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TOPIC ……….. ……. PAGE

1. Introduction……………………………………………………..01

2. History of Zimbabwe……………………………………………02 2.1. The Great Zimbabwe State…………………………………03 2. The Mutapa State…………………………………………..04 2.3. The Rozvi State…………………………………………….07 2.4. The Ndebele State…………………………………………..07 2.5. White Settler Occupation of Zimbabwe……………………10 2.6. Crimes Against Humanity; -- Colonization and Slavery …..15 7. Consolidation of Settler-Colonialism in Zimbabwe ………21 8. African Nationalism And Organized Resistance To colonialism ……….. .. 30

4. Cultural heritage…………………………………………….

5. Political Heritage

6. Economic heritage

7. Civic responsibilities

8. Acknowledgements


NASS- The background

There is no educational system that is silent on the values that are accepted and cherished by that society. Education is about values in other word behavior change in all the domains of education that is the psychomotor, the cognitive and the affective. A skilled artisan or accountant with no sense of his position in society at the family level or at work or society in general is a social misfit and a drain to national wealth because of the need to either hospitalise him because he has AIDS or incarcerate him because he is a criminal and a danger to that society. A strong sense of belonging or identity, responsibility and accountability are the things that can be defined as patriotism. Economic giants today and in the past are and were the most patriotic. In Zimbabwe today the sense of belonging has eluded both young and old and this is due to selfishness, greed and the collapse of the extended family due to western values. A culture of greed or a mafia and mercenary attitude pervades all sectors of society in the banking, retailing, manufacturing and civil service. The need to change attitudes and the need to inculcate correct values is not only urgent but imperative now and in the future.

NASS -Definition

NASS can be defined as civic education designed to make all Zimbabweans who go through tertiary institutions become responsible citizens who are patriotic and can therefore be mobilised to participate in national development. .

Civic education is typical of and in all educational systems and is not unique to Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe was the odd case in that it did not have this kind of emphasis in its education as much as Zimbabwe was the odd case in relation to National Service.


NASS therefore is about positively changing or enhancing the attitudes of participants with respect to their national identity and with respect to translating the political gains of the Second Chimurenga into economic gains in the Third and Fourth Chimurenga.


Zimbabwe has a beginning in the distant past as witnessed and testified by the Zimbabwe ruins as well as in the recent past as embodied in the ethos of the Second Chimurenga war. The second chimurenga in essence establishes our ‘enduring political tradition” and ethos. Standing on a hill allows one to see as far behind as he is able to see as far ahead. Mathematically expressed this would be, “one is able to see as far ahead proportional to the distance he/she is able to see as far backward.’ History is therefore relevant not only for today’s events and policies, but allows us to shape our future and avoid the pitfalls of yester -year.



• State was most powerful before the 14th century i.e. 1500. • It was called a state because it could raise an army and force the payment of tribute and was involved in international relations. • The state was built by a group of people and they were basically the shona people and who had much wealth in the form of livestock. • The Shona built the stone capital commonly called Great Zimbabwe which became the centre of social, religious, economic and political life. • The king was termed “Mambo”. The name of Great Zimbabwe means “house of stones” that is “Dzimba Dzemabwe”. Similar “dzimba dzemabwe” were built across the country for chiefs on rulers who were loyal to the “mambo” at Great Zimbabwe.

Historical evidence

• Historians have used the oral traditions to try to explain the history of the Great Zimbabwe state. However, there is little that we normally get from the oral traditions because the Shonas have no written records. • Documentary evidence written during the Mutapa state by the Portuguese and records found in Arab writings have an account on the Changamire and Mutapa states.

Archaeological Evidence

• Archaeology in the form of clothing found at the Great Zimbabwe and some of the evidence including bones, copper and iron tools. • These have been used by historians to show the social economic and political activities of the people at Great Zimbabwe. • The structure at the ruins consist of 2 complexes “the Acropolis” or temple area and the external enclosure which consisted of a large number of stone buildings. • Excavations in the external enclosure yielded stone, glass, bead, and brassware, • Sea shells, iron ware, iron axes and hoes. • Local goods included ivory, gold, beads, soapstones, chisels etc.

Social and Political Organisation

• By 1200 a ruling class had emerged which was strong enough to organize almost the whole population to build a high surrounding wall made of granite blocks. • The Great Zimbabwe rulers exercised power on a number of chiefdoms who paid tribute to the mambo at great Zimbabwe. • Other chiefdoms may have been independent but connected through marriage and trade. • The ruling class controlled trade.

Purpose of the stone structure

1) Security
2) Religion
3) Prestige monument.
4) Occupy slave labour

Causes for the Decline or Collapse of the State

• The state had become overpopulated leading to a shortage of resources. • There was increased emigration • Shortage of resources i.e. salt • Civil wars • Declining soil fertility • Some dispute that Nyatsimba Mutota left Great Zimbabwe because he had failed to succeed and left and formed the Mutapa state.


• The founder of the Mutapa state was Nyatsimba Mutota who left Zimbabwe in search of salt or after a succession dispute according to oral history. Mutota went to the Zambezi Valley where he defeated some weak communities who were already settled there such as the Tavara or the Dzivaguru people. Mutota As a result earned the title ‘Munhu-mutapa’, a praise name which means Lord of Conquering.

• Before the succession dispute, King Chibatamatosi, Mutota’s father had ordered Mutota to find salt. • Initially the king had sent his servant Nyakatondo who had returned with salt and reported on the abundance of elephants in the area. • Prince Mutota traveled north leading a large army. He built his capital a “Zimbabwe” on the slope of Chikato hill near the Utete River. • Part of this Zimbabwe remains to this day at the bottom of the escapement north of Guruve. • Mutota formed an alliance with the Tavara High Priest, Dzivaguru. Upon the death of Mutota, his son, Nyanhenhwe Matope took over and co-ruled with his half sister Nyamhita who occupied the district of Handa hence she is often referred to as Nyamhita Nehanda. The two ruled the Mutapa Empire stretching from the Angwa and Manyame Rivers, north to the Zambezi and west to the Musengezi and Mukumbura Rivers.

The Mutapa Language eschatology and customs

• The people had the same shona language, customs and culture similar to the peoples of the Great Zimbabwe state. The term “Shona” was not used until the 19th century. The Ndebele people described the Karanga ie. Mutapa language and area of control as “entshona langa” which means a place where the sun sets or a place to the west. • Nowadays the term Shona is representative of a number of related dialects (in Zimbabwe) one of which is Karanga. • They believed in a god whom they called ‘mwari’ who is claimed to have spoken through the spirits of the ancestors and they listened carefully to spirit mediums i.e. the Mhondoros. • Religious ceremonies were held to honour the spirit mediums where music dancing and feasting occurred (Bira). The senior spirit mediums were Dzivaguru in the north east, Nehanda in the central and Chaminuka in the west. • At the cultural level the society was closely knit with the family being the nucleus of society as well as being the foundation of the nation. The basis of this arrangement was a high degree of morality with crime, starvation, delinquency, prostitution, divorce and almost all known present day social ills being unknown. The law was highly developed to deal with cultural issues and less defined in terms of commerce. Criminals, even murderers were rehabilitated with the law seeking to reconcile the injured and the culprit and compensate the victim or his relatives in the case of murder. When a person was murdered life had to be paid with life and invariably a young woman from the murderers’ family had to be given to the victim’s family. Inevitably, this created a bond between the two considering that at birth or death there are things that no one could or can do except the relatives of a woman. This is in stark contrast to equivalent European law which was and remains punitive and divisive.

The Mutapa Economy

The state existed for almost 500 years in one form or the other. During its peak it was the heart of a powerful empire which controlled the Zambezi River trade route and received taxes from foreigners. Not only was the economy based on trade and taxation, tribute was also part of their economy. The people of the Mutapa provided a variety of goods for trade. Trade made the Mutapa ruling class wealthy and the state became strong.

• The people paid tribute to the Mutapa tax collectors and elephant hunters paid tribute in the form of tusks. • The Mutapa encouraged the gold miners to do the dangerous mine work in return the miners had to sell the gold to the Mutapa. • He taxed all imports and exports, every trader paid tribute, every visitor gifts, people brought disputes and complains to the Mutapa and paid fees for his judgement.

