Premium Essay

Nanotechnology Applications for Clean Water Solutions for Improving

In: Other Topics

Submitted By imang3009
Words 90139
Pages 361
NaNotechNology applicatioNs for cleaN Water

Micro & NaNo TechNologies series editor: Jeremy ramsden Professor of Nanotechnology Microsystems and Nanotechnology Centre, Department of Materials Cranfield University, United Kingdom the aim of this book series is to disseminate the latest developments in small scale technologies with a particular emphasis on accessible and practical content. these books will appeal to engineers from industry, academia and government sectors. for more information about the book series and new book proposals please contact the publisher, Dr. Nigel hollingworth at nhollingworth@williamandrew.com. http://www.williamandrew.com/MNt

NaNotechNology applicatioNs for cleaN Water edited by

Nora savage
Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency and (in alphabetical order)

Mamadou Diallo
Materials and process simulation center, Division of chemistry and chemical engineering, california institute of technology

Jeremiah Duncan
Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison

anita street
Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency and Center of Advanced Materials for the Purification of Water with Systems, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

richard sustich

N o r w i c h , N Y, U S A

copyright © 2009 by William andrew inc. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. ISBN: 978-0-8155-1578-4 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Nanotechnology applications for clean water / edited by Nora savage ... [et al.] p. cm. -- (Micro & nano technologies) includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-8155-1578-4 1....

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Nano Technology in Automotive Industry

...Nano technology in the automotive industry:- ABSTRACT What is Nanotechnology? Nanotechnology is the engineering of materials on the scale of 1 nanometer (nm) to 100 nm, a nanometer being 1 billionth of a meter. At this level, the basic physical laws governing macro objects undergo a drastic change. A macro particle is a cluster of atoms arranged together in random order. The formation of the structure is left to nature, and control over the properties of the material is difficult. Nanotechnology, on the other hand, is a bottom-up approach where materials are created by placing individual atoms together. This decreases the randomness in the structural formation, enabling significant control over the properties of the material. Mechanical properties such as strength, ductility, and resilience can all be incorporated into one material. Currently, nanotechnology is functioning as an enabling technology. It is being used to enhance the properties of existing materials. This is largely attributed to the fact that the technology has clearly not been understood and there is still much more to nanotechnology than meets the microscopic eye. It is rare for a single technology to have the power to dramatically influence almost every major industry in the world. Nanotechnology falls into this category and offers fundamentally new capabilities to architect a broad array of novel materials, composites and structures on a molecular scale. This technology has the potential to......

Words: 8073 - Pages: 33

Free Essay

Nanotechnology

...NANOTECHNOLOGY Contents: • Aim • Introduction • Nanotechnology is a set of enabling technology • Interest in Nanotechnology • Development in last 10 years • Brief History • Diversity • Implications of Nanotechnology • Unifying themes • Examples • Molecular electronics • New technologies for clean and efficient energy generation • Nanoassembled products • Growth in world investment in nanotechnology • Social, ethical and safety concerns. • Health and environmental impacts • Social and ethical issues arising from Nanotechnology-based products. • Conclusions on the global nanotechnology scene. • Issues and challenges for the research sector • Future Scope Aims of Term Paper are to:- ✓ Define and explain Nanotechnology. ✓ Elaborate the various terms related to it. ✓ Describe various examples of Nanotechnology. ✓ Outline the Future scope of Nanotechnology. ✓ Explain the various applications of Nanotechnology in different fields. What is nanotechnology? Nanotechnology is engineering at the molecular (groups of atoms) level. It is the collective term for a range of technologies, techniques and processes that involve the manipulation of matter at the smallest scale (from 1 to 100 nm). The classical laws of physics and chemistry do not readily apply at this very small scale for two reasons. Firstly, the electronic properties of very small......

