Free Essay

Mysterious Dark Matter

In: Science

Submitted By iwantpeace
Words 1861
Pages 8
Modern astronomers have made significant progress in determining what the universe is mostly composed by what substance. By utilizing the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), scientists discovered that the universe (for the first a few hundred thousand years) was an expanding gas composed primarily of protons, electrons, photons, neutrinos, and the mysterious dark matter. In the present, scientists are still bombard about dark matter and what it really is. Although, scientists do not know what dark matter is, they are certain of what it is not. Dark matter is not in the form of stars and planets that we see and it is known to make up about 25% of the entire Universe. By using the effect of gravitational lensing, astronomers are able to determine that dark matter is not affected by most of the other baryonic matters. They also found that dark matter is the responsible substance that makes up most of the masses in the universe (found in galaxies, dwarf galaxies, and cluster galaxies). Dark matter is also the primary influence of gravitational pulls. The mysterious and magnificent space that seems almost empty to the naked eye has fascinated mankind for as long as history can remember. The universe seems empty because it is made up of gas which is primarily composed of particles such as protons, electrons, photons, neutrinos, and dark matter. Dark matter is known to make up about 25% of the entire Universe but scientists have yet to understand completely about this mysterious subatomic particle. What is dark matter and where did it come from? What is really the natural function of dark matter? Where and how can dark matter be found? These questions have been the ultimate challenge for astronomers for the past decades. Scientists and Astronomers have always known that dark matter influenced the cosmos in many different ways because it makes up 25% of our entire Universe (Dark E, 2012). Yet, scientist has not found the primary function of dark matter and what it really is. Although dark matter remained mysterious for the longest time, technology has opened new doors and offered conventional ways for astronomers to study dark matter. The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe or WMAP revealed what the universe was like when it was only a few hundred thousand years old, long before galaxies and clusters of galaxies were formed. After the Big Bang, the universe was an expanding gas composed primarily of protons, electrons, photons, neutrinos, and dark matter (Refer to Figure 1.0 & 1.1). WMAP and other data, as well as many different lines of evidence suggest that the mass of dark matter in galaxies, clusters of galaxies, and the universe as a whole is about 5 or 6 times greater than the mass of ordinary baryonic matter such as the protons and neutrons. The WMAP results also hint that dark matter likely takes the form on an as-yet-undiscovered subatomic particle known as Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMPs) which represent one hypothesized class of these particles. They neither absorb nor emit light, and don’t interact strongly with other particles. Yet when they encounter each other, they annihilate and make gamma rays (Fermi, 2012). This finding has led astronomers to discover even more of what dark matter can do with relation to other particles such as protons, electrons, neutrinos, and so on.
Scientists have gathered massive amounts of evidence proving that protons, electrons, photons and neutrinos all exist in stars and galaxies. These particles are also known as baryonic matter because they are detectable when they absorb radiation. In the other hand, dark matter behaves very differently because it does not frequently interact nor does it interact well with other particles such as proton, electrons and so on. In fact, in 2007 results from the NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope confirmed that dark matter and galaxies parted ways in gigantic merging galaxy clusters, this event was seen in galaxy clusters like Abell 520 which is located 2.4 billion light years away (Dark M, 2012). When this cluster was detected around 80 years ago, scientists believed that dark matter was some kind of gravitational glue that holds other substances together, it was also believed to be the primary influence responsible for the shapes of galaxies and galaxy clusters. This theory came to be when scientists discovered dark matter by accident from observing its gravitational influence effect on its surroundings. This method is referred as gravitational lensing which was succeeded with the help of the Canada-France-Hawaii and Subaru telescopes on top of Mauna Kea when it tried to measure the bended light from the more distant background galaxies but were unable to due to the gravitational influence from the dark matter. From the studies of the galaxy clusters like Abell 520, it proved that the function of dark matter is not as simple as other substances. The observation showed that the system’s core was indeed rich in dark matter but it lacks the luminous galaxies which are normally found in the same location as dark matter. Another recent discovery known as Abell 2744 (Pandora’s Clusters) provided deeper understanding on these galaxy clusters and their functions as well as how they behave, grow and affect their surroundings. It also provides new insights on the properties of dark matter. By utilizing the phenomenon effect from gravitational lensing, astronomers are able to pinpoint the location of dark matter and its function. From the images taken from multiple type/sets of telescopes (refer to figure 2.0), astronomers were able to deduce that the Abell 2744 clusters are actually the result from at least four different galaxy clusters collisions (Abell, 2011). Astronomers were able to confirm and conclude this hypothesis by noticing the variety of compositions and the differences in directions of galaxy clusters involved. This largest and one of the most complicated collisions from galaxy clusters ever captured also confirm that the total mass concentration is mostly dark matter and it takes up roughly about 75% of the entire cluster collision map. These results conclude that dark matter constitutes most of the galaxy clusters and it is the invisible force that causes these collisions.
Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound objects in the Universe and it has become the most powerful tool in cosmology studies especially in the quest of finding and understanding the mysterious substance such as dark matter. These discoveries had given astronomers a foundation to progress further on finding the truth behind the ominous energy of dark matter. Astronomers have also depicted that dark matter is the mysterious force that shaped clusters of galaxies including our own Milky Way. According to the Chandra X-ray Observatory in the article “Evidence for Dark Matter”, Galaxies must contain about five to six times as much mass in dark matter as the amount of mass in gas and stars in order to provide the necessary gravity (Evidence, 2012). There are examples all around the entire Universe to adequately prove this, the same concepts are found in Dwarf galaxies as well as cluster of galaxies. Dwarf galaxies are usually faint containing only a few millions of stars but astronomers found it playing the main role in understanding dark matter. Despite the few numbers in stars and little gas, Dwarf galaxies manage to hold its shape rather than shooting stars out of its conventional orbit. This is primarily due to the function from dark matter since Dwarf galaxies do not contain enough stars or the gas to generally provide enough mass. This proves that Dwarf galaxies require a much larger amount of dark matter than normal galaxies. For clusters of galaxies, the scale multiplies by hundreds and sometimes even in thousands. In 1933, a scientist named Fritz Zwicky discovered that there is 10 to 100 times more matter than what could be found in stars that was needed to keep the galaxies clusters from flying apart. This is evidence that there is a very large amount of dark matter known as “missing matter” (in Zwicky’s time) present in cluster galaxies. Evidence found more recently by NASA also confirms that an abundance amount of dark matter does exist in galaxy clusters. According to the article “NASA Finds Direct Proof of Dark Matter” released on August 21, 2006, the galaxy cluster 1E 0657-556 also known as the "bullet cluster" formed after the collision of two large clusters of galaxies, it was one of the most energetic event known (recorded in human history) in the universe since the Big Bang. The Chandra X-ray telescope detected very large amounts of hot gas in the two pink formations that looks like a shape of a bullet (refer to figure 2.1). These two pink formations contain most of the baryonic matter, the blue areas on the other hand contain most of the mass in the whole cluster formation. This mass concentration was also detected by using the effect of gravitational lensing. Information gathered from the bullet cluster also suggests that the Universe consists of abundance amounts of dark matter.
All the information and data that have been gathered throughout the ages has led astronomers and scientists to conclude that the Universe is made up of many extraordinary and interesting substances. Dark matter, an abundance amount of subatomic particles that makes up a large percentage of the Universe is responsible for the behavior of cluster of galaxies, independent galaxies like our own, the Milky Way. As technology evolved, scientists’ understanding of this mysterious force also evolved. The discoveries of this “missing matter” changed the very fabric of our stellar understanding concepts and will continue to do for generations. Future discoveries of the true function and influence of dark matter will finally unravel its use so that astronomers can utilize it and completely understand the cosmos.