The Mutapa Political Structures

• They had many advisors and ministers to govern the state. • Some of the emperors’ wives were also officials, greeting visitors and handling their business and as members of his royal court they became very powerful. • Munhumutapa, his wives and officials wore expensive jewellery and clothes made from cotton and silk. Most people wore skin aprons. • A large army was maintained which traveled long distances, patrolling and collecting taxes and cattle and brought new communities into the empire.

The Portuguese Factor In The Mutapa State.

• When Matope died, succession disputes arose. In 1494 Chikuyo Chisamarengu became king and was the first to receive a Portuguese visitor named Fernandes who brought rice, cloth and guns as gifts. • The acquisition of more guns increased Mutapa’s power such that he was in a position to assist his ally Makombe of Barwe to take control of Manyika. • In 1530 Neshangwe became the new king after Chisamarengu had died. He took over Mbire province earning the praise name Munembire. • He introduced the old custom of chiefs sending their ambassador to rekindle fires at the king’s palace. • In 1550 Chivero Nyasoro succeeded Neshangwe and after him Nzou or Ntemba an unmarried youth, took over and ruled with his mother Chiuya. • Negomo and his mother Chiuya received a Catholic priest Father Goncalo da’ Silveira who wanted to convert them to Christianity. Muslim traders at the king’s court (vamwenyi) did not like this and plotted to kill Da’ Silveira. They subsequently strangled him and dumped him in a pond. • Goncalo’s death angered the Portuguese and when they sent an army to revenge his death, it was defeated. • In 1607 Gatsi Rusere asked the Portuguese’s for assistance to fight his rival for the leadership and in return they were given mines. • The people of Mutapa refused to tell them where the mines were because of earlier experience with Portuguese Prazeros (land/ prazo holders – this is where the name purazi comes from) who took their land. • More Portuguese arrived and forced them to work in the fields. The Portuguese formed private armies and became wild and lawless.

The Decline or Collapse of the Mutapa State

• The decline was precipitated by the Portuguese private armies and this led the Mutapa Nyambo Kapararidze to try to expel them. • He was unsuccessful in this and was overpowered and in his place a puppet Mamvura Mhande was installed. • After Kapararidze, the Portuguese chose other Munhumutapas who would obey them. • An 18th century Munhumutapa moved his people to Mozambique where new chiefs were appointed to restore order. • Chioko was the last ruler to use the title Munhumutapa. He led a revolt against the Portuguese but was however crashed in 1817 and so ended the legacy of the Mutapa state.


• The state arose from plundered wealth by the Rozvi under Changamire Dombo (1634) believed to having been a powerful ruler. He was very wealthy and claimed that his father was a mwari and his mother a virgin. The Rozvi capital was at Thabazikamambo near Bulawayo. • By 1680 he was at his peak and his state was spread between the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers and even into areas like Mozambique e.g. Sena. • The Rozvi Changamire received tribute from smaller chiefs. • By 1830 – 1860 the state existed in name only.

• Decline and Collapse Of the State • Collapse of the Rozvi state was as a result of Mfecane ‘or time of trouble” caused by Nguni tribes who had fled from Tshaka or broken away from the Zulu state in present day Natal Zwangendaba crossed the Limpopo with his group and fought the Rozvi ruler Chirisamhuru. • The state was further weakened when Kololo Sebitwane in 1836 fought and defeated the Rozvi. Mzilikazi turned west into Gaza and then north with his group and finished the remnants of the Rozvi state between 1837 and 1840.


The Founder of the State was Mzilikazi son of, Matshobane and grandson of Zwide. Mzilikazi joined Tshaka under Zwide. He was a chief of a small clan called Khumalo. He suspected Zwide of the death of his father Matshobane.

• Mzilikazi was sent to recover cattle and he did not surrender the cattle to Tshaka and fled north. • He left Natal in 1821/ 1822 with 300 men. The name Ndebele was given as a nickname by Tswanas and means people of long shields. Mzilikazi increased his side through conquering and incorporating weak tribes such as the Tswana and Suthuland some people voluntarily joined Mzilikazi. He was defeated by the Boers at Enthumbane in the Transvaal. The Ndebele crossed the Limpopo River in 1837 – 1846 and settled at Inyati near Matopo hills. • They easily routed the weakened Rozvi and brought adjacent Shona areas under their control. They conquered Shonas such as the Kalanga and Venda.

Political Structures

• King was pre-eminent in the Ndebele state. Mzilikazi was the supreme commander of the army, highest judge with power over life and death. He was a religious leader who presided over important religious ceremonies such as Incxwala. • King however didn’t rule alone but with two advisory counsels, the Mphakati and Izinkulu indicating that king was not a dictator. • The Mphakati was made up of original Khumalo chiefs i.e. those who had left Natal and knew Zulu military tactics. • These made the most important decisions although they could be vetoed by the king. • The Izinkulu was made up of other chiefs especially those who were incorporated in the Ndebele state.

The Ndebele Economy

Many European historians misunderstood or deliberately distorted the bases of Ndebele economy. They argued that the Ndebele were nomads and therefore had lots of time for raiding the Shona. This was not entirely true. The following were the basis of Ndebele economy:

• Herding –This was the most important economic activity owing to the fact that Ndeng initially were not permanently established in Matebeleland. The Ndeng kept large heads of cattle, sheep and goats. • They acquired some of the cattle along the way while others were obtained through the conquered Rozvi. Others were received in the form of tribute from the Shona while others were obtained through raiding. • Agriculture - The Ndebele had fields in which they grew crops such as millet, sorghum, water melons etc. • Agriculture was however, not very popular with the Ndebele because of climatic conditions. • Hunting and gathering - Hunting was very popular in the Ndebele state. Their kills ranged from large animals e.g. elephants and buffaloes to small species e.g. buck and rodents. Men usually hunted while women concentrated on gathering. • They gathered wild fruits, grass seed and insects. Gathering was important in the Ndebele state as far as it supplemented organised agriculture. • Trade - They traded internally i.e. amongst themselves and externally with the Shona The Ndebele traded their cattle and gold for grain, corn, cloth, iron, jewellery, beads etc.

- Mining - The Ndebele occasionally carried out some mining activities to a limited extent. They traded gold with the Portuguese. Mining was done mostly in winter - after harvest when people didn’t have much work in the field.

• Tribute - in the form of cattle, grain and to a certain extent women from those tribes under their control • Raids/plunder - They raided the unsubdued Shona tribes for cattle, women, young men and grain. • However, it should be realized that the Ndebele didn’t always raid the Shona. Only those who lived near Ndebele settlements were raided occasionally such as the Shona in the Masvingo, Mberengwa, Gweru and Kwekwe areas.

Ndebele- Shona relations

The myths and realities • Many European historians wrote that the Ndebele always raided the Shona and that the Shona were on the verge of extinction when settler colonialists came to Zimbabwe. They used this as an excuse to influence the British government to colonize this country and the missionaries used this argument more than the ordinary settlers. • The reason why missionaries encouraged the British government to occupy and destroy the Ndebele Kingdom was because they had failed to convert a single Ndebele man. • The truth of the matter is that there was co-existence between the Shona and the Ndebele had the occasional raid as a common feature of this relationship. • In the early stages of the Ndebele settlement i.e. between 1840 – 1870 the Ndebele were pre-occupied with their own security, internal problems such that they could not always fight the Shona. • It is also true that some Shona people never experienced Ndebele raids up to 1890 especially those Shona people living north of Harare and Manicaland. • Those Shona chiefs who refused to pay tribute e.g. Chief Chivi or Bere were major targets for raids. Ndebele raids did not interfere with The economy of those Shona chiefs who paid tribute and moreover some Shona chiefs aided the Ndebele and some stole or raided the Ndebele to recover stolen cattle. • The Ndebele actually encouraged good relations and there was some level of inter-marriage. • The Ndebele adopted the Shona deity “mwari”/‘umlimu’ and followed the Shona traditions of ancestral worship. • The state was divided into 3 district social groups based on history namely:

a) Abezanzi

These were the superior class which occupied most important positions. They formed the aristocratic ruling class. These were the original Khumalo who had left Natal and constituted about 15% of Ndebele population ie. the Hadebes, Khumalos, Mkwananzi.

b) Enhla

These were 2nd most important groups in the Ndebele state. They were Sotho and Tswana who joined the Ndebele on their way to Zimbabwe. They occupied important military positions in the Ndeng state and they constituted about 25% of Ndebele population.

c) Amahole

These were the least important in the Ndebele state. They were made up of the Kalanga and other Shona speaking people who were conquered and absorbed by the Ndebele and made up 60% of Ndebele population. However, the hole who proved themselves in battle also occupied important military posts in the Ndebele economy. Due to continued inter-marriage most of these groups lost their identities ie the Moyos, Sibandas, Ncubes, Gumbos.


