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Music of Mindanao

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Subject: MAPEH (MUSIC)
TOPIC: MUSIC OF VISAYAS

VISAYAS MUSIC

The Visayas region is situated between the islands of Luzon and Mindanao. Well-known provinces in this region include Iloilo, Cebu, Negros Occidental/Oriental, Samar, Leyte and Bohol. It is the home to some of the Philippines' best singers like Pilita Corales, Dulce, and Sheryn Regis. Most Visayan songs or music are written in duple or triple meter with a simple melody that is easy to sing. Folk songs like Si Pilemon, Pakitong-kitong, Ili-ili Tulog Anay, Rosas Padan and Matud Nila originated from this region. The long list of Visayan folk songs includes lullabies, working songs, harana and children's songs. Here are example of Visayan folk songs:

*Children's song - Ilo nga Bata *Drinking song- Condansoy *Working song - Si Pilemon *Epic song - Kandu *Serenade song - Matud Nila *Debate song - Balitaw *Nonsense song- Pakitong-kitong

Pinalangga Ko is a children's song that tells of how the child is loved and well-taken care of by his parents.

One of the most popular musical styles in the Visayan region is the balitaw. The balitaw is a song-and-dance debate between a man and a woman that deals with topics about love and marriage. In the Negros province, the Managsaon is a very popular music. It is a kind of fresh epic where two groups of singers sing in a chanting manner using the call-response style. Here are kinds of Managsaon music:
1. dagyon- Christmas song
2. portino- farie's sacred song
3. sinulog- street dancing
4. dinoplop- song for dance

MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS from the VISAYAS REGION

The Visayans are also known to be very skilled musicians. They are not only good singers but also good instrumentalists.Below are some common musical instruments found in the region.

1. MEMBRANOPHONES • Tugo is a cylindrical double-headed drum. • Guimbal is a single-headed cylindrical drum.
2. CHORDOPHONES • Buktot is a four-stringed guitar with a coconut shell as a resonator. • Litguit is a two-stringed type of violin.
3. AEROPHONES • Lantoy is a Visayan clarinet with 4-6 holes • Pasiyak is a water whistle that looks like a piper. • Pasiyok is made from a section of rice stalk. • Tulali is a vertical flute with six-finger holes.
4. IDIOPHONE • Koratong is a hollow-split log of a bamboo with nodes on both ends.

Republic of the Philippines Calbayog City National High School Calbayog City

Subject: MAPEH (MUSIC)
TOPIC: MUSIC OF MINDANAO
TEACHER: MICHAEL D. BACULANTA

Music of Islamic Filipino Islamic Cultural Groups ❖ Badjao- Sulu ❖ Ilanun – Sulu, Tawi Tawi ❖ Jama Mapun- Sulu ❖ Maguindanao- Maguindanao, Cotabato, ❖ Maranao –Lanao, Bukidnon ❖ Samal- Sulu ❖ Tausug-Sulu ❖ Yakan- Basilan

Characteristics of Islamic Music ❖ Melisma singing ❖ Song Phrases ❖ Narrow singing ❖ Fluid singing ❖ Tremolo ❖ Strained Voice ❖ Nasal Enunciation

Vocal Music
Life Cycle ❖ Langan Bata Bata- Lullabye of Tausug. ❖ Tarasul- Tausug song of advice to wedded couple. ❖ Dekir- death song of Maranao. ❖ Dekil- Maguindanao dirge in vigil.

Religious Chants
Salathul Juma- Friday prayer chant
Tarawe- chant during the Ramadan

Folk Epic
Rajah Indarapatra- Maguindanao
Darangen- Maranao
Music of Non-Islam Filipino
Non-Islam Cultural Groups ❖ Bagobo- Davao Gulf and Davao Region ❖ Bilaan – Davao Gulf ❖ Kalagan – Davao Gulf ❖ Mandaya – Davao Region ❖ Mansaka – Davao Region ❖ Manobo – Bukidnon, Agusan Del Sur, Cotabato ❖ Matigsalug- Bukidnon ❖ Subanon- Zamboanga peninsula ❖ Tiruray- SOCCSARGEN Region, ❖ T’boli – South Cotabato
Vocal Music
Life Cycle ❖ Bua - Lullabye of Subanon. ❖ Uyug- Uyug – Lullabye of Mansaka. ❖ Yadadang- Lullabye of Bilaan ❖ Manambay- Chant on circumscision ritual of Subanon ❖ Kambong- love incantation of Manobo

