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Music

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7 October 2015 Alexander Graham Bell was born on March 3,1847 and died on April 2,1922. He is the guy who we all have to thank for inventing the telephone, without him how could we communicate? In 1866 Bell experimented on the thought of how to produce vowel sounds. He came up with the thought of combing the note of electrically driven forks, which gave him the idea of telegraphing speech. Bell with the lack of electric knowledge, ask for help from a local electrical shop owner named Thomas A. Watson. After many months of working together the two finally accomplished something. On June 2,1875 Watson heard a sound coming from over Bell’s end of the wire, with some tinkering the device transmitted Bell’s voice to Watson. Bell soon begins to write a patent for his first telephone. Besides trying to complete the telephone, Bell was trying to help out the deaf children. He opened a school in Boston to train teachers to teach and tutor the deaf. He was also the professor of vocal physiology at Boston University. Alexander did many lectures and tutoring at this time, helping many deaf students. Bells health was not doing so well in 1875 because of the long nights, this led him to return to his parent’s house in Canada to recuperate. In 1875 after many years of working endless nights and with the financial help of George Sander and Mabel Hubbard, the two finish the telephone and Bell soon got a patent for the telephone in 1876.
Sigmund Freud was born on May 6,1856. He was the child of Jakob and Amaline Freud who also had 7 other children, but Sigmund was his mother’s favorite. He was the only one to have his own room and he could do whatever he wanted to. At the age of 17 he enter the University of Vienna to become a doctor. Freud studies the meaning of personality and characteristic. Freud came up with one of the first personality theory in 1901, known as the Theory of Psychoanalysis. The word psychoanalysis to us, means a doctor treating a nutty/troubled patient on a couch, making a lot of money. The theory is broken down into three section, the first being the central role of sexual instinct, the second the concept of infantile sexuality and the third is the dominate part played by the unconscious in shaping human thought and behavior. He thought that everything had a meaning to it and what we do all means something. When we do something accidentally we are really meaning to do it, we don’t do that accidentally. Like what he said we think so much on how to hide it, that we accidentally or what he might say, want to let it out. He also came up with the Three Level of Awareness; the consciousness stage, the preconscious stage and the unconscious stage. The consciousness stage consists of whatever a person is aware of at any given moment, the thought, the feeling, the sensation and memories. The preconscious stage is somewhat like a long-term memory, with the thoughts, feelings and experience of perception. It is something that you are not consciously thinking about at that moment but can lead you into a consciousness level. But with the unconscious stage you can’t be lead it into the consciousness stage. Its memories that are unpleasant or an anxiety provoking that was repressed. Thinks that you don’t want to think about and try to push to the back of your mind. Freud came up with many other good theories before is death in 1939, due to cancer.
The Romantic period lasted from 1825 through 1900. In the period it was made up of richer harmonies which are better to listen and more clearer. It contains a larger orchestral force, mainly emotional music. The rhythm is in a rubato tempos and it rarely changes into a metrical pattern. With a larger orchestra the music is very smooth, a wide range of instruments. The romantic composers were often inspired by literary, pictorial, and other nonmusical sources. Consequently, program music, or music that follows a nonmusical plan, was widely cultivated, leading to the development of the symphonic poem. Many Romantic composers in the 18th century were influenced by Richard Wagner, such as: Brahms, Wolf, Mahler, Strauss, Mussorgsky, Grieg and Sibelius.
Johannes Brahms (1833-1897) was a young composer who was inspired to write chamber music for the clarinet owning to his acquaintance with an outstanding clarinetist, Richard Muhlfeld. With Muhlfeld, Brahms wrote his “Trio for Clarinet, Cello, and Piano” in 1891. Also in 1891 he wrote “The Great Quintet for Clarinet and Strings” and in 1894 “Sonatas for Clarinet and Piano.” These works from Brahms are perfect in structure and beautifully adapted to the potentialities of the wind instruments. Brahms orchestral works displays unmistakable and high distinctive deployment of tone colour, especially in his use of woodwind and brass instruments and in his string writing, but the main thing is that the colour deployed, rather than laid on for its own sake. A close relationship between orchestration and architecture dominates these works, with the orchestration contributing as much to the tonal colouring as do the harmonies and tonalities and the changing nature thing.
Gustav Mahler (1860-1911) as a little boy he was fascinated with the military music at a nearby barracks and the folk music sung by the Czech working people. Later he began to compose his own pieces. At 10, he debuts, as a pianist in Jihlava, and at 15 was so proficient musically that he was accepted as a pupil at the Vienna Conservatory. As a conductor he had won general acclaim, but as a composer, during this first creative period, he immediately encountered the public’s lack of comprehension that was to confront him for most of his career. He won a Conservatory Beethoven prize for composition with his first significant work, the cantata Dasklagende Lied (The Song of Complaint). Mahler unique aim partially influenced by the school of Richard Wagner and Franz Liszt.
Hugo (1860-1903) was very in to music; he learned to play the violin and the piano under the help of his dad. But Hugo showed a remarkable musical memory and an extraordinarily sharp ear. Hugo's musical education was soon entrusted to the municipal schoolmaster Sebastian Weixler, a friend of the family. Hugo made great strides under the direction of Weixler. The foundation for Wolf's later masterly command of the piano was laid here.
His father allowed him to move to Vienna and study at the conservatory of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde (society of music-lovers). Philipp Wolf viewed Hugo's plan to become a professional musician with skepticism. Nevertheless he gave in finally. In autumn 1875, Hugo Wolf entered the Viennese conservatory. Hugo’s first and decisive meeting with Richard Wagner took place at the beginning of his time at the Viennese conservatory. Wagner was in Vienna to conduct “Tannhauser” and “Lohengrinn” to promote the first Bereuth Festival set for next year. The fifteen-year-old decided immediately to call on Wagner, who stayed at the hotel "Imperial", and to present him his first compositions. In actual fact, he succeeded in working his way through to Wagner, who refused yet to deal with the presented music note manuscripts. Hugo Wolf's teacher at the conservatory was Robert Fuchs (harmony) and Wilhelm Schenner (piano). The teaching method of Franz Krenn, who taught composition the following year, did not suit Wolf. At age seventeen, Hugo declared to the director Hellemsberger that he intended to leave the institute, where he has forgotten all the things that he has learned.
Writers such as Tennyson, Wilde, and Browning are many of the good poets during the Romantic period. Tennyson (1809-1892) wrote two volumes, one containing a revised selection from the volume of 1830 and 1832, the other, new poems. The new poems included “Morte d’Arthur,” “The Two Voices,” “Locksley Hall,” and “The Vision of Sin.”
Oscar Wilde (1854-1900) an irish wit poet and dramatist whose reputation rests on his comic masterpieces “Lady Windermere’s Fan (1892) and the Importance of being Earnest (1895). Lady Windermere demonstrated that this wit could revitalize the rusty machinery of French drama.
Browning (1812-1889) was the master of the dramatic monologue. His dramatic monologue insisted to be recognized as the utterances of fictitious persons drawing their strength from their appropriateness in characterizing the speaker and not as expressions of Browning’s own sentiments. The Ring and the Book, Browning displays all his distinctive qualities. He allows a dramatic monologue to each character he portrays to the man on trial for murder, to his young wife, whom he has mortally wounded, to her protector, to various Roman citizens, to the opposing lawyers, and to the pope, who ultimately decides the accused's fate. Each monologue deals with substantially the same occurrences, but each, of course, describes and interprets them differently. By permitting the true facts to emerge gradually by inference from these conflicting accounts, Browning reveals with increasing subtlety the true natures of his characters.
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