• White settlement in the region was established as early as the 1650s at the Cape in South Africa. This was a re-supply post for fresh water and food for the East India trade. The Dutch settlers at the Cape were soon displaced by the British and pushed North. The discovery of gold on the Rand and diamonds led to the continued jostling for control between the British and Dutch settlers for the good part of the two centuries from 1700 through 1800. Hunters and missionaries who were the trail blazzers for British colonisation spread the rumor that there was a bigger Rand in the area occupied by the Ndeng across the Limpopo.

• Cecil John Rhodes who came to South Africa because of ill-health joined his brother at the Kimberly diamond fields and became rich and directed his attention to the rumors of an “el dorado” or city of gold to the north.

• Rhodes was an imperialist at heart. His aim was to bring under British Control all African territory from South Africa to Egypt.

• Rhodes believed in British superiority and thought that it was a British responsibility to civilize Africa the so called dark continent.

• Other imperialists were also interested in Zimbabwe namely; the Boers from the short lived Transvaal Republic, Germans from South West Africa and especially the Portuguese.

• The Grobler Treaty

• In1887 the Transvaal government sent its representative Piet Grobler to negotiate a friendship treaty with Lobengula assuming he was the ruler of all the territories north of the Limpopo. The agreement - known as the Grobler treaty provided for a Boer Representative to be resident at Bulawayo and Lobengula would assist the Boers ( in the face of British threats) if required to do so.

• In response to the treaty, Rhodes influenced the British government to send a representative to Bulawayo to negotiate a counter treaty.

The Moffat Treaty

• John Smith Moffat representing the British government negotiated and signed the treaty in February 1888. According to this agreement Lobengula was to cancel the Grobler Treaty. He would also not enter into any agreement with any European power without the consent of Britain.

• The Moffat Treaty was supposed to be a treaty of friendship between Lobengula and the British government but in fact was the first step in the collapse and subjugation of the Ndeng state.

The Rudd Concession

• Agreed and signed in October 1888, it led to the occupation of Zimbabwe by the white settlers through the British South African company. Rhodes had formed this commercial company to spear head the occupation of this country.

• The Rudd Concession was entered into between Charles Rudd representing Rhodes and Lobengula . The Rudd delegation consisted of three people namely;

1. Charles Rudd

Rhodes’ old friend since their days at Oxford University. He was therefore an embodiment of Rhodes’ self-interest.

2. Rotchford Maguire

Was a lawyer and his expertise in the legal language was going to be useful in tricking Lobengula.

3. Francis Thompson

He was nicknamed “Matebele” because he was fluent in Nguni languages including Ndeng. He had a perfect knowledge of Ndeng custom. His presence was therefore meant to influence Lobengula to sign the agreement. Rhodes was careful in the selection of the Rudd team.

Lobengula didn’t want to meet this delegation let alone sign the agreement, the evidence is that:

1) It took the delegation about 6 weeks to meet Lobengula.

2) The delegation bribed Lobengula’s most trusted senior, Induna Lotshe, who influenced Lobengula to sign the agreement and for that role Lotshe was executed together with his family.

3) Lobengula was influenced by several whitemen he trusted such as Moffat who misled or lied to him that the Rudd delegation represented the queen.

4) Because of both internal and external influence, Lobengula signed the Rudd Concession in October 1888, the terms of which were;:

a) Lobengula was to receive:

• Monthly pension of 100 pounds sterling per month.

• 1000 Enfield riffles and 100 000 rounds of ammunition.

• A gunboat to be placed on the Zambezi valley to guard against Portuguese invasion.

b) Lobengula was to grant Rhodes;

-Granted Rhodes and the BSAC exclusive rights over all minerals and precious metals in Mashonaland and Matebeleland.

• Not more than 10 white men would enter the country.

• They would dig only one hole.

• They would surrender all their weapons to Lobengula and actually become his people.

The Royal Charter

• Armed with the Rudd agreement Rhodes had to have the political protection of the British government. Rhodes therefore sought and got this protection through The Royal Charter, granted in October 1889. The document in effect declared that the Rudd concession had effectively made the territories of Lobengula British territories under the administration of the British South Africa Company (BSAC) and by that virtue restricted Boer and Portuguese expansion. Some German hunters advised Lobengula on what was meant by the document and he tried I vain to repudiate it.

• He sent two of his Indunas to the queen accompanied by E. A. Mount and Charles Helm to inform her that he was no longer interested in the Rudd Concession. The indunas were deliberately delayed and the repudiation was too late.

• To reverse the Rudd agreement, Lobengula granted Edward Lippert a German businessman a concession for a period of 100 years to mine in Zimbabwe.

• Rhodes bought the Lippert Concession and made his position even more powerful.

The Pioneer Column

• Rhodes’s next step was to organize a group of men who were going to form the first t settlers in Zimbabwe.

• The group was called The Pioneers made up of 200 settler volunteers and chosen from thousands of applicants from all over Europe and South Africa.

• Supported by 500 troops, the group was promised 2 000 acres and five gold claims each. The Botswana protectorate provided 800 African labourers.

• Fredrick Selous guided the settler group because of his knowledge of the country as a hunter. The group crossed Into Zimbabwe in March 1890 and built fort Tuli. The column turned east avoiding the Ndeng state and established Fort Victoria (Masvingo) On 17 August 1890 the Column reached Fort Charter (Chivhu). From Charter the column reached Harare on 12 September 1890, raised the british flag the Union jack and, and called Harare Salisbury in honour of British Prime Minister at that time. This marked the completion of the occupation of the land.

• Leander Star Jameson, Rhodes’ personal friend was appointed the first governor of Mashonaland.

The Anglo - Ndebele war and the Occupation of Matebeleland.

The members of Pioneer Column were largely disappointed with the amount of gold they got in Mashonalnad.

• They thought that Matebeleland was a little closer to South Africa so a second Rand could be found in Matebeleland.

• The white settlers also admired the big cattle found in Matebeleland and the attractive land (rich grazing lands). They even believed that Lobengula’s capital was built on top of a gold mountain.

• It should be borne in mind that the occupation of Matebeleland was inevitable and unavoidable. It was to complete the occupation of Zimbabwe and, as the BSAC was bankrupt, it needed gold, hence Matebeleland was their own way out of that big problem.

• To do so the BSAC had to destroy the powerful and landed Ndeng state and Leander Star Jameson needed an excuse in order to attack the Ndeng state. He created conflicts to justify war between whites and Ndeng.

Precursors to the war

1. The Boundary Line

• According to Jameson, Mashonaland was not part of Matebeleland.

• Jameson drew up his own boundary line to separate Mashonaland from Matebeleland. He then restricted Lobengula’s rule to Matebeleland.

• Lobengula never acknowledged the division of Mashonaland and Matebeleland.

• He claimed the whole country as his and to make matters worse, the boundary line kept on shifting towards his capital thus reducing his area of influence.

The war - 1893

While Rhodes and BSAC were busy establishing themselves in Mashonaland the Ndeng were trying to avoid any conflicts with the whites. Since the settlers were interested in Matebeleland, Rhodes and his people were busy finding ways of attacking the Ndeng The whites admired the Ndeng’s rich grazing lands and suspected gold deposits.