Words: 5289 - Pages: 22

Free Essay

Nano Material as Biological Sensors

...characteristics of systems in nano material dimensions. The latest architectures in nanostructures and nano systems are representative of improved functionalities. The nano structured materials have future applications for chem.-bio sensors, medical therapies and potential applications in security and environment safety. (Merkle, R.C.1993) INTRODUCTION The intentional or unintentional contamination of the environment, food items and the agricultural products has been increased due to certain local and global threats of poisonous gases and terrorism. This situation makes the decentralized sensing a core issue for several international bodies. A nanotechnology based sensor platform makes the direct electrical detection of biological and chemical agents possible in a highly multiplexed format over a vast dynamic range during clinical testing. Nucleic acid layers can be combined with nanomaterials-based electrochemical which produce affinity biosensors such as the “DNA Biosensor” or “Genosensor”. Such devices are used for converting the hybridization event into an analytical signal for obtaining sequence specific information, which are beneficial for clinical, environmental, or forensic investigations. CURRENT STATUS OF THE FIELD Medical nanotechnology is a branch of nanotechnology which practically applies its principles and findings in the field of health...

Words: 5189 - Pages: 21

Free Essay

Eco Geo

...Clean Technology: A greener aspect to development Institute of Business Administration University of Dhaka 1 Economics of Geography and Environment (G101) Clean Technology: a greener aspect to development Clean Technology: A greener aspect to development Prepared for: Dr. A. M. M. Amanat Ullah Khan Professor, Department of Geography and Environment University of Dhaka Prepared by: Ahamed Najeeb Rahman ZR-74 Tasnia Azim Choudhury RH-76 M. Samiul Haque ZR-84 Jidny Rubaiyat Shoummo ZR-85 Zahin Azad Moslem ZR-121 BBA 20th Date of Submission: June 15, 2012 Institute of Business Administration University of Dhaka 2 LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 15 June, 2012. Dr. A. M. M. Amanat Ullah Khan Course Instructor Economics of Geography and Environment University of Dhaka Subject: Letter of transmittal for Economics of Geography and Environment course termpaper. Dear Sir, Here is the report which you asked us to submit for the requirement of our undergraduate course- Economics of Geography and Environment (G101). The title of the report is “Clean technology: a greener aspect to development”, which is a descriptive analysis of how Green Technology works and can help the environment. This report has been prepared under your authorization. Without your permission, no part of this report can or will be revealed. This report never has been, and never will be, reproduced for any other IBA course. We sincerely hope that you we were able to fulfil the course requirement...

Words: 7762 - Pages: 32

Free Essay

Green Technology

... iii 1.0 Introduction 1 1.1 Origin of the report 1 1.2 Objectives 1 1.3 Scope 1 1.4 Methodology 2 1.5 Limitations 2 2.0 What is Green Technology 3 3.0 Prominent Examples of green Technology 7 3.1 Solar Energy 7 3.2 Biofuels 15 3.3 Green Building 21 4.0 Conclusion 33 ii Economics of Geography and Environment (G101) Clean Technology: a greener aspect to development SUMMARY In a world of rapid growth, both in terms of economy and population, human beings have sought to influence the environment around them for a better, more efficient and easier life. The resources that we have used up from the environment have often been nonrenewable and in our heedless march to glorious comfort, we have ignored the consequences of the effect that we are having on the world we live in. With the results of our negative impact on nature coming around to haunt us, there have been a rising global awareness and movement to better ourselves. Green technology is a major part of it. Green technology is the application of the environmental science to conserve the natural environment and resources, and to curb the negative impacts of human involvement. The main idea behind green technology is to provide sustainable growth. That is, using resources from the Earth in a renewable fashion. The following report outlines some aspects of green technology and discusses three main ideas: Solar energy, Green......

