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Nanotechnology on Tissue

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Nanotechnology for tissue engineering: Need, techniques and applications
Impact Factor: 2.89 · DOI: 10.1016/j.jopr.2013.02.021





J. Danie Kingsley

Shivendu Ranjan

VIT University

VIT University





Nandita Dasgupta
VIT University

Available from: Shivendu Ranjan
Retrieved on: 14 March 2016

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Review Article

Nanotechnology for tissue engineering: Need, techniques and applications
J. Danie Kingsley, Shivendu Ranjan*, Nandita Dasgupta, Proud Saha
School of Bioscience and Technology, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu, India

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Tissue engineering is very fast growing scientific area in this era which is used to create,

Received 1 December 2012

repair, and/or replace cells, tissues and organs by using cell and/or combinations of cells

Accepted 27 February 2013

with biomaterials and/or biologically active molecules and it helps to produce materials

Available online xxx

which very much resembles to body’s native tissue/tissues. From tissue engineering current therapies got revolutionised and life quality of several millions patient got


improved. Tissue engineering is the connecting discipline between engineering materials


science, medicine and biology. In typical tissue engineering cells are seeded on


biomimicked scaffold providing adhesive surfaces, then cells deposit their own protein to


make them more biocompatible, but unable to vascularise properly, lack of functional cells,


low mechanical strength of engineered cells, not immunologically compatible with host

Tissue engineering

and Nutrient limitation are a classical issue in the field of tissue and tissue engineering.
Through the article we will understand the technology involved, need and application of nanobiotechnology based tissue engineering.
Copyright ª 2013, JPR Solutions; Published by Reed Elsevier India Pvt. Ltd. All rights reserved. 1.


Tissue engineering is very fast growing scientific area in this era and used to create, repair, and/or replace cells, tissues and organs by using cell and/or combinations of cells with biomaterials and/or biologically active molecules and helps to produce materials which very much resembles to body’s native tissue/tissues. Tissue engineering is the connecting discipline between engineering materials science, medicine and biology.1 In typical Tissue engineering cells are seeded on biomimicked scaffold providing adhesive surfaces, and then cells deposit their own protein to make them more

biocompatible, but unable to vascularise properly, lack of functional cells, low mechanical strength of engineered cells, not immunologically compatible with host and Nutrient limitation are a classical issue in the field of tissue and tissue engineering.2 “Novel biomimetic scaffold” and “Modern technology” been developed for more accuracy on positioning and viability, complexity, interaction etc., using micro and nanotechnology for production and analytical control through tools.3 Micro and nanotechnology are providing them simple substrate for adhesion and proliferation and active agents for their growth. Nanofabrication techniques, materials science, surface, micro and nano-patterning in tissue engineering

* Corresponding author. Tel.: þ91 9566763718.
E-mail address: (S. Ranjan).
0974-6943/$ e see front matter Copyright ª 2013, JPR Solutions; Published by Reed Elsevier India Pvt. Ltd. All rights reserved. Please cite this article in press as: Danie Kingsley J, et al., Nanotechnology for tissue engineering: Need, techniques and applications, Journal of Pharmacy Research (2013),


j o u r n a l o f p h a r m a c y r e s e a r c h x x x ( 2 0 1 3 ) 1 e5

Fig. 1 e Schematic representation of benefits of using micro and nanofabrication for tissue engineering.

helps in providing best microenvironment where cells have to grow.4 2.

Tissue engineering from nanotechnology

There are several benefits of using micro and nanofabrication techniques for tissue engineering (Fig. 1). Nanotechnology can be used to create nanofibers, nanopatterns and controlledrelease nanoparticles with applications in tissue engineering, for mimicking native tissues since biomaterials to be engineered is of nanometre size like extracellular fluids, bone marrow, cardiac tissues etc.5


Various nanostructures found naturally in the body (Fig. 2).
Basement membrane for adhesion and affects other cellular behaviour is of 5e200 nm9 (Fig. 3). Chemically cell density increases when poly(lactic-co-glycolide) nanosurface is treated with NaOH.10 E-beam lithography is useful in nano tissue engineering.11 Nanotechnology helps to improved regulation of cell adhesion and vascularisation e.g. compatible epithelial basement membrane like structure formed from carbon nanotube in osteoblast cells adhesion also nanofibres on glass as substrate used for same but earlier one is more efficient.12