Causes of the War of 1893

1. The Victoria Incident

• Whites employed the Shona people but the Ndeng still regarded later as their subjects.

• In June 1893 some of the Shona people led by headman Gomala stole 500 metres of telegraph wire.

• They were ordered to pay cattle as fine. They paid this fine using cattle that belonged to Lobengula and which they had stolen.

• Lobengula claimed the cattle to be his and they were returned to him.

• Soon after this event another Shona by the name of Bere is alleged to have to have stolen cattle belonging to Lobengula.

• Lobengula sent an impi to punish the Shona chief and his people. As a result Shona servants on European farms were killed and some fled to Fort Victoria for protection.

• The Ndebele Indunas, Manyao and Uumgandani pursued the Shona people who sought refuge in Victoria.

• The indunas demanded that the Shona be handed over but Lendy, the magistrate of Fort Victoria refused and the Ndeng were ordered to vacate Fort Victoria.

• Lendy followed and caught up with Umgandani ’s party and killed all of them and in response Lobengula mobilized 6000 soldiers.

• The Victoria Incident triggered the war but the issue at stake was that the white farmers believed that there were rich gold deposits in Matebelaland and had long planned on how to get there

They also saw the grazing land and good cattle herds of the Ndebele as a recipe for prosperity even if they were to find no gold.

The powerful independent Ndebele state was seen as preventing white settlers from getting enough labour for their mines and farms.

Preparation for war

• By September 1893 Jameson had organized a force of over 1000 well armed white settlers aided by missionaries from South Africa.

• Jameson promised each of them 2400 hectares of land and 20 gold claims each if the Ndeng were defeated.

The Battles

• The white armies left Salisbury and Fort Victoria in October 1893 and moved south west towards Matopo ready for a show down with the Ndeng.

• In a battle, that took place along the Shangani and Mbembesi Rivers, the Ndeng impi was heavily defeated.

• On 3 November after just a month of bloody fighting the invading forces entered the Ndeng capital, Bulawayo and Lobengula set fire to the city and fled north where he vanished without trace to date.

• The 1893 war marked the complete conquest of Zimbabwe and an end to Ndeng Supremacy.


Slavery is the highest level of degrading another human being. Slavery is as ancient as human existence. The practice was pronounced under the Roman Empire and at that time it also assumed its commercial undertones. This practice was perfected by the former Roman colonies in Europe when they enslaved Africa. Never in the History of mankind were such atrocities, insensitivity, and cruelty and inhumanity perpetrated by human beings upon other human beings. Slavery was the crudest method of exploiting other human beings and in its wake came colonisation which by definition is slavery with a humane face. The latter like slavery leads to the exploitation of other man by other man by other means other than brute force.

It is not possible under The United Nations Charter for a nation to unilaterally attack or annex the territory of another state and where this has happened of late as when Iraq attacked Kuwait the UN unanimously agreed to reverse the annexure through force of arms. To colonize another state is therefore the highest form of state irresponsibility. The USA under false claims of existence of weapons of mass destruction attacked Iraq in 2003 and there was a global outcry against the war. Colonization nevertheless took place many centuries before the UN came into existence but that does make colonization any less a crime against humanity. Colonisation was perpetrated by the very nations that were vociferously opposed to the Iraq Kuwait invasion and yet many serious human rights violations were perpetrated by the colonial powers in this process. In Tasmania Australia, the aborigines on the island were wiped out to the last man by British settlers. The Spanish conquistadors demolished whole empires and civilizations in the Americas.


1. The discovery of gold and silver and agricultural potential in South America or in the Americas created the need for disciplined workforce.

2. Inability of the local or native Red-Indian population to withstand organized disciplined labour.

3. Existence of disciplined agricultural and industrial culture in Africa.

4. Indigenous or Red-Indian inability to withstand European diseases e.g. small pox, syphilis, gonorrhea etc.

5. The existence of a greedy and guliable or naïve chieftainship in Africa which captured and sold its own kith and kin for a bottle of fire water that is gin.

• Commercial activity therefore contributed much to the consolidation of slavery. The trade in Europe did not provide sufficient profit because of the problem of exchange values. But the trade with unindustrialized countries in Africa and America was more profitable because of the use values.

• This system of trade was a system of robbery based on plunder, piracy and slavery and colonial conquest.

• To consolidate accumulation or profit in England, the joint stock company was devised and several of this new economic tool were formed, e.g. the Adventurous Russia company and the Africa company. According to Nassau, a well-known academic of the time, the objectives of the Africa company were, “…to kidnap or purchase and work to death the natives of Africa without mercy.” The Eastland Company had the monopoly and right to trade with the European hinterland. The Levan Company in which Queen Elizabeth 1 was a major shareholder became the East Indian Company.

• The Fuggers Company in Germany was first a merchant company and later became a bank and financed all Germany wars of the period.

• The Fuggers Company in return for financing war was paid through the form of trading concessions, colonial land and through revenue from colonial mines.

• As contact with Latin America or South America increased, the company turned to Africa for cheap labour.

• It was the nearest continent with a population used to organize labour which was also disciplined in many respects. The Uterecht Treaty of 1713 gave English Merchants the right to supply South America with 5 000 slaves every year and a special company was formed to supply these slaves.

• Most of the gold and products from the plantations from South America ended up in British towns.

• The continued enslavement of African peoples between 1646 and 1680 resulted in 70 000 slaves being taken to South America. However, only 46 000 survived the translocation. The slave trade was part of the triangular trade between Europe, Africa and South America .This trade was very profitable to the European companies and the African Royal company which was the slave company paid a dividend of 300% despite loss of half the “goods/cargo” that’s despite the death of more than half the slaves en route to the Americas.

• There is therefore a co relation between Europe’s expansion/development and slave labour from Africa. The methods used by the companies especially British firms, was to capture other countries’ export markets through colonisation, protectionism and unequal exchange.

• Europe therefore did not undertake its industrial Revolution without the plunder, the enslavement and the destruction of the native people of Africa.


• Colonialism was a product of European merchants or European commerce. The former (the merchants) later supported and financed the political institutions or their governments in their wars of conquest and colonisation and they also participated in policy making. Colonisation therefore was therefore an economic necessity. The reasons or causes of Africa’s colonisation were or are:

a) Facilitated protection of monopoly markets of each European trading nation.

b) Allowed easy access to tropical markets.

c) Allowed access to natural resources essential for industrial activities.

d) Allowed expansion and creation of new markets which had no balance of trade problems.

e) Colonization facilitated the unimpeded imposition of the religious super structure and beliefs of the colonizers on the colonized peoples.

f) For glory and imperial prestige.

• African slavery had existed in Europe from about the 16th century but the need to exploit the wealth of South America saw slavery reaching a climax in the 18th century. Slavery however, came to an end when it stopped serving the purposes and interests of European commerce.

• The dynamics of European production and exchange changed and no longer required slave labour. Britain banned slavery in 1807. Slavery however, continued or even grew after this banning. In 1833 slavery was internationally banned but it did not die until 100 years later and to the shame of Africa still lingers on in places like the Sudan.

• Slavery was not abolished because Europe had repented of its weakedness but because commerce could not benefit as much from this evil practice.

• Once slavery was abolished, it was replaced with colonization.

• The commercial revolution in the 16th century expanded trade beyond Europe and this created a conservative class of merchants and landlords. Commercial merchants were a class which could not fully satisfy their accumulation potential in Europe so they turned to foreign markets.

• Primitive accumulation in Europe, that is, getting rich through violence and other dishonest means, was extended and practiced in foreign lands through colonization.

• The merchants and conquerors destroyed several civilizations in Africa e.g. the Ashanti kingdom and the Aztec Civilization in Central America.

• Earlier, five crusades had been wedged or undertaken in the Middle East and this almost destroyed the Arab civilization. The crusades were less about religion and more about plunder and theft and robbery. The amount of wealth stolen in this manner although substantial could not last long and the result was to exploit the mines and the agricultural potential in Africa and in South America.

• In South America where more gold and silver than in Africa existed, the mines could not be exploited using local labour so they resorted to stealing people from Africa.