Words: 7436 - Pages: 30

Premium Essay

Use of Renewable Energy Technologies for Desalination

...Shuxian z3452701 Abstract Only about 0.25% of total fresh water, which is only 3% of total water in global world, could directly supply for the most needs of human beings and animals. Another significant impact is due to rapid population growth, causing severe fresh water scarcity. Other factors include rapid industrial growth, industrial wastes and sewage discharged and climate change. It would be feasible to overcome the water scarcity through seawater desalination; however, if seawater containing high salinity is converted to fresh water by desalination, it consumes large amounts of energy. Therefore, it is important to find suitable alternative energy resources for the desalination technology due to conventional fossil fuels crisis and environmental pollution. Renewable energy is commonly alternative energy sources considered for desalination, including solar thermal energy, solar photovoltaics, wind energy, hybrid solar PV-wind energy and geothermal. Renewable energy can power the desalination systems comprising comprise the phase change processes, which include the multistage flash, multiple effect boiling and vapour compression and membrane processes, which include reverse osmosis and electrodialysis. Finally, the paper will discuss the best renewable energy powered desalination systems. Keywords: Desalination; Renewable energy; Solar thermal energy; Solar PV energy; Wind energy; Geothermal energy 1. Introduce Water is one of the most plenty of resources in the......

Words: 3615 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Notes

...National Seminar on Innovations in Safety, Health and Environment 1 Agri Science Innovations Focus: Health, Safety and Environment Protection Prakash Apte Managing Director, Syngenta India Ltd. The problem before us today: Global Food production is the highest ever and quality and safety is better than ever before, yet 14 mio people die of starvation every year & 800 mio people are clinically malnourished! And by 2025 we will have more than 8 billion people to feed: Global population is expected to grow from 6.2 Bio to 8 Bio in 2025, while farmland available per capita is shrinking! Secure & sustainable supply of high quality food, particularly in the developing countries; is a basic requirement for continued human development! In India the situation is more acute: • During the last two decades of 20 th century, the population increased by 50% but food-producing land has shrunk by 5 %. Demand for healthier food is increasing with the growing awareness, but the farm land is being nibbled at to meet other economic needs e.g. urbanization & industrial infrastructure Advanced Agricultural Science can help: Agri science has made great progress over last 50 years. This has enabled us to keep pace with the growing needs of increasing population. However, in recent years Indian Agriculture has not kept pace with the technological progress in other sectors of economy. In a country where about 2/3 rd of population derives its livelihood either directly or indirectly from...

Words: 12119 - Pages: 49

Free Essay

Internet of Things

...[pic] KISII UNIVERSITY COURSE TITLE: COMPUTING FOR MANAGEMENT COURSE CODE: MBAD 661 FACILITATOR: MR. MAKHULO INTERNET OF THINGS |No. |Name |ADM |SIGNATURE | |1 |Vane B. B. Onwonga |KSU/NRB/012/015 | | |2 |Eric Ombasa |CBM12/10183/15 | | |3 |Vincent Master Oseko |CBM12/10220/15 | | Table of Contents What is Internet of Things 1 The Advantages of IoT 2 The Disadvantages of IoT 4 Scenarios: 6 Challenges and Concerns 8 WAYS THE INTERNET OF THINGS IS CHANGING THE WORLD 10 ENVIRONMENT 10 RECOMMENDATIONS 24 In particular, policymakers should do the following: 24 Diagram illustrating IoT 27 References 28 THE INTERNET OF THINGS (IOT) What is Internet of Things The Internet of Things (IoT) is an environment in which objects, animals or people are provided with unique identifiers and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction.......

Words: 7142 - Pages: 29

Free Essay

Civil Engineering 2025

...ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers THE VISION FOR CIVIL ENGINEERING IN 2025 BASED ON THE SUMMIT ON THE FUTURE OF CIVIL ENGINEERING June 21 – 22, 2006 Prepared by the Task Committee to Plan a Summit on the The Future of the Civil Engineering Profession January 5, 2007 (Final draft prepared by TC) Contents Executive Summary ...................................................... 1 2006: Status, Concerns, and Opportunities in the Civil Engineering Profession ..................................... 3 Issues and Trends ................................................. 3 New Pressures....................................................... 4 Career Appeal........................................................ 5 Future Directions.................................................... 5 Why a Summit? ............................................................. 7 The Vision for Civil Engineering .................................. 9 Vision ..................................................................... 9 Profile of the 2025 Civil Engineer......................... 10 2025: The Civil Engineer’s World............................... 13 A Sustainable World ............................................ 14 Research and Development................................. 16 Managing Risk ..................................................... 18 Master Innovators and Integrators ....................... 19 Reform in the Preparation of Engineers ............... 20 What Next?.....................