(Figure 1.0 Oldest light in the universe)
The amount of dark matter in the universe before galaxies formed can be determined from a study of the fluctuations (bright blue and red areas) in the cosmic microwave background radiation. (Credit: NASA/WMAP) (Figure 1.1) This chart represents the census of the Universe only 380,000 years after the Big Bang.
(Illustration: NASA/CXC/M.Weiss) RED: Hot Gas.
BLUE: Dark Matter.
(Figure 2.0) Abell 2744 Labeled (Figure 2.1) STScI-PRC2006-39a
RED: Hot Gas
BLUE: Dark Matter Reference
Abell 2744: Pandora’s Cluster Revealed. (June, 22, 2011). Chandra X-ray Observatory.
Retrieved from:
Dark Energy, Dark Matter. (May, 18, 2012). NASA Science/Astrophysics.
Retrieved from:
Dark Matter Core Defies Explanation in Hubble Image. (March, 2, 2012). Hubble Site. Newscenter.
Retrieved from:
Evidence for Dark Matter. (May, 13, 2012). Chandra X-ray Observatory.
Retrieved from:
Fermi Observations of Dwarf Galaxies Provide New Insights on Dark Matter. (April, 2, 2012). NASA. Retrieved from:
NASA Finds Direct Proof of Dark Matter. (August, 21, 2006). Hubble Site. Newscenter.
Retrieved from:

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

I Have a Theory

...I Have A Theory The study of the universe as a whole is Cosmology. Although easy to label, it is not easy to explain. The foundation of modern cosmology can be described as an arrangement of observations, hypotheses, theories using science, technology, mathematics, physics, and analytics (to name a few) to strive for answers about our beginning, present, and future. Through time, many types of people have created stories, myths, and ideas of how we came to be. Until the nineteenth and twentieth century, the evolution of theories was slow. According to Shipper, “New telescopic devices permitting people to see parts of the universe never before imagined, in new ways never before conceived, have advanced man's theoretical capabilities on explaining the origin of the universe, a task that has been a part of intelligent man's life for thousands of years” (para 1, n.d.). As our technology advances, we are able to answer questions. Going back a few centuries to a time of revelation to Nicholas Copernicus, he had a revolutionary idea that paved the way of thinking that the sun was the center of our universe. His proposal published in 1543, a book titled, “On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres.” Johannes Kepler, the first astrophysicist, discovered that the planets revolve around the sun in ellipses. This gave birth to the laws of planetary motion. Isaac Newton supported Kepler’s suggestions that planets were kept in orbit by a force, by showing that the same force that keeps......

Words: 1408 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Core Quantive Essay

...numbers needed were found, they just had to be plugged into the given formulas. Finding the final answer and knowing it was right, makes one feel as if he or she is a scientist or even a genius and have more interest in the Universe. Origins are important to scientist because it helps them understand the age of Universe more. An explanation for the universe’s origin, which has been around for decades, is the big bang theory. Stating that around 15 billion years ago a huge blast or bang made the Universe’s matter and energy. Yet, in a study done of scientists across America more than 75% of the scientist said, “ There was no origin of the Universe. The Universe was eternal.” The Origin of the Universe. A bit contradicting don’t you think? Knowing the age of the Universe helps people define the rate of expansion. From reading, Creation of the Universe I understood that the Universe’s expansion is moving at a fast speed but due to a mysterious property of space called dark energy, it shows...

Words: 711 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Week 4 Assignmnt

...Week 4 Assignment Lincoln Flelcher Sci/151 April 25th, 2016 Ellis Hodgdon Week 4 Assignment In this here paper we will touch base on some of the topics and questions that's been asked at random. First, we will begin with; Cosmology is the study of the universe as a whole. Describe the foundation of modern cosmology. Secondly, what is The Big Bang Theory and is a part of cosmology. Explain the Big Bang theory and provide an example of one experiment scientists performed that supported it. The third is The Milky Way just one galaxy that resulted from the Big Bang. Describe the structure of the Milky Way and how dark matter influences it. When was dark energy discovered? How has that discovery changed people's view of the universe? Fourth and lastly, What is a theory of everything? What does it aim to do to people's understanding of the universe as a whole? It is said that there are three founding fathers to what we call Modern Cosmology. Father one was Nicholas Copernicus. Copernicus brought forth the idea that it was not the earth that was the center of the universe, but the Sun instead and that everything, the moon, the planets, everything evolved around it. Second was Johannes Kepler. It was Kepler who made the discovery that the earth, the moon and all the other planets were indeed in orbit about the sun in ellipses. According to Counterbalance Foundation (1995), "This was the first of his three famous laws of planetary motion, which describe mathematically how......

Words: 1119 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Mysteries of the Giant Vacuum That Is Space

...protons and other baryonic matter only make up about four percent of the known universe.1 So this leaves a huge chunk of over ninety percent unaccounted for. What is this mystery matter that is so crucial to the fabric of the Universe but at the same time is eluding the general public? The mystery ingredients are: Dark Energy and Dark Matter. To be more exact dark matter makes up 23% of our Universe and dark energy makes up 73%.1 Since the beginning of time people have always wondered what is out there in the universe and how it came to be. As the years went by and as technology evolved, astronomers started to answer some of these questions but only to bring up more new questions to be answered. When astronomers first figured out that the universe was expanding, they thought it was in a state of deceleration after it had been expanding for billions of years from the Big Bang. However to their disbelief, when they looked at very faraway supernovae and galaxies, they noticed that the universe was not decelerating but in fact accelerating.1 So this discovery led to the major question of what is the driving force behind the acceleration of the universe. There are many theories out there that try to predict the cause of the acceleration but the one that is most widely accepted is the theory of dark energy. The first person to actually come across dark energy was in fact Einstein. He didn’t even know at the time when he figured this out that it was dark energy. At the time......