Life Cycle ❖ Sinda-ay- Weddingchant sung before inviting the groom’s party to enter the bride’s house. ❖ Balow– song for a dead husband of Matigsalug. ❖ Iring Iring- Manobo song sung on wakes ❖ Ulag Ing- lament song of Manobo

Occupational Song ❖ Gago Napu- song for either hunting or fishing of Subanon ❖ Balatuking– Manobo harvest song

Ritual Song ❖ Diwata- for curing ceremony of Subanon ❖ Pamasag- for victory celebration of Manobo ❖ Pangan Do- for thanksgiving of Manobo

The Musical Instruments of Mindanao

CHORDOPHONES (STRINGED INSTRUMENTS)
TWO STRINGED-LUTE ▪ Mansaka-Binarig ▪ Bilaan-Faglong ▪ T'boli-Hagelong or hegalong ▪ Mansaka -Kudlong ▪ Manobo - Kudlong, kdlung, kutyapi ▪ Maranao-Kutyapi ▪ Bukidnon – “katyapi” ▪ Subanen – “kutapi” ▪ Tiruray -“fegerong” ▪ Ata – “kudlung” ▪ Bagobo – “kodlong” ▪ Maguindanao-Kudyapi ▪ • Kudyapi - is a guitar with two strings. It is about 1 1/2 m long and made of wood. It has a stick to support in its lower end and is played in the same position as cello. • Kudlung – two stringed lute made of wood, one string for melody, one for the drone. Eight frets are glued on the neck of the lute. The body of the instrument is carved with geometric patterns. The neck and the head are adorned with horse hair; the tail has two pieces of carabao skin, the strap is adorned with bead work. • Saluroy- is a bamboo polychordal tube zither of Bagobo .It is called as kolitong in Cordillera region. • Aduwag-ay -one -stringed fiddle instrument of Bilaans also called Kugot (Agusan-Manobo) and Duwagey(T'boli)

AEROPHONES (WIND INSTRUMENTS) • Sahunay - is a bamboo flute, leaving six holes for the fingers and trumpet made of coconut leaf. It is about 50 cm long and 3 cm in diameter. This is a bamboo flute of the Tausugs in Sulu. • Palendag- A lip-valley flute, it is considered the toughest of the three bamboo flutes (the others being the tumpong and the suling) to use because of the way one must shape one's lips against its tip to make a sound. The construction of the mouthpiece is such that the lower end is cut diagonally to accommodate the lower lip and the second diagonal cut is make for the blowing edge. Is a type of Philippine bamboo flute, the largest one used by the Maguindanaon, a smaller type of this instrument is called the Hulakteb (Bukidnon). • Suling- ring flute of Bilaan and Tiruray, Maguindanao, Samal, Tausug and Yakan -is the smallest bamboo flute of the Maguindanaon and the only one classified as a ring-flute (the other two bamboo flutes of the Maguindanaon, the tumpong and the palendag are both lip-valley flutes)

