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Nanotechnology

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Nanotechnology Patricio Peña Medina June 14, 2013 Composition II Professor M. Putman Research Paper

It’s the biggest technology challenge since the information super high way. Engaging scientist, entrepreneurs and governments form countries all over the world. Public debates, press conferences and expos around the world this technology is revolutionizing science. Not visible to the naked eye, tiny self-assembling Nano systems offer big solutions to some of the world’s most complex problems. This is science on the Nano scale, or scientist it’s the largest topic with hundreds of thousand possibilities. To put things in more of an understandable perspective, the smallest things that the human eye can make out is around 10,000nm. To aid in further understanding of these measurements more than 100 students from Rice University by designing an immense single-walled carbon nanotube. The nanotube measured 1180 feet long (Williams & Adams 23).
So what is nanotechnology? 1 nanometer is 1 billionth of a meter, about the size of six carbon atoms or less than one water molecule almost too small to imagine (Williams & Adams). Nano technology is the science of interacting with atoms and molecules to modify the way they behave; for example by chemical creating Ferro fluids or liquid magnets the exhibit strange behavior due to external magnetic fields. Or by fabricating Nano scale semiconductor crystals known as quantum dots which are sometimes called artificial atoms that glow like Christmas lights. All of this occurs by waving the alchemist wand of the very fine particles of golden solution to modify their shape and size effecting dramatic color changes from yellow to deep blue to red all depending on the size of the Nano particles being utilized. Scientists have been modifying materials for decades. In fact nanotechnology has been in existence since the early Roman times. They used gold and silver Nano particles to make really intriguing color combinations in glass. It is also about the technologies. Materials used in Nano technology behave differently in the Nano world. Scientist can now direct their behavior to create new and phenomenal capabilities. Like liquid electronics found in smart phones, embodying Nano particles suspended in liquid that go where ever the user wants them to go. Capabilities like this can be found in the newer generation of Nano technology today’s society has adopted. This liquid state of Nano cells found in smart phones such as the Apple IPhone can reassemble themselves at a touch of the keypad. More break through include the development of Nano engineered Nano wires. Projecting scientific art the can easily brighten the surroundings at one’s home or office. It is common to find that most people when asked to refer to Nano technology mention the Apple IPod.
Many people do not realize that there are Nano particles and processors all around us. In the natural world a perfect example of Nano in natural environments can be the silk sun by spiders. Scientists have wondered how the Nano fibers in the webbing can be so strong. It is all powered by Nano technology. The way the molecules in the spider’s web combine from carbon Nano tubes that conjoin to where it generates high levels of strength and flexibly in the webbing itself. Another place where people may not look to find Nano technology is in the manufactured world of society. Nanotechnology has aided the advancement in apparel as well. Chemical engineers have used nanotechnology to improve the strength and durability of cloths through structures called nanowhiskers. The purpose these Nano hair-like structures serve is to make liquid roll right off the cloths of the user. To put this matter in perspective, just imagine a peach and how the fuzzy outside layer of it help water form into beads and roll right of its’ surface. Each synesthetic nanowhisker measures 10 nanometers long. Athletic socks also contain nanotechnology. Nike has been known to use nanometer silver particles that bond with the fibers of the sock to provide protection against odor and fungus within the sock. Form running shoes to specialized sports clothing to minimize the effects of the temperature, Nano technology can be found in each and every one of these places. Nano Scientists even explore exploit the strange properties of glass by using special coatings to change the way it behaves on the glass to provide a unique effect of protection depending on the purpose of use. Scientists and Nano engineers are collaborating to bring these extraordinary possibilities that lay within this technology to the public. Nano manufacturing can solve many of today’s complications faced by humans and animals alike.
Solutions to problems in health, water, energy, and even next-generation consumer gadgets can all be found in Nano technology. Manufacturing on a Nano scale can have physical benefits to the actual product as well as economic benefits. Economic activity caused by the advancement of anno technology can become a positive factor when it comes down to rebuilding an economy. Scientists have devolved their skill levels in order to better handle this technology. They are required to do so due to the level of complexity of the unfamiliar environment created by Nano technology. Optical anti-counterfeiting devices impregnated as holograms in bills can also be considered a form of Nano technology.
