Free Essay

Music Industry Research

In: Business and Management

Submitted By rikibobbyy
Words 2134
Pages 9
Research Memo

Date: October 16, 2013
To: Prof. Hastings
From: Riki Kotaka
Subject: How do music companies address the issue the music sales has been declining?


Music is essential for our lives, however it is difficult for those who get involved with music industry to make a profit. Music industry has been shrinking since 1999 when Napster, pioneering music file share service, was founded [1 McCormick]. In 1990’s when the music sales were at the peak, the total global music revenue was around $30 billion, but the one in 2012 was only $16.5 billion [2 Pfanner]. I did summer internship at Sony Music Entertainment in Tokyo for a month. I’ve participated in some meetings to consider marketing plans for musicians. One main reason of the sales declination is an illegal downloading. Although laws prohibit illegal downloading, there are still massive illegal downloading websites on the Internet. However, global music sales in 2012 increased for the first time since 1999, and the number of songs downloaded illegally was declined to 210 million in comparison to 1.2 billion in 2008. [3 Sherwin] It seems that music companies finally found some efficient ideas to overcome illegal downloaders.
Do music companies actually increase their profits? And how did music companies start adjusting the situation? The purpose of the research paper is to figure out the main reasons why music sales finally increased, any differences to market music products and if the situation of music companies and musicians has improved or not.


* Development of Music Stream Services Rather than regarding Internet as a “main virus” of sales declination, music companies use digital media to expand their business. Launch and growth of music streaming services, mainly Spotify, has caused significant loss on illegal downloading service. Before launching Spotify, iTunes service by Apple dominated on the legal online music market. Since it costs around $ 2.50 per a song, people prefer to download songs for free somehow.
People feel it less to demand illegal downloading after Spotify was launched. Although you are not a paid subscriber, you can still listen to music. Also, it is easy to find songs you want, and the sound quality is quite close to iTunes. Spotify’s revenue in 2012 became twice as the one in 2011. The main revenues of Spotify are from paid subscribers, advertisements put between songs for non-paid members. For musicians and copyright owners, they pay certain money by each play.
However, Spotify also has some significant negative parts. The main part is some musicians’ frustration towards their royalty system. Thom Yorke, an English musician and a vocal of Radiohead, claimed “I wouldn't necessarily say that streaming is detrimental to new artists, but I question why the majors are so supportive of a business model that is so clearly unsustainable in the long term.”[4 Colletti] and boycotted to send his songs to Spotify. Although Spotify weakened illegal downloading, it is not efficient business for musicians as well. For each play, artists can get paid only half-cent [4]. Some musicians regard it as an “unsustainable” business [4].

* YouTube Music Branding
YouTube is one of the biggest advertisement platforms for musicians nowadays. YouTube used to be considered as an obstruction of making music sales. Some random people uploaded music videos or MP3 files without any permission, and people downloaded the files by using some illegal software. Music companies just try to delete videos posted on YouTube without permission. However, lots of music companies or musicians themselves have launched their official channels and post high-quality music videos. Since then, the number of unofficial music videos posted has decreased because people obviously more prefer to watch high-quality official videos. Currently, half of top 100 most-viewed YouTube channel by categories are a musician [5 Eordogh]. Also, they can advertise songs by paid promotions that come up to right-hand upper corner on the page or play before videos you actually choose to watch. The most successful marketing advertisement by using YouTube would be a case of Gangnam Style by PSY. The official music video has become the most viewed YouTube video, passing Baby by Justin Bieber. So, why did a song of the Korean pop star suddenly become a trend all over the world? PSY’s label, YG Entertainment, targeted world widely on him. What they did was that they increase the number of view counts of the video systemically by preparing a lot of computer keeping playing the video, and people could see the video under the list of popular videos. Since the music video was catchy and funny, it successfully attracted people all over the world. [6]