• This form of exploitation eventually gave way to paid labour as a more profitable way of accumulating wealth.

• Development or industrialization in Europe is therefore directly linked to both colonialism and slavery.


• Before the Berlin conference in 1884 commercial contact had long existed between Europe and Africa and in trying to protect their commercial interest, Europeans had fought many wars and for almost a 100 years between 1700 and 1800 Europe was at war with each other because of commercial or economic interests. With the growth of England and France as the major military powers, the wars became less and less However, when German became a powerful nation towards the end of the 19th Century, the following scenario developed in Europe;

• The possibilities of renewed conflict became real.

• The British passed The Navigation and Frauds Act, The Navigation and Staple acts etc. with a view to monopolising trade with the so called ‘new world’ and ‘the dark continent.’

• Portugal fearing wars between Europe and Britain, suggested or requested Otto Von Bismark, the Germany chancellor, to convene a conference for all interested parties with trading or commercial interests with Africa. This led to the infamous Berlin conference. The objectives of the conference were:

1. To lay down the rules for the partition and exploitation of Africa.

2. To prevent war by so partitioning Africa.

Summary of Contents of the agreement at the Berlin Coference;

1. Freedom of navigation on all major rivers in Africa.

2. Colonization or establishment of protectorates to be entered into voluntarily between European powers and African Chiefs.

3. A colony to be recognized only where there was visible occupation and evidence of a written protectorate agreement.


1. German

2. Belgium

3. England

4. France

5. Italy

6. Portugal

Contents Of Protectorate Agreements between European Powers and African Chiefs/Kings.

2. Parties to the agreement – a). African chief and, b). a European commercial company.

2. Subjugation or surrender of title to land.

3. The location of the land, its size and general description.

4. Surrender of all political, judicial and military power.

5. Creation of a monopoly trade area.

6. Duration of agreement i.e. infinity or for ever and ever.

7. Rewards for the chiefs and the people, alleged or claimed improvement of their lives through European civilization.

8. Surrender of all rights to minerals and other resources.


2. Led to the scramble for Africa by European powers (nations) through commercial companies or by commercial companies.

2. The establishment of concessions which were unfair and never explained to the African chiefs.

3. Resistance or rejection of the concessions by African chiefs when they understood the implications of the agreement.

4. Use of force by European powers to break resistance and to fully colonise Africa.


2. Balance of trade dis-equilibrium i.e. negative trade relations between Africa and European countries during and after colonialism through a new form of relationship called Neo-colonialism.

2. Exploitation and depletion of Africa’s natural resources without benefit to Africa.

3. Underdevelopment of Africa since there was no technology transfer to facilitate industrialisation (investment was only in infrastructure to enable exploitation of resources).

4. Cultural decimation/destruction.

5. Dependency on European economies.

6. Loss of individual and national identity by Africans during and after colonialism

7. Super enrichment and development of Europe and their extensions in America and Australia.

Reasons for the colonisation of Africa.

Abundance of natural resources e.g. minerals, rubber, elephants (ivory).

2. Fertile soils and ideal climate in Southern Africa and Kenya.

3. Africa was the source of many major rivers.

4. Existence of a money economy in Africa.

5. Possibility of establishing colonies and monopoly markets.

6. Little to no meaningful resistance


Early Settler Administration.

• With the Ndebele state in ruins and the Shona state machinery crumbling in the face of superior settler firepower , the BSAC proceeded apace to consolidate its grip on the country. The Transvaal Boer state however posed a great challenge to Rhodes’ plans In 1895, Jameson withdrew most of the company’s armed personnel into the Transvaal to fight the Boers but was crushed and the scenario for the Native rebellion in Zimbabwe developed.


Causes of the War

The Ndebele Revolt

2. The land Issue

• The reserve system or translocation of native Zimbabweans to infertile dry inhospitable holding areas was introduced.

• In 1894 the first reserves were set up in Shangani and Gwaai.

• After the defeat of the Ndebele, the settlers seized their 6 000 acres displacing many natives and those displaced became fulltime labourers or squatters.

• The settlers started ill treating the Ndebele like they were doing the Shona.


• The British South African company introduced hut tax to force the Africans to go to work and in order to raise revenue.

• Livestock was seized to force men to go to work for the settler.

• To solve their labour problems, the company introduced forced labour. The chiefs were instructed to recruit able bodied men and hand them over to the BSAC as labourers- “chibharo”. The Shona and Ndebele so enslaved ran away into the hills to escape.

• The presence of white settlements contrary to the agreements entered into.

• Again this did not please the Ndeng who wanted to claim their ancestral land back as in the reserves there was food shortage and starvation at times.


• Soon after the defeat of the Ndeng in the Anglo Ndebele war, the whites confiscated the Ndeng cattle numbering about 250 000.

• This drastically reduced the Ndeng herd and the Ndeng wanted their cattle back as it was a sign of prestige.


• This was imposed on the Ndeng for a dual purpose

i) It was indirectly made to force the Ndeng to work in order to pay tax.

ii) It was meant to increase the company income.

5. Abuse of Ndebele women by Native Shona policema.

• In order to stop this abuse, the Ndebele had had to fight the whitemen and the employment of their former vassals the Shona as policemen did not please the Ndebele as they were now told what to do by these Shona policeman.


• It was at that time that natural disasters occurred. These included drought, rinderpest a cattle disease and locusts. Africans gave these natural disasters a religious interpretation, they argued that the presence of the whites had angered their ancestors hence these natural disasters and they then found it necessary to drive away the whites in an effort to bring the natural disasters to an end.


• These were very instrumental in bringing about a concented effort to drive away the white man and they used a variety of methods. They passed information on the progress made in the preparations for war. Some prophesied that the fighters would be protected by their ancestors. They also provided medicine which they claimed made the fighters bullet proof.

• They gave general encouragement to everybody and in some cases they threatened death to all those who showed no interest.


• Africans were defeated because of the inferior weapons that they used which included spears, shields, bow and arrows against the white men’s machine guns, cannons and 7 pounders.

• Disunity and dis-organization among the Africans also led to this defeat as some collaborated with the whites.

• Leaders and spirit mediums were captured and killed thereby leaving the Africans direction less and leaderless.

• Africans lost faith in their spirit mediums in particular and in their religion in general leading to many Africans being converted to Christianity. However, although the Africans were defeated, their efforts need to be recognised. It was the first time that they had fought a common enemy as a united people.

• It was also important in that it laid the foundation for future wars of resistance that is the 2nd Chimurenga etc.

• Notable heroes and heroines of the First Chimurenga were people like Nehanda, Kaguvi, General Magwegwe and Mkwati of the Ndebele army, Chief Chingaira, Mashonganyika, Muzambi, Maremba, Zvidembo, Mazhindu, Manyongori, Gunduza, Mvenuri and Gutu.

Repressive Settler Legilation which dispossed and dehumanized Native Zimbabweans

Almost two hundred whites lost their lives during the first Chimurenga war and many thousands of Africans died in battle and in the reprisals that followed up to and during 1898. To secure their position the settlers enacted many pieces of legislation that effectively proscribed or limited African economic, cultural and political freedoms.

The Native Reserve Order in Council: 1898.

Effectively removed all native chiefs who were anti- settlers and replaced them with puppet settler administrators. The act also created reserves or cantonments in dry inhospitable areas.

The Hut Tax: 1903.

Enacted to raise revenue for settlers and to forceblack men to go and work for the white man.

The Dog Tax and Land Bank acts: 1912.

The land bank act provided new white settler farmers with free tillage for five years and the same period as grace before commencing to repay loans from the state owned Land bank.

The European Produce Act: 1917.

Discriminated against natives in so far as agricultural production was concerned with respect to quantities they could market or the prices they could fetch.

The Morris Carter Commission: 1925.

Divided the whole country into agro-zones based on rainfall patterns from the highest rainfall region 1 to the lowest rainfall region 5. Natives were trans - located to regions 4 and 5.

The Land Apportionment Act: 1930.