The process is far more difficult than just printing the image onto the bill. In order for the bill to be integrated with this Nano tech Nano manufactures implant millions of tiny little shapes. They are then later placed according to a specific design that will reflect light at different angles so when you see the whole device you actually get different pictures according to the angle in which the viewer is positioned. The rate at which Nano technology is developing is increasingly getting faster. It is now possible to routinely control the position of atoms and molecules of multiple surfaces. Now that scientists have developed vacuum sealed containers that are fitted with an electronic particle sensory attachment that measure one millimeter in size. The attachment in the vacuum analyzes and controls the forces that are required in order to move an atom around. With this tool you can also move the amount of singles electrons on or off of that single atom. Most of the tools invented to handle nanomaterial manipulation are fabricated within the walls of either universities or government laboratories. The University of St. Louise, with help from Zyvex Corporation, developed a new tool for manipulating and imaging Nano scale objects simultaneously. This tool allows Nano engineers to pull, bend, twist, and buckle nanotubes into 3D configurations. This facilitates the process of the construction by cutting the time of development in half without sacrificing precision. Companies such as EcoTru use Nano scale emulsive particles small enough to penetrate unwanted cells and destroy them from within. These particles could potentially remove all unwanted cells without bring harm to the normal human cells. The possibilities of creation are endless now that we have the technology to visualize and control atoms. Nano structures and special molecules can possibly be used in the development of next generation solar powered products as well as in computers. Nano particles that target each individual cancer cells would jump our medical capabilities through the glass ceiling created by technological limitations. Scientist has the opportunities to engineer special molecules which would be able to be used in water to purify it. This advancement could lead to less damage to the natural environment and possible the cut of cost to the bottled water industry. It is Nano technologies manufactured solutions that will allow for a better and brighter future. Using the energy created the heating of Nano engineered molecules as an alternative to fossil fuels can result in economic benefits due the inexpensiveness of the production. Oil collecting robots could be sent out to clean our oceans, thus benefiting the oceanic ecosystem and its inhabitants. Also Nano robots to reduce the complexity of surgeries can be produced. For example, Nano wires are be inserted in the patient to remove blood clots and reduced the chances of cardiovascular complications. Advancements such as this arise when technology interacts with biology. Nano scientists have found a way to manipulate the Nano structure of material surfaced to how they interact with their environment. Manipulating the Nano structure to coordinate it with the surrounding environment will enable it to regenerate cells according to those the Nano structure attaches itself to. In the case of bone and cartilage cells in a badly injured knee can be replaced when the cells migrate, settle and proliferate within the Nano structure. The proteins produced by the body will help attach the Nanos to the bone and eventually end up converting the structure into art of the host body. Medical scientists who also work with nanotechnology can create structures on nanoparticles to create smarter anti-cancer treatments. They produce a cap of nanostructures to increase the time of the effect of the drug.
Then the designed nanostructure targets the infected cell it penetrates it, releasing the drug into the cell. Timing of drug releases are crucial especial when targeting the human brain. Further advancements have led to the development of implants for epilepsy control and detection. The main principle of the technology is that within the implant electrodes will detect signals from an impending seizure and will deploy drug delivery the instant it realizes the host is in danger. With the capabilities that nanotechnology holds regenerative medical science could see commercial use within the next ten years.