* Jay-Z - Samsung Partnership
Music companies address the issue by some unique marketing plan. Jay-Z, one of the most popular rapper over the world, released a new album this July. He teamed up with Samsung, and the new album had been distributed for free for the first million android users who downloaded an app. The app started a service three days before its official release date. This is a part of the $5 million marketing deal between Samsung and Jay-Z. Basically, the business was that Samsung pays $5 per an album so that Jay-Z made $5 million profit before none of listeners bought the album. As a result, he sold 527,000 of copies in the first week and topped on the Billboard album chart [7 Sisario]. Although a lot of people purchased the app, the business was criticized from some points. First, the app had a security issue. Fake app makers targeted the app, and many consumers got troubled with them. It was also criticized in terms of privacy issue. The app required purchasers for sending their personal information such as their ages, their phone records, or even their SNS information, which are not related at all to get the album.

* Japanese “Idol Group” CD Marketing Plan If you take a look at foreign countries’ marketing plan other than Gangnam Style case, you can still find some interesting marketing plans to increase music sales. Although a population of Japan is less than half of one in United States, Japan has one of the largest music market sizes by countries, sharing a quarter of total global music sales [8 Swarts]. In Japan, physical formats such as CDs are still the main factor of music sales even though CD sales keep decreasing in rest of countries. All of top 5 songs in CD single chart in 2012 are AKB48 (*1)’s songs. AKB48 is a girls “idol” group, consisting of more than 80 girls all of who are between 13 and 24 years old. Idol groups are Japanese specific type of group of teens and twenty’s attractive and cute members and are considered to be a part of Japanese culture. AKB48 has so many core fans of either group itself or specific member, mostly man.
Their innovative marketing plan to increase music sales is to put a ticket for their handshake events in CD package. When you shake hands with them, you can also talk to them for around ten seconds. A tricky part of the system is that you can shake hands only once with one member with one ticket but also can shake hands as many as the number of CDs you purchase. For example, if you buy two CDs and get two tickets, you can either shake hands with two members or twice with one member. This system matches a feature that each of their fans is core. Some of their core fans spend $10,000 (equal to 1,000 CDs) on buying CDs not to listen to music but to actually “reach” them. This unique marketing increased the number of fans, and none of musicians can sell CDs more than AKB48 currently, and a lot of idol groups start selling CDs in their way. Also, real musicians also start combine some bonus such as DVDs or photo books with CDs, that is, they sell CDs with some advantages at the fixed price. Actually, a price of CDs has not changed since 15 years ago.
Some music fans though feel uncomfortable for the system. Basically, idols are more likely to attract people by appearance or characteristics than songs themselves or skills as singers, so they think it is unfair that they dominate the CD ranking over “real” musicians last a few years. They are on the top in the ranking not because their songs appeal people but because of the tickets. Also, it is not uncertain if the marketing method could be applied to other countries since Japanese pop culture is quite unique and different from others.

Key Points

* Music streaming services such as Spotify rifted up the music sales last year, which was the first time since 1999. Also, they have been decreasing people’s intentions to do illegal downloading. However, some famous musicians complain about the royalty systems to distribute profits to them. * YouTube is currently a significant advertisement place for music companies.
Not only videos but also paid promotions on the right corner of the pages are used as well. * Music companies applied some unique and new marketing plans to increase their sales. Jay-Z formed a partnership with Samsung and made a marketing plan which is to distribute apps to listen to his new album to their users for free. Also, Japanese idol group, AKB48, distributes a ticket for the hand-shaking event with CDs and made dramatic sales increase on their CD sales. Conclusion, Recommendation Global music sales increased last year, and people don't do illegal downloading as much as they used to. Yet, you have to still consider saying music companies and musicians earn as much money as they should do. Music companies still keep trying to make people to spend more money on music product and improve the situation. We need to be more respectful for all the people involved with music and protect one of the most entertaining contents by ourselves.


