making it a choral symphony). The words are sung during the final movement by four vocal soloists and a chorus. They were taken from the "Ode to Joy", a poem written by Friedrich Schiller in 1785 and revised in 1803, with additions made by the composer. Today, it stands as one of the most played symphonies in the world. In berlin. largest orchestra ever assembled by beethoven. At the end, audience applauded but he was still conducting contralto walked over and showed him to audience. 5 standing ovations. allegro ma non troppo, scherzo, adagio, recitative (ode to joy) Haydn used the arrangement in string quartet no 30 eflat

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