IDIOPHONES (PERCUSSION INSTRUMENTS) • Kulintang is a term with various meanings, all related to the melody-playing gong row. Technically, the term kulintang is the Maguindanao word for eight gong kettles which are laid horizontally upon a rack creating an entire kulintang set called apasangan. This idiophone functions as a lead/central melodic instrument for the entire ensemble. • Gabbang - is similar to a xylophone. It is made of wooden box with one end wider than the other, and with an open top. Across top, wooden bars of different lengths are placed to fit the shape of the box, about 1 cm from each other. It is played by striking the wooden bars with a wooden hammer. This instruments is popular in Sulu. • Gandingan a Kayo (translated means, “wooden gandingan,” or “gandingan made of wood”) is a Philippine xylophone and considered the wooden version of the real gandingan. This instrument is a relatively new instrument coming of age due to the increasing popularity of the “wooden kulintang ensemble” • Kulintang a Kayo - This is a wooden xylophone of the Maguindan people. Literally“wooden kulintang”) is a Philippine xylophone of the Maguindanaon people with eight tuned slabs arranged horizontally atop a wooden antangan (rack). • Agung – is a set a two wide rimmed bossed-gongs hangs from horizontal pole or wooden frame. It is used by the Maguindanao, Maranao, Samal-Bajau and Tausug people of the Philippines. • Gandingan - is a set of four small narrow- rimmed and suspended gongs. They hang in pairs with the knobs of the lower pitched gongs facing each other. The same with the two higher pitched gongs. The pair of lower pitched gongs is positioned on the player's left side while the pair of the higher pitched gongs is on the right. • Babandil- is a single, narrow-rimmed Philippine gong used primarily as the “timekeeper” of the Maguindanao kulintang ensemble.

• Kagul - is a type of Philippine bamboo scraper gong/slit drum of the Maguindanaon and Visayans with a jagged edge on one side, played with two beaters, one scarping the jagged edge and the other one making a beat. The Maguindanaon and the Banuwaen use it in the rice paddies to guard against voracious birds, using the sound it produces to scare them away.The Maguindanaon and theBukidnon also use it for simple dance rhythms during social occasions. • Kulintang a Tiniok - is a type of Philippine metallophone with eight tuned knobbed metal plates strung together via string atop a wooden antangan (rack). Kulintang a tiniok is a Maguindanaon term meaning “kulintang with string” but they also could call them kulintang a putao, meaning “kulintang of metal.” • Kubing –it is a bamboo jaw harp of Tiruray. These have become one of the most popular jaw harps internationally due to their highly responsive sound and ornate designs. In the hands of a good player the kubing is capable of a vast number of sounds and timbres. This kubing was collected in Manila in 1987.

MEMBRANOPHONES (DRUM INSTRUMENTS) • Dabakan - is a goblet -shaped drum of Maguindanao and Maranao, which has a single head covered with goat, lizard or snakeskin. It is struck with two thin bamboo sticks about 18 inches in length. • Gandang - is a two-headed cylindrical drum of Tausug, Samal, Badjao, Maranao and Maguindanao. Called as Kendang in other South East Asian countries. It is one of the primary instruments used in the Gamelan ensembles ofJava, Bali and Terengganu.

Ensemble – small groups of instrument played simultaneously.

• Pala Buni Bunyan- Maguindanao ensemble consisted of five instruments the kulintang, agung, gandingan, dabakan and babendil/ babandir. • Tagunggo – Yakan ensemble is made up of brass kwintangan, gabbang, set of 3 agung and bamboo slit drum called Tagutok.

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...Solar power won’t end Mindanao’s energy crisis MANILA, Philippines—The clamor for a quick installation of solar projects in Mindanao is not the solution to the power crisis on the island as it will only worsen the burden on consumers, a group of prominent economists said. The Foundation for Economic Freedom (FEF) warned the government against heeding  calls for solar projects as a way out of the power blackouts in Mindanao, noting that certain vested interests were being pushed “in the guise of being environmental activists.” “Together with their loud demand for solar projects, which are supposed to be environmentally friendly, is an insistence by vested interests to immediately implement a feed-in-tariff for solar projects,” the FEF said in a press statement on Saturday. “Because power coming from solar projects is very expensive, solar investors are asking that all power consumers subsidize them through the feed-in-tariff, a universal surcharge on consumers to pay for the difference between the solar cost of energy and the average cost, estimated to be at least 12 centavos per kilowatt hour,” the FEF said. So instead of alleviating the power situation in Mindanao by making available cheaper sources of energy, solar projects will actually add to the burden of consumers, the FEF said. The economists added that this additional burden would be shouldered by consumers for a long time even if the cost of producing electricity from solar power comes down because under......

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