*1 AKS. (2011, May 27). AKB48 Member. Retrieved from

[1] Neil, McCormick. (2013, February 28). Digital music sales will not save the industry; The music industry might be excited about a tiny upturn in global sales figures thanks to singers like Adele, but it's time to get real, says Neil McCormick. The Telegraph. Retrieved from

[2] Eric, Pfanner. (2013, February 27). Music sales bring hope for industry's recovery;
A business sideswiped by digital revolution sees first growth since 1999. The International Herald Tribune. Retrieved from
[3] Adam, Sherwin. (2013, July 17). Music and film industries winning war on piracy, says report. The Independent. Retrieved from

[4] Justin, Colletti. (2013, July 31). Spotify Payouts Revisited – How Much Does it Pay Now and How Much Should Artists Demand? Sonyscoop. Retrieved from

[5] Fruszina, Eordogh. (2012, December 24). What Gangnam Style’s 1 Billion Views Say About Modern Society. ReadWrite. Retrieved from [6] PSY no GENTLEMAN no YouTube maketing ga mono sugoi. [ How good a YouTube marketing for Gentleman by PSY is] . Japan. Retrieved from

[7] Ben, Sisario. (2013, July 18). Jay’Z’s ‘ Magna Carta’ Soars to No.1. The New York Times. Retrieved from

[8] Alan, Swarts. (2013, July 3). Why Japan’s Music Industy is Booming … For Now. Billboard. Retrieved from * Strengths
I would say that the strongest point of the paper is the material I have found for the research. There are some points to achieve the purpose of the research paper which is to find out the current situation of music companies. Although the topic is not academic, I could have included four points on the findings.

* Weakness
The weakness point would be a conclusion and recommendation part. Since there is not a clear solution to improve the situation, I cannot include any recommendation with the strong provident on the paper.

* Grade and why
Hopefully I could get a grade between A and B. I followed the format it should be and could include a lot of finding to identify the current music industry. The thesis is also clear enough.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Music Industry

...Challenges Facing Music Industry and How to Develop It Music is one of the most beloved human experiences. Everyone enjoys a different type of music and that is evident in different events from graduation ceremonies to weddings and presidential inaugurations. Also, we use music in our films, plays because we can always deliver the message using music. It is the power of music that everyone gets influenced by and nothing could stop this power because it facilitates communication which goes beyond words and enables meanings to be shared. Nowadays, we have several types of music such as blues, jazz, hip-hop, new age metal, house, country and rock & roll. Also there are other types of music that produced due to modifications of several genres which makes the list unlimited. All these types are produced throughout the music industry. It consists of composers, singers and the companies and professional who produce and promote the music like music stores, music venues, road crew, producers, and business managers, studios, engineering performance and rights organizations. Nowadays, this industry is facing a lot of challenges that should be faced to develop the music industry. The music industry as a whole is facing a massive challenge. The industry is changing quickly and the market also is changing quickly. These challenges are related to the new technology that has been introduced into the music industry. The main problem that is facing the music industry is the......

Words: 1055 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...Sony Mobile were Facebook and YouTube. Our research also showed sound quality and looks as the attributes most appealing to the target group. As a result, they had the capabilities  to seamlessly execute campaigns in tandem with new product launches on multiple social platforms. Their intelligence tools measured up  Sony’s competitors and planted the roots for a 360 degree Social Customer Relationship Management and a capability for  social commerce. By early 2012 the music industry in India had witnessed remarkable changes. With the rapid growth in Internet penetration and usage, innovative technology was driving music production, access and consumption. Sales from digital platforms had surpassed sales from traditional physical formats, such as CDs and tapes. With the distribution of digital music in India largely skewed towards the telecom business, music was increasingly being accessed via mobile devices, including smartphones and tablets. Overall, the role of the recording company seemed to be diminishing. While some of the leading companies in the music industry were testing the waters in the digital space, new players, including technology companies, were quickly entering the market with various new platforms and services.  Sony Music has unveiled its ‘India Segmentation Study’, the country’s first and largest research undertaken to analyse psychographic and demographic profiling of Indian audiences based on their music consumption patterns. It offers a never......