Words: 1379 - Pages: 6

Free Essay


...Summary: speaker show some images of clusters of galaxies. They are huge, beautiful collection of galaxies, but more than that galaxy clusters are mysterious, surprising and useful, useful as the most massive laboratories. There are four major types. The first type is very big. He showed an image of a particular galaxy cluster which has a mass of over one million billion suns, and they are essentially isolated systems so we can think of them as a scaled-down version of universe. We might know how gravity works by studying these systems. The second one is very hot. It’s hot gas, plasma. The great speeds made the great temperatures. But we still need understand more about the physics of the hot. The third thing is probing the very small. Most of the universe's matter is not made up of atoms. Most of it is made up of something very, very mysterious, which we call dark matter. The reason why galaxy clusters can teach us about dark matter, the reason why galaxy clusters can teach us about the physics of the very small, is precisely because they are so very big. The fourth thing is the physics of the very strange. Cosmologists understand why the universe is expanding. They don't understand why it's expanding at an ever-increasing rate. The reason why he talks about clusters of galaxies is that we need to learn more about it. The problem with the large-scale structure of the universe is that it's horribly complicated. We have many difficult problems, and the measures are not obvious...

Words: 303 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...Dark Energy, Dark Matter In the early 1990's, one thing was fairly certain about the expansion of the Universe. It might have enough energy density to stop its expansion and recollapse, it might have so little energy density that it would never stop expanding, but gravity was certain to slow the expansion as time went on. Granted, the slowing had not been observed, but, theoretically, the Universe had to slow. The Universe is full of matter and the attractive force of gravity pulls all matter together. Then came 1998 and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of very distant supernovae that showed that, a long time ago, the Universe was actually expanding more slowly than it is today. So the expansion of the Universe has not been slowing due to gravity, as everyone thought, it has been accelerating. No one expected this, no one knew how to explain it. But something was causing it. Eventually theorists came up with three sorts of explanations. Maybe it was a result of a long-discarded version of Einstein's theory of gravity, one that contained what was called a "cosmological constant." Maybe there was some strange kind of energy-fluid that filled space. Maybe there is something wrong with Einstein's theory of gravity and a new theory could include some kind of field that creates this cosmic acceleration. Theorists still don't know what the correct explanation is, but they have given the solution a name. It is called dark energy. What Is Dark Energy? Universe......

Words: 1314 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Dark Matter in the Universe

...known universe is made up of Dark Matter. What is Dark Matter? Why does it take up so much space? How can we use it for the betterment of our universe? There are so many questions that arise when something we know little about makes up so much of where we live. What I Already Know About My Topic: I chose to write about Dark Matter in the universe because it is a very rarely known thing in human understanding. When someone thinks space, they think planets, galaxies, and “Star Wars.” When I took my first high school science class, the very last section we had was about Dark Matter, and I had visibly freaked out to the point that my teacher asked me if I was okay. When it comes to “galactic” science, I tend to know quite a bit more about the subject than those that taught it to me because I was always a “Discovery Channel” child. Dark Matter is an interesting thing that you seldom hear or see anything pertaining to. This is why I have chosen to “teach” you about this potentially catastrophic element. Have you ever just taken a moment to look up at the stars and thought, “Wow, there’s quite a lot of black up there! I wonder what it is?” Well, ladies and gentlemen, that “space” that surrounds us is actually not space at all! It is filled with boundless amounts of an element that doesn’t exist within the Earth’s atmosphere! Surprisingly enough it is filled with a substance called Dark Matter, otherwise known as ‘Anti-matter.” Now you may be......

Words: 2611 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Where Is Tension Is Romeo and Juilet

...The Evolution of the Universe edited by David L. Alles Western Washington University e-mail: Last Updated 2013-7-14 Note: In PDF format most of the images in this web paper can be enlarged for greater detail. 1 “If being educated means having an informed sense of time and place, then it is essential for a person to be familiar with the scientific aspects of the universe and know something of its origin and structure.” Project 2061, American Association for the Advancement of Science ---------------------------"The effort to understand the universe is one of the very few things that lifts human life a little above the level of farce, and gives it some of the grace of tragedy."—Steven Weinberg Steven Weinberg is winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1979, and author of the book "The First Three Minutes". 2 Introduction Science at the beginning of the twenty-first century can make some bold, yet simple observations: 1) the universe has evolved; 2) we are a result of that evolution. “We are the first generation of human beings to glimpse the sweep of cosmic history, from the universe's fiery origin in the Big Bang to the silent, stately flight of galaxies through the intergalactic night.” (National Research Council) Order in the Universe Cosmology is the study of the evolution of the universe from its first moments to the present. In cosmology the most fundamental question we can ask is: Does our universe have intelligible regularities......

