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Musik Im Buddhismus Handout

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Musik im Buddhismus
Definition:
Musik, die bei buddhistischen Ritualen und Zeremonien gespielt wird, bzw. eine Ausdrucksform der buddhistischer Lehren (über die Rezitation von Sutren (=Gebetstexten)). Diese Musik unterscheidet sich jedoch in den verschiedenen Gebieten des Buddhismus, sodass es regionale Unterschiede z.B. in der Wahl der Instrumente gibt. Gemein ist ihnen jedoch allen, das die Unterhaltung keinerlei Rolle spielt, sondern die Musik ein Mittel auf dem Weg zur Erleuchtung ist.
Berühmtes Mantra: Om Mani Padme Hum

Geschichte der buddhistischen Musik:
Zur Zeit Siddhartha Gautamas (des historischen Buddhas; =5. Jhdt. vor Christus):
- Musik im Brahmanismus (=Religion vor dem Buddhismus) wichtige Rolle, ABER:
- Musik&Tanz von Buddha als weltlich und leidenschaftlich verbannt
- Musikalische Wettbewerbe als Quelle der Befriedigung von Selbstsucht und Eitelkeit angesehen
- Rezitationen müssen besonnen und ohne große Intervallsprünge sein

Zeit nach Siddhartha Gautama:
- Musik erobert schon bald wieder ihren Platz in der Religion
- Einsatz von Musikinstrumenten
- Musik als Mittel der Verehrung und Andacht
- In China wichtiger Bestandteil, großer Einsatz von Musikinstrumenten
- In Japan Bildung des Shōmyō → extrem langgezogener Rezitationsgesang ohne Begleitung
- In Tibet nach wie vor sehr hohe Bedeutung

Merkmale der buddhistischen Musik:
Instrumente:
- Stimme (Unterton- und Obertongesang, Rezitationen)
- Schlaginstrumente (Becken, Zimbeln, Glocken, Trommel)
- Blasinstrumente (Muschelhörner, (Knochen-)Trompeten (aus Menschenknochen), Oboen (Gyaling))
- Saiteninstrumente (Laute, Harfe), Flöten...
- Orchester besteht meist aus zwei Trompeten, zwei Muschelhörnern, zwei Arten von Oboen, zwei verschiedenen Beckenarten, drei Trommeln und eine Glocke

Ziele:
- Buddhistische Lehren und das Dharma über die Rezitation von Gebetstexten vermitteln
- Geistestraining und Meditationstechnik
- Begleiten von Ritualen und Festen
- Musik&Tanz als Verehrung Buddhas
- heutzutage: Nutzung im Westen als Entspannungs- und Meditationsmusik

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