In 1930 whites who numbered 50 000 were allocated 49 000 000 acres of prime land while blacks who numbered 1 000 000 were allocated 28 000 000 acres of the worst land in regions 4 and five. The translocation of blacks was accompanied with untold violence and starvation and malnutrition became endemic. More government officials were employed country wide and effect while rule and these included native commissioners and police man. A land policy after 1905 was affected which started to impoverish ty blacks and to keep them politically ineffective. Africans were also excluded from government through strict qualifications e.g. the right to vote was given to males over 21 days with an annual income of 50 000 pounds or with property worth 75 pounds. The Land Apportionment Act of 1930 confirmed and legalised the displacement of Africans that had been on-going earlier.

Up until 1906, ninety percent of Southern Rhodesia’s agricultural produce came from black farmers and many whites did not like this state of affairs. As a result, the Rhodesia Native Labour Bureau (RNLB) stopped blacks from competing with whites and between 1908 and 1915, 1.5 million acres of the best land was taken from blacks and given to whites. New boundaries were created to exclude fertile high rainfall areas from newly created reserves. The latter were located in semi-arid areas. Blacks in regions 1, 2 and 3 were made to pay higher grazing fees and taxes. Since many could not pay they were removed and settled in reserves which were situated far away from markets and rail and tarred motor roads. By the 1920s, 65% of the black population had been forced into reserves. This led to cycle of poverty among Africans which persists up to today - 2004.

The Maize Control Act: 1935.

The act protected white farmers from black competition in maize production. 2 grades of maize were made, A-grade for whites and B-grade for blacks. A grade fetched a higher price while B fetched a lower price.

• Whites also paid less for maize they bought from blacks.

The Cattle Levy Act:1934.

• Whites paid less on the market for cattle bought from blacks.

• The government paid more to whites for their cattle.

• This system impoverished the blacks who were losing out through this fraudulent commercial arrangement. As the blacks became poorer in the reserves they migrated or translocated to towns.

Industrial Conciliation Act:1934.

• Blacks were denied the right to join trade unions.

• Higher paying jobs were reserved for whites, that is, skilled and semi-skilled jobs.

• The act was latter ammended to allow natives to become nurses and teachers.

Racial Discrimination Act: 1934

← The act barred social inter-action between the races for an example it was an offence for a white to share a toilet with a black man or to mix in schools, hospitals, or hotels even cemeteries.

The Land Husbandry Act: 1951.

← The act barred any African family from owning more than five herd of cattle or eight acres of land in the communal lands.

The Tribal Trust Land Act:1965.

← The act segregated the ownership of land between white areas and black areas. Natives could only occupy land in communal lands without holding title to it. In Towns natives could only lease property and no black man could own a house in town until after 1980.

The Land Tenure Act:1969.

← The act divided the land on racial lines and designated the best 45 000 000 acres as European land and shared among the 250 000 whites and the worst 45 000 000acres was designated as native land to be shared by the 5 000 000 blacks.

← The act also barred the races from encroaching in the other race’s land.


• All black males were required to carry a pass or identity paper which any white man or police officer of any race could demand at any time anywhere. This restricted black freedom of movement from place to place.


After the collapse of traditional resistance in 1898 Zimbabwe was ruled by the British through the BSAC. Africans were speedily brought under control and since company rule was increasingly becoming inadequate and incapable of running the country, the British gave the settlers two options to either join South Africa or to establish responsible self-government. In a referendum in 1923 the settlers chose the latter. The more the settler regime became repressive the more the African spirit of resistance blazed. Early resistance took crude forms such as jamming of factory machines or refusing to work on farms and in mines. More refined resistance took the form of strikes and joining trade unions.

• Between the 1st and 2nd World wars the vehicles for political agitation among blacks were the trade unions. The African Railway Workers Union and the Reformed Commercial and Industrial Workers Union were the first and most effective and they also were non-tribal.

• Bulawayo the industrial city of the nation at the time saw more political activity originating and directed from that quarter. In 1945 the ARWU called a strike that paralyzed the whole network from Mutare to Ndola in Zambia’s copper belt.

• In 1948 a general strike paralyzed all industrial and commercial activity in all cities in the country.

• The white settlers connived to create the federation of the Rhodesians and Nyasaland (Southern and Northern Rhodesia, i.e. Zimbabwe, Zambia and Malawi) and by the early 1950s this absorbed the attention of the natives since there were many false promises associated with the creation of the federation. The federation was eventually created in 1953 and its major features were the following;

• Polarization – all major manufacturing activity was concentrated in Southern Rhodesia.

• The communications infrastructure tended to serve and favour Southern Rhodesia with the Federation railways and airlines being headquartered in Southern Rhodesia

• The University and all other institutions of higher learning were in Southern Rhodesia.

• The settler colonialists embarked on a process of ethnic cleansing designed to rid Southern Rhodesia of all its native blacks and Trans locating them in Northern Rhodesia and replacing them with what were perceived as docile migrant labourers from Zambia and Malawi.

• White settlers established permanent homes in Southern Rhodesia dashing any hopes of early self-determination for all the members of the federation as long as the federation existed.

• 1955 The city National Youth league was formed and it was a purely workers movement operating in the urban areas.

• Church leaders also sympathized with their black congregations’ political aspirations. Some churches criticized the settlers in their sermons and hymns. However there were many racist church leaders who used religion or Christianity to subdue and indoctrinate their black congregations to accept a subservient role. These racist apologists were happy to continue with the policies of segregation in church, politics and the economy and the result was a proliferation of many independent African churches.

• In 1957, September 12, the African National Congress (ANC) was formed and it was a merger between the old ANC and the City Youth League led by Joshua Nkomo. It demanded majority rule.

• It co-opted the rural peasantry and organized mass resistances against the Land Husbandry Act (1951) and it urged the peasants not to cooperate with the government. Garfield Todd, the federation premier (1953-1957) who was a liberal, argued for accommodation of African demands but the avowed racists in his cabinet called for repression of all African political activity. As a result Todd was deposed in an internal coup for giving in to black demands and David Whitehead became premier and in 1959 the SR-ANC was banned and hundreds of blacks thrown in jail.

• 1959 to 1965 saw a host of new repressive laws come into effect such as;

The Native Affairs Act 1959

The Unlawful Organizations Act 1959

The Preventive Detention Act 159

The Emergency Powers Act 1960

THE law and Order Maintenance Act. 1960

← Internal pressure on the settler government produced more and more repression and the nationalists resorted to pressure Britain to reign in the settlers and to give independence to blacks but Britain refused.

← January 1960 the National Democratic Party was formed and replaced the SR-ANC. Joshua Nkomo was elected president and the leardership of the party consisted of Ndabaningi Sithole, Herbet Chitepo, Robert Mugabe, Bernard Chidzero, George Silundika, Jason Moyo, Leopold Takawira, Josiah Chinamano, Dumbutshena etc.

← 1961 The NDP was banned and the same year ZAPU was formed in December.

← 1962 December the Rhodesia Front was elected premier in Southern Rhodesia and the party represented the hard core white racists determined to wipe out all resistance to colonialism and Winston Field was then premier.

← 1962 September ZAPU was banned.

← 1964 August ZANU was formed due to disillusionment with the politics of tolerance and accommodation and the party was led by Ndabaningi Sithole.

← 1964 ZANU was banned and all prominent nationalists were either in prison or in exile.

← 1964 saw the beginning of violent African resistance to colonialism with many acts of sabotage. Of note is the action by self-styled General Chedu who led 100 youths, calling themselves the Zimbabwe Liberation army. The same year ZANU recruited and trained the first armed resistance to colonialism and the Crocodile group drew first blood when they attacked a police station and killed a white farmer in Chimanimani (Melsetter).

← 1964 Ian Smith was elected premier of the settler government.

← 1965 November 11th. Ian Smith’s Rhodesia Front made a Unilateral Declaration of Independence. This made the country an illegal state and although Britain still claimed to be the legitimate ruler they failed to bring to justice the settler regime. At about the same time the little island of Anquilla in the Pacific made a UDI and Britain did not hesitate to reign in the rebels.