Words: 7710 - Pages: 31

Premium Essay

The Technological Environment

...innovations. It draws on a databank with over 500 examples of new technologies (materials, products, processes and practices) which come with benign environmental effects. The approaches applied to interpreting the datasets are innovation life cycle analysis, and product chain analysis. Main results include the following: 1. Innovations merely aimed at eco-efficiency do in most cases not represent significant contributions to improving the properties of the industrial metabolism. This can better be achieved by technologies that fulfill the criteria of eco-consistency (metabolic consistency), also called eco-effectiveness. 2. Ecological pressure of a technology is basically determined by its conceptual make-up and design. Most promising thus are technologies in earlier rather than later stages of their life cycle (i.e. during R&D and customisation in growing numbers), because it is during the stages before reaching the inflection point and maturity in a learning curve where technological environmental innovations can best contribute to improving ecological consistency of the industrial metabolism while...

Words: 6973 - Pages: 28

Free Essay

La Singularidad

...NOTE: This PDF document has a handy set of “bookmarks” for it, which are accessible by pressing the Bookmarks tab on the left side of this window. ***************************************************** We are the last. The last generation to be unaugmented. The last generation to be intellectually alone. The last generation to be limited by our bodies. We are the first. The first generation to be augmented. The first generation to be intellectually together. The first generation to be limited only by our imaginations. We stand both before and after, balancing on the razor edge of the Event Horizon of the Singularity. That this sublime juxtapositional tautology has gone unnoticed until now is itself remarkable. We're so exquisitely privileged to be living in this time, to be born right on the precipice of the greatest paradigm shift in human history, the only thing that approaches the importance of that reality is finding like minds that realize the same, and being able to make some connection with them. If these books have influenced you the same way that they have us, we invite your contact at the email addresses listed below. Enjoy, Michael Beight, piman_314@yahoo.com Steven Reddell, cronyx@gmail.com Here are some new links that we’ve found interesting: KurzweilAI.net News articles, essays, and discussion on the latest topics in technology and accelerating intelligence. SingInst.org The Singularity Institute for Artificial Intelligence: think tank devoted to......

Words: 237133 - Pages: 949

Premium Essay

Shale

...SHALE GAS :AN UNCONVETIONAL GAS RESERVOIR SUNJAY,SUSHEEL KUMAR AND NIKHIL JAIN Geophysics ,Geology ,Mining Engg-IIT ,BHU ,Varansi 221005 ,India Sunjay.sunjay@gmail.com,skumarpetro09@gmail.com, nikhilchhajar@gmail.com Summary With a view to energy security of the world, unconventional energy resources - coalbed methane (CBM) , Methane Gas Hydrate, shale gas, basin centred gas ,tight gas, oil shale and heavy oil- exploration and exploitation is pertinent task before geoscientist . Shale gas is natural gas from shale formations which acts as both the source and the reservoir for the natural gas. Each Shale gas reservoir has unique characteristics. Shale has low matrix permeability, so gas production in commercial quantities requires fractures to provide permeability. For a given matrix permeability and pressure, gas production are determined by the number and complexity of fractures created, their effective conductivity, and the ability to effectively reduce the pressure throughout the fracture network to initiate gas production. Understanding the relationship between fracture complexity, fracture conductivity, matrix permeability, and gas recovery is a fundamental challenge of shale-gas development. Shale gas reservoirs almost always have two different storage volumes (dual porosity) for hydrocarbons, the rock matrix and the natural fractures .Because of the plastic nature of shale formations, these natural fractures are generally closed due to the......