Words: 843 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Bus 499 Capstone Paper

...Campus April, 2014 Abstract The purpose of the paper is to research and understand how the changes of globalization and technology have impacted the music industry. This paper will also apply the industrial organization model and the resource-based model to determine how the music industries earn above-average returns. This paper will explain how the music industry’s success is through its mission and vision statements with Universal Music Group as an example. Finally, this paper will evaluate how the importance each category of the stakeholder impacts is to the overall success of the music industry. Assess how globalization and technology changes have impacted the corporation you researched. The company researched was Universal Music Group because the music industry is ever growing and wanted to know more about the company. As we all know, technology has been a major part of the music industry both good and bad. Technology has helped plenty of artists and hurt others. Since the introduction of the mp3 and the popularity of the IPOD device, compact disc sales have declined and more music is being released without the record company’s permission. Some may view this as a major problem to the other major record labels that distribute music globally. But some are using the mp3 to their advantage. A while ago an artist could not walk out of a studio and release a record in ten minutes. Now artists can get the music to their fans in record time and the fans can then......

Words: 1489 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay


...program that allowed computer users to share high quality digital copies of music recordings through a centralized file server. Napster functioned as a sort of clearing house, where members could search for songs and download them from another member’s hard drive. Barely a year after its launch, Napster was sued by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA), which represents major recording companies. Napster was accused of violating copyright by facilitating other peoples’ infringement, since it allowed users to swap music recordings for free and thus not properly compensating the owners of the material. 2- What is positive contribution of Napster to the music industry? The RIAA claimed that song swapping via Napster and similar firms had cost the music industry more than $ 300 million in lost sales. Lars Ulrich, Metallica’s drummer, stated that users are basically stealing from the band every time they download one of its songs. Despite of threats to the music industry that the RIAA claimed because of the online sharing of music files that was pioneered by Napster; the growth in the online music market has been remarkable and is expected to explode over the years. The researches and surveys conducted on the effects of online music distribution revealed that the online market provided more positive contribution to the music industry than threats. A research found that 65 per cent of music downloaders said that listening to a song online had prompted them......

Words: 590 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Internet and Music

...Zoe Tse Internet and Music “Just gonna stand there, and watch me burn, but that's alright because I like the way it hurts. Just gonna stand there and hear me cry, but that's alright because I love the way you lie.” Have you ever heard this song, Love The Way You Lie? This song was a big hit these few months. Where do you hear this song from? Probably in the mall, by buying a CD, or from internet, people can listen to this song. If people get this song from the internet, they only have to make one click to download for free, and then transfer to their cell phone, iPod, or mp3 very easily. Nowadays, music is very popular in United States such pop music, R&B. The more popular music becomes, the more people download. Obviously, the internet is threatening the artists, and no one knows what the future of music industry will be. The music industry is more prosperous than before. A long time ago, the only way musician could earn money was to compose music for the operas. There were many musicians who were poor, but they were famous after they died. For example, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756 - 1791), who was a talented musician, created a lot of famous musical compositions. Although he composed many songs for the operas, he lived in poverty and was not famous when he was alive. Artists couldn’t make much money in the past. In the 60s, when the Standard-playing Record, SP, was invented by Emile Berliner, music became widespread because musicians recorded and sold their......

Words: 1575 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Will the Web Kill Collleges

...Colleges”. The key point of Teachout’s argument is whether or not the Web will kill Colleges. According to the author Zephyr, “undergraduate education is on the verge of a radical reordering” (Chaffee, p.91, para 2). Zephyr states that colleges will be torn apart by the Internets new ways of sharing information. Classes are slowly changing from an in class setting to an online setting that may become permanent over the next 15 years. The author also states “colleges are becoming more virtual” (Chaffee, p.91, para 3). Traditional Colleges will experience a decline in enrollment and since they are depending on tuition this will hurt them tremendously. You don’t have to be in a classroom to do research, ask questions and receive lectures to gain a full learning experience. “The funding of academic research, the culture of the academy and the institution of tenure are all threatened” (Chaffee, p.96, para 4). The evidence used by the author to support his argument is the cost of getting a online degree are relatively inexpensive compared to traditional college. For example, “in state online undergraduate completion degree offered by the East Carolina University costs only $99 per credit hour which is a base of $1200 a year” (Chaffee, p.92, para 2). And the author also believes that the price will “only dive in coming decades as more universities compete and entrepreneurial colleges remix online material and match it with online instruction by poorly paid graduate students and......