Nanotextured substrates for tissue engineering

Self-assembled nanomaterials

Electrospun nanofibers

It is the tools for form biomimic scaffold, and used for bone, cardiac muscle tissue engineering. To guide cell orientation and form blood vessel-like structures aligned poly(L-lactic-co-ε-caprolactone) nanofibres were used.6 Using poly(lactic- co -glycolide) and poly(L-lactic acid) scaffolds neural stem cells were studied7 and these fibres are able to control scaffold function i.e. biomimicked the adhesion surface, also nanofibres with coreeshell structure were used for “Controlled Release” of encapsulated molecules.8

Methods for inducing self assembly in tissue engineering are biomimetic coating, electrolytic deposition (ELD) and pH induction and many materials used such as peptide amphiphile
(PA), hyaluronan, chitosan, and apatite/amelogenin.5,13 Sheets/ fibres of self assembled peptides formed because of hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions and further assembly is because of charge shielding in the form of hydrogels.5,14 High aspect ratio nanofibres in 3D self assembled fibres are made possible by using PA which is used in controlled release of bone morphogenetic proteineprotein but having less cellecell

Fig. 2 e Size scale of various biological structures.
Please cite this article in press as: Danie Kingsley J, et al., Nanotechnology for tissue engineering: Need, techniques and applications, Journal of Pharmacy Research (2013),

j o u r n a l o f p h a r m a c y r e s e a r c h x x x ( 2 0 1 3 ) 1 e5


Fig. 3 e Basic series of events during tissue engineering and implantation.

attachment, which could be overcome by branched PA associated with Phosphoglyceric acid (PGA) conjugated with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD).15 ELD is also used to develop nano structure which is used for the crystal growth of the collagen fibres at cathode, so it has vast application in osteotherapy and bio-compositing enamels16 and coating with self assembled amelogenin and calcium phosphate and also used to study bone marrow stromal cell attachment.17



From the above discussion we can conclude that tissue engineering is easier through nanotechnology using nanophase materials in comparison of conventional methods (Fig. 4) and is used in many of the fields for different purposes.

Stem cells tissue engineering through micro and nanotechnology Techniques used are as: (i) Electrospinning help to improve adhesion and expansion of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell at animated nanofiber mesh18 and in Bone marrow these acts as efficient captor and carrier for hematopoietic stem cells.19 (ii)
Soft lithography is used in regulating the distribution, alignment, proliferation, and morphology of Human Mesenchymal stem cells,20 initiation of differentiation of embryoid bodies of greater uniformity in cell culture in vitro,21 ease to study the growth and differentiation of human Embryonic Stem Cells under defined conditions and homogeneous aggregation of

human embryonic cells.22 (iii) Photolithography to maintain the cells to be in the grooves not ridges and maintaining uniform shape and it also have affects the rate of lipid production and thus differentiation of cells to adipocytes.23

Neural cells tissue engineering through micro and nanotechnology Techniques used are as: (i) Electrospinning helps in cell differentiation, orientation and behaviour like embryoid bodies will differentiate into mature neural lineage cells including neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes when they will be cultured on polycaprolactone,24 poly (L-lactic acid) nanofibers neural stem cells differentiation is more7 (Yang F et al; 2005).
(ii) Replica moulding helps in maintaining cell shape and behaviour e.g. bovine aortic endothelial cells can be cultured with higher cell alignment frequency and smaller circular index when they are culture on “Poly(glycerolesebacate) on sucrose-coated microfabricated silicon”25 (iii) Microcontact printing helps to form synaptic connections on defined protocol with polystyrene and polydimethylsiloxane26 also rat hippocampal neurons when cultured with silicon oxide showed resting potential and after 1 day of culture they become capable to reach action potential.27

Cartilage cells tissue engineering through micro and nanotechnology Techniques are as: (i) Photolithography used to maintain cell behaviour e.g. Chondrocytes isolated from avian sterna

Fig. 4 e Schematic representation about superiority of the tissue engineering through nanotechnology than conventional one. (Courtesy: Daniela Coutinho et al; Tissue Engineering; 2011; 3e29).
Please cite this article in press as: Danie Kingsley J, et al., Nanotechnology for tissue engineering: Need, techniques and applications, Journal of Pharmacy Research (2013),


j o u r n a l o f p h a r m a c y r e s e a r c h x x x ( 2 0 1 3 ) 1 e5

were cultured on micropatterned agarose gel which acts as biomomicked scaffolds and helps in maintaining chondrogenic phenotype28 (ii) Replica moulding helps to maintain controlled microenvironment and is integrated with inverted microscope to monitor real-time for cell size change in articular chondrocyte.29