Words: 8900 - Pages: 36

Premium Essay


..."The cosmos is all that is or ever was or ever will be," as Carl Sagan explained in the first paragraph of Cosmos. The purity of this statement still holds true, in fact, current research provides evidence to support this declaration. Yet, the tenacity of the Universe still baffles even the brightest in the field, leaving the world mystified by the unknown. In order to grasp the madness lying within the Universe, the comprehension of the fundalmental cosmology, including emphasis on the Big Bang Theory and the Milky Way, will be examined and discussed. First, what is Cosmology? Well, the term Cosmology refers "to the study of the cosmos" (Wheeler, 1992). Simple enough, but Cosmology also encompases the studies and the relation of the studies amongst the preception of the universe by present day societies. Although, mankind has surpassed the previous knowledge of the cosmos from anicent civilizations, the roots of Cosmology still play a vital role in modern Cosmology. In the beginning, ancient cultures were just as curious about the universe; these cultures would lay the foundation to modern Cosmology using the best technology available at the time, observation. From the ancient observations, civilizations, such as the Greek and European medievals, concluded that the Earth was the center of the universe and developed a geocentri model to represent this belief. Up until the sixteenth century, this idea that modeled the Universe was accepted. However, the work of Nicholas......

Words: 1001 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

I Have None

...his article is about the cosmological model. For other uses, see Big Bang (disambiguation). "Big Bang theory" redirects here. For the American TV sitcom, see The Big Bang Theory. For other uses, see Big Bang Theory (disambiguation). According to the Big Bang model, the Universe expanded from an extremely dense and hot state and continues to expand today. A common analogy explains that space itself is expanding, carrying galaxies with it, like spots on an inflating balloon. The graphic scheme above is an artist's concept illustrating the expansion of a portion of a flat universe. Part of a series on Physical cosmology Astronomy portal Category:Physical cosmology v t e The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model that describes the early development of the Universe.[1] According to the Big Bang theory, the Universe was once in an extremely hot and dense state which expanded rapidly. This rapid expansion caused the Universe to cool and resulted in its present continuously expanding state. According to the most recent measurements and observations, the Big Bang occurred approximately 13.75 billion years ago,[2][3] which is thus considered the age of the Universe.[4][5] After its initial expansion from a singularity, the Universe cooled sufficiently to allow energy to be converted into various subatomic particles, including protons, neutrons, and electrons. While protons and neutrons combined to form the first atomic nuclei only a few minutes......

Words: 299 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Religion and Science

...Andrew Erbland RELS 376-02 Science, Religion, and Their Relationship To describe the relationship between science and religion, I must first define the two individually. To me, science is a systematic process of making observations through experiments and evaluating the results to draw conclusions. It uses a specific method in which one first poses a question. Then with research and other information, a hypothesis is constructed to be tested with repetition. The results will indicate whether the hypothesis is true or not. If false, the data collected is recycled to form a new hypothesis for testing again. This process insures that all information and facts are collected first and then are used to construct scientific laws and theories. For if a theory is constructed first and then backed by correlating data, then it is not science at all. Science uses the totality of the circumstances to draw these conclusions and does not pretend to confirm laws that can not be proven. Religion on the other hand does not hold such a factual process to avoid false judgments. Much of its foundation is based on faith and belief in what is passed down generationally, typically containing a view that some superhuman or divine power has developed what we see and interact with around us. It is often difficult to distinguish the so-called right belief because nothing can be proven by objective observations or factual events. I’ve come to agree with William James’s definition of religion as......