Words: 1646 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Sony Case Study

...electronics because they were innovative and new for their time. They helped reshape the music and gaming industry as we know it today. Without such developments, technology might not be where it is today. Sony’s competition was also vastly different. At the time of the Walkman, there were no other major competitors and the purchase of CBS Records only furthered their stronghold on the industry. Sony’s product quality was also superior, as they were known world-wide for producing electronics of the highest design. 2. Mr. Idei stated that the integration of the divisions across the global market proved to be quite challenging, but yielded excellent lessons for future mergers. He said that he would have preferred a “soft acquisition” rather than a hard one, and in saying this, I believe he means that in order to successfully integrate new divisions in new markets, a strategic alliance would suit the company better than a straight merger. This way, the company will be able to assess the major differences in the different markets, while not sacrificing production. Mr. Idei noted that there are advantages and disadvantages of this strategy, but I believe the strategic alliance approach works best in the long run as you’ll have two strong companies, who have a strong knowledge on their current markets, working together to achieve the same goals. 3. Apple succeeded in the digital portable music industry because it took Sony’s principle of innovation and used it to its......

Words: 697 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Music Culture and Key Terms

...T.W Adorns argued popular music deficient because its forms predictable and schematic * In "serious music" the form of a piece is individual- worked out afresh so all details interrelate and cohere * This Process emphasizes the internal qualities and music flow * Schenkerian theory- Sees the surface events of musical foreground as a "composing out" of deeper sets of background relationship between pitches and chords * Genres defined by conventions governing musical process * Repetition important part of music * In "come home father" the two phrases are identical except the final two notes * In "embraceable you" the second phrase repeats the first exactly, but at a higher pitch * In James Brown "Superbad" there are 2 sections, "Verse" and "Bridge" which alternate * Bob Dylans "Subterry neon homesick blues" there is much reliance on miasmatic repetition * With this a sense of groove is created Why do songs have words?- Simon Frith (online readings) Lecture 2 * In the 50's and 60's sociologists concentrated on songs rather than singers and audience * It was possible to read the lyrics and figure out the social forces that produced them Content Analysis * All pop songs classified under 3 main headings * Happy in love, Frustrated in love and Novelty songs with sex interest * J.G Peatman first systematic analyst of pop song * Peatman believed people were buying the same music over and over again ......

Words: 1264 - Pages: 6

Free Essay


...MARKETING CASE STUDY OF JUSTIN BIEBER Justin Bieber is signed by Island, Island Teen, RBMG, schoolboy and def jam record label. They are all universal music groups. One of the main record labels Justin Bieber was signed by is Island record. Island record is a major record label, which operates as a division of Universal Music Group. Island records was found by Chris Blackwell, Graeme Goodall, and Leslie Kong in Jamaica and has been located in the UK since 1962. The record brand consists of three brands in the world; Island UK, Island US and Island Australia. This is mainly due to the labels significant legacy. Over the years, the company have managed a wide selection of popular musicians such as Demi Lovato, Tiao Cruz, Avicii and many more other famous singers. Furthermore, Island Record also own subsidiary labels such as: Apollo Recordings, Teen Island, Mercury Records and many other labels. Island Record market their bands and artists mainly through websites, by updating regularly on band and artists. Justin Bieber is a songwriter and singer. He produces pop, teen pop and R&B music. His target audience is teenage girls between the ages of 12-19 year old; this is because most of his songs contain cheesy pop lyrics, which attract the attention of girls. Also, he produces songs that are deep and many teenage girls are able to relate to: e.g. most of his songs are related to heartbreaks. Justin Bieber became famous through YouTube. In early 2007, Justin Bieber was aged...