Bone cells tissue engineering through micro and nanotechnology Techniques used are as: (i) Soft lithography used to maintain cell orientation and behaviour e.g. mesenchymal osteoprogenitor cells are cultured on collagen and thus appropriate surface topography enhances bone formation.30 (ii) Photolithography is providing better groove topography for primary human osteoblasts and helps in cellular adhesion and osteospecific function and in determining cellular response also used in “patterned cell cocultures” for Human osteogenic sarcoma cells on Photocrosslinkable chitosan by using lysozyme.31 (iii) Microcontact printing helps in osseointegration of
Rat mesenchymal stem cell-derived osteoblasts cultured on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) which can guide selective osteoblast adhesion and alignment.32 (iv)
Electrospinning- starch/polycaprolactone nanofiber induces cell morphology to stretch and further increases activity, and viability in Human osteogenic sarcoma cells culture.33

Vascular cells tissue engineering through micro and nanotechnology Techniques used are as: (i) Soft lithography helps to induce global gene expression and alteration in cell signalling in mesenchymal stem cells’ culture with polydimethylsiloxane34 and also helps to increase retention of endothelial cells with poly-urethane which results in reducing thrombogenicity during its implantation.35 (ii) Microfluidic patterning helps to form contractile cardiac organoids from cardiomyocytes with the help of hyaluronic acid36 and helps in cell-ligand attachment and spatial distribution for culturing human umbilical vein endothelial cells with poly(ethylene glycol).37
(iii) Microcontact printing helps to respond differently with shear stress for Bovine aortic endothelial cells’ culture with polydimethylsiloxane.38 (iv) Electrospinning helps in attachment and migration of cells along the axis in human coronary artery smooth muscle cell culture with poly(L-lactid-coε-caprolactone).6

Hepatic cells tissue engineering through micro and nanotechnology Techniques used are as: (i) Electrospinning promotes the formation of integrated spheroidenanofiber construct in rat primary hepatocytes culture with poly(e-caprolactone-coethyl ethylene phosphate.6 (ii) Soft lithography along with some defined design help to provide sufficient oxygen and nutrient mass transfer to maintain viability in hepatoma cells culture and primary rat hepatocytes culture with polydimethylsiloxane and polycarbonate.39 (iii) Photolithography helps to maintain cellecell 3D structure in hepatocytes culture with poly(ethylene glycol)40 and also able to maintain

phenotypic functions for many weeks in primary rat hepatocytes and primary human hepatocytes culture with polydimethylsiloxane.41 Conflicts of interest
All authors have none to declare.


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Please cite this article in press as: Danie Kingsley J, et al., Nanotechnology for tissue engineering: Need, techniques and applications, Journal of Pharmacy Research (2013),

j o u r n a l o f p h a r m a c y r e s e a r c h x x x ( 2 0 1 3 ) 1 e5

17. Wang J, Apeldoorn A, Groot K. Electrolytic deposition of calcium phosphate/chitosan coating on titanium alloy: growth kinetics and influence of current density, acetic acid, and chitosan. J Biomed Mater Res A.
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29. Chao PG, Tang ZL, Angelini E, et al. Dynamic osmotic loading of chondrocytes using a novel microfluidic device. J Biomech.
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...What is nanotechnology? Nanotechnology is a new and exciting area of science. When atom arranged into very small particles they behave differently to ordinary materials made of the same atoms. A nanometre is one billionth of a metre (or 10-9) and nanoparticles are a few nanometre in size. They contain a few hundred atoms arranged in a particular way. Their very small size give them very large surface areas and new properties that can make them useful materials. How long has it been around? Nanotechnology has been around since December 29th , 1959! And nanotechnology is improving and helping use to make our life’s better! What products already exploit nanotechnology? • Medicine • Tooth paste • Sunscreen • And more Nanotechnology in the future? What areas are people working on to use nanotechnology? • Medicine • Health • Hygiene How can it be used in medicine nanotechnology? Nanotechnology can carry drugs inside them and they can control the Drugs as well meaning that we can see a new side of nanotechnology this means. Or in defence? Nanotechnology could be used in war or self defence. How could it make our lives better? It can kill and destroy diseases and viruses meaning that we wont get ill and that will increase out life spam slightly. What is wrong with using nanotechnology? There is a risk of using nanotechnology, we could get nanotechnology in the air and that could cause damage to our body and effect us. It may......