Words: 629 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

10 Biggest

...Top 10 Biggest Things In The Universe Do you think the pyramids are big? How about the Burj Dubai? Both of those are nothing compared to Mt. Everest. They’re all huge when you look at them from a human or ‘earthly’ perspective. These objects however, are microscopic when compared to some of the things that exist in our universe. Let’s explore them. 10) Largest Asteroid Ceres is the largest asteroid we know of. It is almost 600 miles in diameter which makes it as large as California. It’s massive enough that its gravity forces it to have a spherical shape and also shares the title of ‘Dwarf Planet’. It’s so big, that it contains 25% of the mass of the asteroid belt. If you took all the asteroids in the asteroid belt and glued them together, that new object would only be about 2.5 times as big as Ceres. 9) Largest Planet Located in the constellation Hercules, planet TRES4 is 70% larger than Jupiter in diameter, but has only 80% of Jupiter’s mass. Because of how close it orbits to its sun, it is thought that the intense heat expands the gasses that make up this planet, resulting in an almost ‘marshmallow-like’ density. It’s holds the title of the largest planet we’ve discovered so far. Update: Science is never finished. Since this list was compiled, observations of an exoplanet called WASP-17b suggest that it is even bigger than TRES4. Despite its radius being twice that of Jupiter’s, it only has half the mass. This makes it even “fluffier” than TRES4. 8) Largest......

Words: 904 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Black Holes

...Electromagnetic Fields, Telescopes and Black Holes Astronomy is defined as the scientific study of the universe and the objects in it, including stars, planets, nebulae, and galaxies. Astronomy deals with the position, size, motion, composition, energy, and evolution of celestial objects. Astronomers analyze not only visible light but also radio waves, x-rays, and other ranges of radiation that come from sources outside the Earth's atmosphere (American Heritage Dictionary, 2002). This particular assignment required we visit an institution that specializes in the education of astronomy so that we, as students, could delve deeper into the world of astronomy through hands on experience. I elected to visit the Denver Museum of Nature and Science on the 4th of July 2012. I also viewed the film Black Holes the Edge of Infinity in addition to the hands on exercise. I feel a new appreciation for astronomy through the interactive learning experience because it put how very far we’ve come to understanding our universe into perspective. The first exhibit I visited had to do with the four nonvisible wave lengths of light and telescopes. I integrated the two exhibits so that I can elaborate on them in a way that culminates the experience. For every nonvisible wave measured there is a corresponding telescope. These are radio waves, infrared, ultraviolet, and gamma ray. Because radio waves are larger than optical waves, radio telescopes work differently than optical telescopes. Radio......

Words: 833 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

The Big Bang

...The Big Bang. First time visitors would always be left startled and shaken, for the deafening sound of the blast would catch everyone’s attention.  The ground would shake, and combined with the loud blasting sound, no matter what you were doing at that time, you would hear the sound and feel the earth moving beneath you.  It did not matter how many times you heard the sound, every blast would send a chill down your spine.   Not only humans, but animals would notice too.  On hearing the blast the odd dog would start barking, as if to signal to other dogs, that would trigger a chain reaction and before you knew it all the dogs in the neighborhood would join, and for the next couple of minutes we would be treated to free dog Orchestra.  Up to now however I still can’t make out what key they would be singing in, we just used to call it the discord key.   I can still hear the sounds, high pitched and low pitched barking, which would gradually fade out and be followed by a chilling silence. The debate is still out there as to whether that was real silence, or just our ears note recovering and not hearing the low pitched sounds after the deafening sound of the blast.   Growing up in an Iron mining town, one did not need a watch to know when it was 12 O’clock.  For Every day right on time, the blasting in the humongous open cast mine would go off.  Not only cracking the big iron ore rocks underneath, but letting everyone know that it was Midday.   “I love the sound, of the blast” my...

Words: 328 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Question a - What Are the Main Strengths and Weaknesses of the Teleological Argument, for the Existence of God?

...Philosophy essay – the teleological argument Question A - What are the main strengths and weaknesses of the teleological argument, for the existence of god? The teleological argument is a posteriori, this means that it is able to support its argument based of the empirical evidence that we can see around us. It states that we can easily observe that there is order and complexity in the universe around us, such as the changing of seasons or the human eye, therefore as things that have order and complexity have designers such as a watch or a computer the world must too have a designer as it is infinitely more complex than many human designs that have designers. This means that the universe must too have a designer (God), yet there are many strengths and weaknesses to this argument. On the one hand this could be perceived as a strong argument for the existence of god as it is backed up by inductive reasoning, meaning that the whole argument is started by something that we can observe, this means that it is difficult to deny that there is order and complexity within our universe. This argument has been backed up by sir Thomas Aquinas in his book ‘summa theologica’ when he talks about qua purpose and qua regularity. Qua purpose can prove the existence of god by looking at things within nature and realizing that everything has a purpose, for example there are species of bird that’s life solely depends on the fruit from a single species of tree, yet the tree depends on the...

Words: 1926 - Pages: 8