Words: 1526 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

The History of the Music Business: Literature Review of Readings

...The History of the Music Business: Literature review of readings The landscape of the music business has been shaped by influential minds in music history. From as early as the 1940s to the 21st century, artists such as Nirvana and managers such as Peter Grant have made major decisions that would shape their careers and subsequently the future of the music business (Goldberg, 2008; Welch, 2003). In this literature review, the events and decisions that helped shaped the future will be examined and explored in the text to understand their impact on the music business. Ahmet was one of the influential people in the early stages of the music industry (Greenfield, 2011). When he met all the guys with independent record companies and decided they were ‘a bunch of third-rate crooks’, he like Rothchild jumped on the opportunity to get into the record business and eventually finding Atlantic records with Herb (Greenfield, 2011: 40; Goodman, 1997). But not all independent record labels were third rate crooks, Morris Levy, started from an independent record company, Roulette and was an important figure in the early stages of the music business (Dannen, 1990). He was described as the octopus of the music industry with his influences and connections, especially with the mafia who were heavily influential in many parts of the States. This would set the precedent for the future rap industry in which the themes of alcohol, stripper, violence and drugs are common and run by gangsters....

Words: 1018 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Popular Music and Contemporary U.S. Culture

...Music in Different Cultures Popular Music and Contemporary U.S. Culture Popular Music in its Many Facets In its broadest sense, popular music is an umbrella term referring to a vast range of commercially mass-marketed musical genres contrasting with classical or art music and intended for mass consumption (e.g., rock, rock and roll, hip-hop, grunge, heavy metal, rhythm and blues, punk, soul, techno, funk, rap, house). This wide-ranging term encompasses a plethora of musical styles involving various rhythms, vocal styles, instruments, and technologies. Characteristically, popular music is a global cultural phenomenon and an accessible form of commercial music aimed at a worldwide audience. Traditionally, British and American forms of popular music have tended to dominate the industry. Corresponding to social, economic, and technological change, popular music is intimately linked to the identity of musicians, performers, or artists, as well as audiences and fans. Popular music is ubiquitous; from shopping malls and advertising to gymnasiums/fitness classes and political campaigns, popular music is a common feature of people's everyday lives and a significant aspect of consumer culture. For fans and enthusiasts, popular music can be a leisure-time pursuit occurring on evenings or weekends; alternatively, it can constitute a lifestyle, or way of life (e.g., Deadheads—a group of fans of the American band Grateful Dead who saw the band at...

Words: 3041 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Polyphonic Hmi: Mixing Music and Math

...1 PROBLEM STATEMENT After failing at their first attempt to enter the music industry, Polyphonic HMI (hereinafter referred to as the “Company”), is releasing Hit Song Science (HSS), software used to predict future hit songs with 80% accuracy. An integrated marketing strategy, needs to be developed to launch an innovative product, in an industry typically known for “gut instinct” and therefore likely to meet strong customer resistance. Thus there are two key challenges to address: what is the target market and desired positioning of HSS and what is the plan for marketing this product to achieve that positioning, given a tight “shoestring” budget. 2 SITUATION ANALYSIS Polyphonic HMI wants to launch, what they consider, a sophisticated, new, revolutionary software product in the music industry, with stringent budget and time constraints and therefore must swiftly define a target market and marketing plan. This begins by utilizing a framework for performing a situation analysis of the internal, the micro and macro environmental situation, composed of the typical five Cs: customers, Company, collaborators, competition, context. There are three potential target customer segments that have several unique aspects. Firstly, the record labels, that employ artist-and-repertoire (A&R) people, that amongst other activities, decides whether to market a new album and if needed select one or more songs from it to be released as singles. This is by far the smallest segment with just......