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...Kassondra Deneen Hughes Nanotechnology Argosy University Professor Merwin SCI215 Nanotechnology Television is a form of entertainment, which has changed the way people think about science. Science was once viewed by many as boring or too complicated but thanks to shows like The Big Bang Theory that has changed. The show and its quirky actors teach us something different each show. One thing that I learned is that physics is the study of nature and properties of matter and energy. When the show first came on there was a chalk board in their living room that had a lot of numbers on it and Sheldon was attempting to figure out some mind boggling equation that involved a lot of small numbers that looked like big numbers. I have even heard one or all of those scientist talks about the nanotechnology. Most people did not know exactly what they were talking about and that’s why a lot of people did not like the show. It was hard to follow if the person did not know anything about nanotechnology. But because of the comedy the shows conversation about certain aspects of the scientific process is a little easier to understand. Unfortunately, nanotechnology is such a broad field it has to be broken down into smaller increments, how nanotechnology affects medicine is a great place to start. Nanotechnology has become a very popular science because it helps a person to understand it takes a lot of atoms to make up anything on the earth. It makes it much easier to......

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Defining Nanotechnology

...Define the term Nanotechnology. What does nanotechnology involve? Nanotechnology is the study of how to produce and control tiny structures. Nanotechnology involves tiny structures; these structures are known as nanoparticles. State approximately how many atoms would fit side by side in 1 nanometre? (nm) Approximately 10 atoms can fit inside 1 nanometre. Calculate: A) nm and B) Number of atoms, for the following measurements. Measurements | A) Nanometres | B) Number of atoms | 1) 1cm | 1,000,000 | 10,000,000 | 2) 1mm | 100,00 | 1,000,000 | 3) 1m | 1,000,000,000 | 10,000,000,000 | Describe the following applications of nanotechnology in detail. Self-Cleaning glass: The British company Pilkington has developed a self-cleaning glass. The scientist at Pilkington discovered the self-cleaning properties when they coated glass in titanium dioxide. In sunlight the titanium dioxide becomes electrically charged, these charges destroy materials found in grease and fingerprints and turn them into water-soluble substances. Water spreads across the glass evenly, dissolving dirt and helps washing the glass. Self-Cleaning paint: Wilhelm Barthlott a Germany botany professor created the concept of the lotus effect and furthered his studies into creating self-cleaning paint which acted like the lotus. The paint acts like the lotus plant, when water falls on top it forms near-spherical drops which then roll across the surface, picking up and washing......

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...NANOTECHNOLOGY Nanotechnology, or Nanotech for short, is the study of the control of matter on a molecular or atomic scale. There is a range in size of nanoparticles, from 100nm to 1nm. Scientists have been trying to investigate whether we can control matter on the atomic scale. It has been debated that nanotechnology could widen the horizons on the medicine, applications and electronics front. A nanometre is one billionth of a metre. This just shows the size of the technology scientists are working with. Nanoparticles are versatile and have different properties to the substance of a larger size. Nanoparticles are already being used in the consumer market, but there has been debate over safety risks. Nanoparticles are too small to be seen through a microscope, which is astonishing to imagine a particle that cannot be observed through a microscope. Special Properties Of Nanoparticles * Nanoparticles have different properties to normal sized pieces of the substance. For instance, pieces of gold are gold-coloured, whereas gold nanoparticles are a dark-red or even black colour. These different properties can be very useful to scientists and producers. Nanoparticles in pharmaceuticals: Some cosmetics contain liposomes, which are fatty nanoparticles. These have great potential in the pharmaceutical industry, because they directly apply medicines to the skin Sun-blocks contain Titanium dioxide nanoparticles. These are good because they block harmful UV rays from......

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...Nanotechnology Nanotechnology has been an anticipated technology due to it giving complete and inexpensive control of the structure of matter. The thought of this technology came from the mind of Richard Feynman, a physicist, in 1959. The way Feynman first described nanotechnology was, “a process by which the ability to manipulate individual atoms and molecules might be developed, using one set of precise tools to build and operate another proportionally smaller set (History and Future of Nanotechnology, 2009).” Manufacturing at the molecular scale will enable the construction of cell repair machines, computers smaller than a cubic micron, and even personal manufacturing. Molecular manufacturing or nanomanufacturing is where it all starts. Nanomanufacturing is the manufacturing of nano-scale materials, structures, devices, and systems. There are two approaches to nanomanufacturing, the top-down approach or the bottom-up approach. The top-down approach reduces large pieces of material down to the nanoscale. This approach uses more material and can lead to waste if excess material isn’t used. The second approach, the bottom-up approach, creates products by starting at the atomic or molecular level and building the products from the ground up. This process is very time consuming. With these two approaches there are new processes that enable nanomanufacturing which are (Manufacturing at the Nanoscale): 1. Chemical vapor deposition – a process where chemicals react to......

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