Words: 3175 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Disruptive Technology

...McKinsey Global Institute May 2013 Disruptive technologies: Advances that will transform life, business, and the global economy The McKinsey Global Institute The McKinsey Global Institute (MGI), the business and economics research arm of McKinsey & Company, was established in 1990 to develop a deeper understanding of the evolving global economy. Our goal is to provide leaders in the commercial, public, and social sectors with the facts and insights on which to base management and policy decisions. MGI research combines the disciplines of economics and management, employing the analytical tools of economics with the insights of business leaders. Our “micro-to-macro” methodology examines microeconomic industry trends to better understand the broad macroeconomic forces affecting business strategy and public policy. MGI’s in-depth reports have covered more than 20 countries and 30 industries. Current research focuses on four themes: productivity and growth, the evolution of global financial markets, the economic impact of technology and innovation, and urbanization. Recent reports have assessed job creation, resource productivity, cities of the future, and the impact of the Internet. MGI is led by McKinsey & Company directors Richard Dobbs and James Manyika. Yougang Chen, Michael Chui, Susan Lund, and Jaana Remes serve as MGI principals. Project teams are led by a group of senior fellows and include consultants from McKinsey’s offices around the world. These teams draw...

Words: 80396 - Pages: 322

Premium Essay

Transportation & Logistics 2030 Volume 1: How Will Supply Chains Evolve in an Energy-Constrained, Low-Carbon World?

...Transportation & Logistics Transportation & Logistics 2030 Volume 1: How will supply chains evolve in an energy-constrained, low-carbon world? PricewaterhouseCoopers 1 Acknowledgements The editorial board of this issue of our Transportation & Logistics 2030 series consisted of the following individuals: PricewaterhouseCoopers European Business School Supply Chain Management Institute Dr. Heiko von der Gracht +49 611 3601 8800 vdgracht@supplyinstitute.org Tobias Gnatzy +49 611 3601 8800 gnatzy@supplyinstitute.org Prof. Dr. Inga-Lena Darkow +49 611 3601 8800 darkow@supplyinstitute.org Klaus-Dieter Ruske +49 211 981 2877 klaus-dieter.ruske@de.pwc.com Dr. Peter Kauschke +49 211 981 2167 peter.kauschke@de.pwc.com Julia Reuter +49 211 981 2095 julia.reuter@de.pwc.com Dr. Elizabeth Montgomery +49 89 5790 5159 elizabeth.montgomery@de.pwc.com We would like to thank the panellists who took part in the Delphi survey that underpins this report. For confidentiality reasons their names will not be mentioned. Special thanks go to Tom Gorman, CEO of CHEP EMEA and Harry Hohmeister, CEO of Swiss International Air Lines, who took the time to share their thoughts and insights with us. Finally, we would like to express our appreciation for the expertise provided by the below listed individuals: Jenny Bailey, Andreas Baur, Nicholas Bell, Thomas Brüderlin, Giorgio Elefante, Richard Gane, Martha Elena Gonzalez, Susanne Klages, Christian Knechtel, Socrates LeptosBourgi,......

Words: 28154 - Pages: 113

Premium Essay

Future of Technology

...THE FUTURE OF TECHNOLOGY OTHER ECONOMIST BOOKS Guide to Analysing Companies Guide to Business Modelling Guide to Business Planning Guide to Economic Indicators Guide to the European Union Guide to Financial Markets Guide to Management Ideas Numbers Guide Style Guide Dictionary of Business Dictionary of Economics International Dictionary of Finance Brands and Branding Business Consulting Business Ethics Business Strategy China’s Stockmarket Globalisation Headhunters and How to Use Them Successful Mergers Wall Street Essential Director Essential Economics Essential Finance Essential Internet Essential Investment Essential Negotiation Pocket World in Figures THE FUTURE OF TECHNOLOGY THE ECONOMIST IN ASSOCIATION WITH PROFILE BOOKS LTD Published by Profile Books Ltd 3a Exmouth House, Pine Street, London ec1r 0jh Copyright © The Economist Newspaper Ltd 2005 All rights reserved. Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the publisher of this book. The greatest care has been taken in compiling this book. However, no responsibility can be accepted by the publishers or compilers for the accuracy of the information presented. Where opinion is expressed it is that of the author and does not......

Words: 128899 - Pages: 516