Words: 2335 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay


...HMI: Mixing Music and Math Marco de Graaf 350111 We Fong Ma 375268 Oliver Müller 373496 Instructor: Dr. G. Liberali Master Business and Economics, Specialization Marketing Erasmus School of Economics Rotterdam, January 22, 2013 Diagnosis The management team of Polyphonic is entering a market, which is currently facing permanent changes and a lot of pressure. Rapid technological changes, like the development from CD to DVD and movements towards digital downloading, forces recording companies to adapt their business models consequently. In addition, the music industry is facing negative annual unit sales growth in their most important markets: North America, which accounts for 41% of global music sales, showed a decline in demand of enormous 10.4 % in 2002. The European market, which is the second most important market, also showed a negative trend in most regions. This situation puts a lot of pressure on the recording industry: Funds have to be allocated wisely and it cannot be afforded to waste and risk any money. In an industry, where the average success rate is approximately 10% and where a lack of tools to measure the potential of a song/artist efficiently is immanent, the task of not wasting money is a difficult one. The industry has to rely on the feelings, ears, guts and experience of its producers. The most popular scientific alternative currently available is the so-called “call-out research”. Depending on the method, this form of research can cost......

Words: 2665 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Internet Business Model Case Study

...Introduction to Management | Internet Business Models – A Case Study. | Nicole Fearon | user 5/3/2012 | Contents Question 3 Approach 3 The Case (Taken from Article) 4 Case Analysis 5 Business, Industry and Government Reviews 7 SWOT Analysis 7 Analysis Summary 8 Porters Five Forces Model 9 Porter’s Diamond Model 11 Demand Conditions 12 Related and Supporting Industries (collaborative industries) 12 Firm Strategy, Structure and Rivalry 12 Role of Government 13 Interconnectedness, Complexity and Business Models 15 Challenges and Strategies 15 External 16 Internal Strategies 17 Summary 19 Reference 20 Question Select one of the themes listed at the end of this table and undertake further research to prepare a paper outlining the key developments in the area. Your paper should contain references from a minimum of 15 sources, which should be clearly identified in a table of references or bibliography. You should also indicate the implications of your study for organizations in the Caribbean and provide recommendations for the adoption of strategies to address the challenges. Themes • Evolution of Management in the Caribbean • Managing in an Interconnected World • Managing the 21st Century Workforce • Use of ICT in Small and Medium Sized Business • Ethical Issues for Managerial Decision Making Approach Information and Communications Technology is a wide topic that can follow many paths. The focus for......

Words: 5486 - Pages: 22

Premium Essay

Consumer Perception of Spotify in the Irish Market

...To examine the effectiveness of the ‘Freemium’ business model. Student Name | Kyle Brown | Student Number | N00128284 | Student email address | | Date | 31/10/2014 | Submitted to | Eva Perez | 1 Introduction 3 1.1 Research Questions & Objectives 4 2 Literature Review 5 2.1 The 5% Rule 5 2.2 Music Streaming Services & Spotify 6 2.3 Freemium & Piracy 7 2.4 Consumer Perceptions 8 3 Research Methodology 9 3.1 Research Design 9 3.2 Data Collection 10 3.3 Sampling 11 4 Ethics 11 Harm to Participants 12 Invasion of Privacy 12 References 13 1. Introduction The term Freemium was originated by Jarid Lukin of the Flatiron portfolio company Alacra. Moreover, based on this term, Wilson, a venture capitalist, built up a business model in 2006 (Wilson, 2006). ‘Freemium’ is a business model which has emerged in recent years and has become increasingly popular within the digital service industry, particularly for ever growing music streaming services such as Spotify, as this model has almost saved the music industry from being washed out through ever growing piracy issues. The company has posted growth at a staggering rate of nearly 8,000 subscriptions per day and is currently valued at $3 billion dollars (Hampp, 2013). This substantial growth provides an interesting platform for the researcher and to find out how effective the model is for businesses......

Words: 3410 - Pages: 14