← UDI led the nationalists to adopt armed resistance as the first option to gain self-determination and the Smith regime went on a call-out campaign to stifle African aspirations and institutionalized arpertheid or racial segregation as the system of governance and social and economic life. The same year a state of emergency was declared. Such a declaration has the effect of suspending some or all civil liberties and allows the state to take extra judicial measures to deal with the crisis. What followed were many years of state terrorism and murder to which the Africans responded by intensifying the armed resistance - the second Chimurenga war.

← By 1963 the nationalist had secured external bases in independent African countries like Egypt, Tanzania and Zambia to train their armed wings. Zanu’s armed wing became the Zimbabwe National Liberation Army (ZANLA) and ZAPU’s armed wing became known as the Zimbabwe People’s Revolutionary Army (ZIPRA). Training also took place outside Africa in places like Cuba, China, and Russia.

← 1966 at Chinhoyi the first externally trained ZANLA combatants clashed with the security forces and all seven members of the group were killed.

← 1967 August ZIPRA in alliance with the South African National Congress’s armed wing Umkhonto Wesizwe deployed four groups of 20 combatants each group. The majority of combatants were killed in and around Wankie district. Rhodesia airforce began to violate Zambian airspace and another larger group was deployed by the alliance and again was decimated.

← The South African government in response sent troops into Rhodesia and the Smith government passed the Law and order maintenance amendment bill – 7 September 1967. The law provided for a death sentence on anyone caught with arms of war

← Late 1969/early 1970 the Front for the liberation of Mozambique fighting the Portuguees in Mozabmique formed an alliance with ZANLA and with more experience they provided training and logistical support which proved invaluable and led to the opening of the eastern front. Mass mobilisation became the preferred tool of the armed resistance and met with great success. Rhodesia and Portugal began joint operations in 1968.

← 1972 December ZANLA scored success with the attack at Alterna farm Centenary.

← 1974 April in a coup in Portugal General Sipinoza deposed the premier Salazaar and brought immediate independence to Mocambique, Angola and Guinea Bissau.

← 1974 John Vorster South Africa’s Boer premier initiated Détente a policy of accommodation designed to neutralize the armed struggle by promoting internal reactionary African nationalists in Zimbabwe. This stalled and almost derailed the armed struggle especially with the death /assassination of Herbet Chitepo on 18 March 1975 in Zambia.

← Chitepo became the chairman of Dare rechimurenga an organisation formed after the banning and jailing of the nationalist leaders in 1964 and his task was to prosecute the war while the leadership was in prison.

← 1972/1973 in response to guerrilla offensive the keeps or cantonments were introduced in all war fronts to deprive the fighters food and other support.

← 1974 Internal rivalry and dissent rock both ZIPRA and ZANLA and the OAU force the two to combine their armed efforts.

← 1975 December ZANLA AND ZIPRA form the Zimbabwe people’s army (ZIPA) and armed resistance gathered momentum in early 1976 as ZANLA intensified operations in Gaza, Tete and Manica provinces or fronts or regions according to ZIPRA terminology.

← 1976 In bombing raids on camps in Mozambique, Rhodesians killed many refugees and guerillas at Chimoio and Nyadzonya in Mozambique and Freedom camp Mulungushi, and Chifombo in Zambia.

← March 1978 the so called Internal Settlement was reached between anti-war and reactionary black groups in Rhodesia.

← April 1979 the ANC’s Bishop Muzorewa was elected prime minister in sham elections and temporarily the Zimbabwe Rhodesia hybrid state existed and it was not recognized by any state except South Africa. It was during this period that some of the most gruesome murders were perpetrated against refugees and the armed resistance with the authority and concurrence of Bishop Abel Muzorewa’s government.

← South Africa unable to meet the human and economic cost of the war in Rhodesia pressured Smith for a negotiated solution.

← 1979 October the British under international pressure convened the Lancaster house talks. The parties to the talks were the British government, the Patriotic Front (ZANU and ZAPU) and the internal group Muzorewa’s ANC and Smith’s Rhodesia front. The talks could not reconcile the demands of the parties especially on land but both groups hoped against hope that they would win and be able to maintain their claims and positions from a legalised position.

← 1980 March l in internationally supervised elections Muzorewa failed to win a single seat in parliament , Smith only got his reserved 20 whitemen’s seats, ZANU(PF) swept the board with 79 seats and ZAPU(PF) got 20 seats from all of Matebeleland and ZANU – Ndonga got one seat.

← Independence saw many unrepentant whites emigrating to New-Zealand Australia Britain etc. where they continue to reminisce nostalgically about the war and how Britain sold them out.

← 1980 April 18 Zimbabwe became an independent state with Robert Mugabe as premier. The new prime minister offered Joshua Nkomo the titular head of state position but he declined to accept although several ministries were headed by his other fellow ZAPU colleagues.

← 1980 massive arms caches belonging to ZIPRA and which were supposed to have been surrendered to the state are discovered and ZAPUs properties with caches are confiscated by the state. Disturbances of a tribal nature erupt in Bulawayo in Entumbane and some people are killed and the army is sent in to reign in rogue ZIPRA elements and some of these flee to the bush

← 1982 Former ZPRA elements with clear support from the Arpetheid regime in South Africa begin a campaign of sabotage, murder and destabilisation in Matebeleland and the Midlands and such names as Gwesela, Ndevu eziqamula inkomicho became household names for their notoriety. Hoods, Conjwayo and other South African saboteurs and agents provocateurs are apprehended in Zimbabwe. South Africa unleashes a war of destabilization of all frontline states with rebel movements RENAMO in Mozambique and UNITA in Angola wreaking havoc to the economies of all Front line states..

← 1982 In response to the rebellion by some ex ZIPRA elements the Fifth brigade is deployed in Matebeleland and the Midlands and development stalls in the affected areas as hundreds of Shona civilians perish at the hands of dissidents and thousands of Ndebele civilians lose their lives in reprisals by the Fifth Brigade.

← 1987 December 12 after protracted negotiations spearheaded by Zimbabwe’s first non-executive president Mr. Canaan Banana, a unity agreement is signed between ZANU PF and ZAPU PF. A new party ZANU PF is created and Joshua Nkomo became a co-vice president with Simon Muzenda. All dissident to be incorporated into society and no charges to be preferred against them and similarly no charges to be preferred against any member of the Fifth Brigade.

← 1980 saw the end of all formal or legal racial segregation but this evil and immoral practice continued and exists unabated to date. The new government made strides to correct the colonial evils in the following areas;

1. Universal free primary and secondary education.

2. Free medical and health care

3. Policy of reconciliation towards the former settler colonialists to which they have to date spurned.

4. Land distribution under the willing seller willing buyer basis.

5. Integrate and demobilize the belligerents

6. Indeginisation- enabling the native Africans to own and control business.

7. Expanding trade with the region and the world at large

← 1991 A foreign driven Economic structural programme from the IMF and World Bank was adopted. The programme required Zimbabwe to liberalize trade, that is, allow free movement of goods from outside, restrict or cut expenditure, and devalue or allow the local currency to float.

← 1998 due to ESAP food rioting took place in the major towns due to the negative effects of ESAP.

← 1998 August the Zimbabwe Defense Forces are deployed to the DRC to help the beleaguered Kabila regime.

← 1998 November Nearing the end of the restrictive 20 year non-compulsory acquisition of land close in the Lancaster agreement, a Land Donor Conference is organised and many foreign donors pledge to assist Zimbabwe but not a cent is remitted.

← 1999 The labour Union leadership break ranks with government and threatens to form a political party under the leadership of Morgan Tsvangirai and in September the same year this actually happens in the form of the Movement for Democratic Change.

← War veterans receive lump and monthly gratuities and in the build up to the 2000 elections the labour leadership cum opposition party slides more and more to the right and is seen supporting settler colonial interests in land commerce and industry and receives massive monetary and moral support from the same quarter. This alliance also receives massive external assistance from foreign interests like the USA and UK governments directly or indirectly through such organisations as the Westminister Foundation etc.

← February 2000 a new draft constitution is taken to the people in a referendum and labour, the opposition together with civic organisations mobilise the electorate to reject it because allegedly it confers too much power on the president but really because of the ‘no compensation for land compulsorily acquired for settlement” clause in the constitution.