Nanotechnology enables the advancements in the regeneration of bone, cartilage, and nerves. With such radicle implications and possibilities scientists are not only working towards the advancements and development of nanotechnology, but the security of it as well. The real challenge is how do we as a society keep this technology safe? Consumers are concerned with the ineffective and unregulated nature of nanomaterial. Problems arise when products that are applicable come into question such as sunscreen and cosmetics. The concern doesn’t stop there; food and food contact material also are included in the fear the consumers hold towards nanotechnology. Environmentalists are also concerned with the possibility of nanomaterial ending up in the environment. The potential implications of this technology are huge but we have to give it time to develop. Rushing this technological advancement may lead to mediocrity. Government regulation is in process to ease some of the doubts that may come to light when dealing with nanotechnology. The Consumer Product Safety Commission has already submitted a proposal for developing a research team that will help clear any concerns the final consumer may hold towards nanotechnology (Langwith 243). The government has been interested in this type of technology be to its potential applications. Many informal meetings took place to discuss this new technology in the presidential term of Bill Clinton.
These informal meeting then later on evolved to become the birthplace of the Interagency Working Group on Nanotechnology which was under the supervision of the National Science and technology Council. In the government books such activities carried out by the National Nanotechnology Initiative accounted for 1 billion US dollars in the 2004 federal budget (Langwith 245). Regulations on nanotechnology would primarily be covered by the Federal Hazardous Substance Act. This act protect users from substances that are flammable, combustible, toxic, corrosive, or that generate pressure trough discomposure. The hazardous possibilities of nanotechnology lay within the use of consumer products. The limitations brought by the CPSC on nanotechnology are set dude to the lack of understanding there is for this technology. They, however, acknowledge that products that contain this technology do not pose risks that are unacceptable to the consumers whom it is intended for. Acceptance for this technology has grown through new discoveries or nanostructures, nanoparticles, nanomaterial, and nanotechnology products. In 2004 the NNI spent an estimated $105.8 million dollars on health and environmental research, which comprises a total of 11 percent of its total funding (Williams & Adams 253). To better understand the risk factors associated with molecular manufacturing researchers in the NNI are considering looking more into naturally occurring Nano scale phenomenons. Part of the reason why the NNI is doing this is to cut their overall cost. Researchers have also hypothesized that through natural elements they can better understand how natural molecular engineering functions. In 2006 they managed to only spend thirty-six million dollars towards health and environmental research. Currently known Nano scale molecular exposure includes desert dust, volcanic ash, forest fire smoke, bacteria, and viruses. Nanoparticles risks are comprised of the level of toxicity and length exposed to it. The greater the toxicity levels and the length of exposure the greater chances the user has potential health problems. Even so, speculations of potential risks in nanotechnology have limits due to the limited amount of information available from research. In the case of nanoparticles; early toxicological studies suggest some indications of potential toxicity. But little is currently known the different types of exposures and how their react in different situations.
When we take great technological leaps such as the advancement of nanotechnology, it invites opportunities and risks. We need to manage this risk in order to keep advancing ad as society. By managing this risk through a global effort the development of this exciting technology will be further facilitated by the contributions of not only scientists, but everyone as well. Since this technology is still fairly new to the world many questions remain unanswered. Due to the lack of information it is difficult to predict when society will start using more of nanotechnology in the consumer world. I would like to see this technology in use for more medial purposes because of the way medical science could revolutionize. Nanotechnology could also possibly help jumpstart the economy by increasing the amount of jobs and the products we produce. Manufactures could cut their cost if they switch over to the use of nanotechnology in their production equipment, increasing the amount they can produce. This would then lead to the increase in spending within the nation of use. In the end there are many ways this technology can benefit our society. The only challenge we face now is preparing to actually use it.

Works Cited
Booker, Richard, and Earl Boysen. Nanotechnology for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005. Print.
Fritz, Sandy, and Michael L. Roukes. Understanding Nanotechnology: From the Editors of Scientific American. New York: Warner, 2002. Print.
Langwith, Jacqueline. Nanotechnology. Detroit, MI: Greenhaven, 2009. Print.
Mongillo, John F. Nanotechnology 101. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2007. Print.
Sargent, Ted. The Dance of Molecules: How Nanotechnology Is Changing Our Lives. New York: Thunder's Mouth, 2006. Print.
Williams, Linda, and Wade Adams, Dr. Nanotechnology Demystified: A Self-Teaching Guide. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2007. Print.

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