← 2000 February realising the near success of the landed white class in derailing the land redistribution by using political parties they funded and helped to found, Veterans of Zimbabwe’s 2nd Chimurenga and landless peasants occupied white owned farms and forced government to make appropriate legislation to fast track land distribution – The Land Acquisition Act 2000.

← 2000 June in parliamentary elections the new party almost upset the ruling ZANU(PF) party and wins 57 seats to 63 for ZANU PF.

← 2000/2001 the opposition near success gives impetus to Britain to ostracize the Mugabe regime and begins to talk about regime and forces its friends to impose sanctions on Zimbabwe to ruin the economy in order to make the electorate vote him out of power. Inflation rises steadily and local white employers on the whole do everything to arm twist the electorate to vote Mugabe out of power.

← 2002 Presidential elections are won by the ZANU PF candidate and the MDC refuses to concede defeat or to recognize the new government and goes to court to challenge the election results and alleges intimidation vote rigging etc.

← 2003 the nation is in a political stalemate with threaten invasion from Britain and America and court challenges to the presidency continuing and the opposition top leadership is arrested and taken to court for trying to assassinate the president.

← 2004 The 2003 scenario continues but inflation begins to fall and a general optimistic expectation pervades the nation as preparation and campaigning for the 2005 gubernatorial elections get underway.


The heritage of any nation is based on that nation’s enduring political tradition. In the USA, the national heritage is a deep rooted political legacy born out of the war and rebellion against Great Britain and this is embodied in the term REPUBLICANISM. The French, who are fiercely proud of their heritage, have the French revolution which climaxed in the storming of the Bastille palace and the slaughter of the nobility as their national heritage. Similarly, the young nation of Zimbabwe has the ethos of the second Chimurenga as the national and enduring political tradition. The second chimurenga ethos embodies political, cultural as well as economic principles which define and continue to sustain us as a nation. To destroy any nation, all one has to do is undermine that nation’s heritage hence the continuing psychological war by the enemies of Zimbabwe to distort and demonize not only the second chimurenga war but those who participated in that war and especially the heroic leaders of that struggle.

A heritage can be defined as an enduring legacy, a definitive event, achievement, tradition or theory to which the peoples of a specific nation rally around, and have emotional attachments and for which they are prepared to defend and to go to war if threatened or violated.


Culture in Zimbawe reflects the major ethnic and tribal groups in the society The demographic statistics show that the people of Shona extraction constitute about ninety percent of the population with the Ndebele at 2.5%, Tonga, Venda, Kalanga, Cewa Nambia, Shangaan and other smaller groups constituting about 7%. The white population has dwindled to less than 0.1% of the population. Inspite of their small number the Ndebele influence on culture is fairly strong not only on the smaller groups but has rubbed on to the Shona tribes adjacent to them. The reverse is also quite true. Culture is dynamic. As a result it is a correct generalization that there is such a thing as African culture in Zimbabwe as opposed to European culture. There are at most only variations in customs among the various African groups in Zimbabwean society but the customs are either the same or closely resemble each other. Zimbabwean African culture has the following major elements;

- Nuclear or extended family

- Recognition and respect for age, parents and authority.

- Respect for hard and honest work.

- Acceptance of good morals in terms of dress, sex, and marriage.

There has however been a strong negative influence due to the mass media on the African culture in Zimbabwe. Television radio and the print media have done much harm in undermining the superior African culture by encouraging foreign tastes and habits in terms of diet, dress, the family, marriage, sex and the extended family. The first culprit has been the African family with divorce (unknown and unthinkable in pure African culture) wrecking many families. Disease due to sex before marriage and prostitution has grown to pandemic levels especially AIDS related ailments. The white mans’ consumption or spending patterns have also spread among young Zimbabweans and they are finding the extended family unbearable. Greed and exclusiveness are the hallmarks of the white mans’ culture and this is spreading fast among urbanized Africans. Unlike the white person in Zimbabwe, the African does not have sufficient expendable cash and as a result debt and unfulfilled desires and wants are making the lives of many Zimbaweans miserable.

African culture remains the superior culture in that it keeps society and the nation cemented. Moreover such social ills as prostitution, pandemics, street kids, crime and political opportunism (kutengesa nyika) because of greed would be non-existent. All these ills are a result of lack of self-respect and lack of personal identity due to wanting to be a white person e.g. Michael Jackson who straightens his nose or an African woman who wears false hair extensions to look like a Caucasian or preferring to speak in a foreign language and not vernacular.

The legacies we have as Africans in terms of diet are also unchalengable in that traditional diet consisting of small grains legumes and African fruits, vegetables and nuts naturally prevent such diseases as obesity/kusimba - a common feature of most urbanized woman and the major cause of high blood pressure, hypertension, osteoporosis and infertility.

In medicine, traditional herbs and a good diet remain undoubtedly the panacea for a long healthy life and the solution to such problems as AIDS more so than condoms.

Marriage and the family are the economic base of any society and nation. Premarital sex, divorce and sex for money and perversions such as lesbianism, homosexuality, drug taking (including alcohol) are factors that directly attack and undermine the family, and as such, society. A multiplicity of sexual partners before marriage will always lead one to either multiple sex partners in marriage or lack of satisfaction with one partner in marriage.

In religion opinions vary but the facts remain. In African culture the fundamentals of Christianity are firmly embedded. Respect for age, parents and authority, good morals that is no fornication or adultery no perversion that is no homosexuality, taking care of the needy etc. are biblical positions that remain unchangeable. In short the white mans’ culture is not only incompatible with Christianity, it is in fact the antithesis and a direct attack on everything Godly, that is, it is devilish. The problem between African religion and Christianity is not lack of morals in African religion, but methods of accessing God or worship. Indeed this writer is convinced there is lots of superstition with respect to methods of worship in African religion in as much as most main line and emerging Christian churches are thoroughly paginated. It is only right and good therefore to promote and maintain our morally superior culture while adopting correct Christian methods of worship.

Our religious inheritance will therefore remain for all time our good cultural values or morals.

The values of any society therefor serve to define that society’s identity. History has much been distorted by painting the African culture as irreligious to the extent that it is almost the accepted value among most young Zimbaweans to be immoral because a White Christian has an immoral value or practice for an example walking naked or partial naked in public despite the fact that this violates Christian principles. The Black person should there for not use the Whiteman’s values, or morals or immorals as the case may be as the reference point for good or bad values but should use traditional practice as the point of departure and compare that with biblical principles which remain unchanging Our values as Africans clearly identify and portray us as a people who shun immorality graft corruption and laziness. We respect family and authority and hard work. We believe in God and we have no room for atheism in our culture.

The second chimurenga also defines our political and economic values. At the economic level the legacy of the second chimurenga and our heritage from that event is that the resources that are God given belong to Zimbabweans irrespective of race or creed or tribe. Thus the land as resource number one belongs to all Zimbabweans. White Zimbabweans with very negligible exceptions believe that land and all ill gotten gains from the international crime of colonialism and accompanying ethnic cleansing and segregation are legitimately and exclusively the property of those former criminals. Whites do not want to share our land with us . We have said we will equitably share our land with whites and that remains and will always remain the Zimbabwean African’s morally right and correct position. Any so called Zimbabwean therefor of any race who departs from this position is not only a threat to the interests of the Nation, but is in effect and in essence declaring that the second chimurenga was not won and lost, that is, won by the Africans in Zimbabawe through much blood and joy, and lost by settler colonialists through by much blood and tears. It amounts to a declaration of war.

Through hard work and self- sustaining economic policies, Zimbabweans with land firmly in their hands, can engage other nations at the economic level and benefit from the comparative advantages we have in terms of skilled disciplined labour, good climate, an abundance of minerals and varied flora and fauna - domestic and wild. Economic activity therefor should benefit Zimbabweans first and foremost and this should happen through an internal driven economic programme and not one that is externally driven. Political liberation simply relates to universal common suffrage being available to all citizens. This was gained fully at Lancaster as manifested in the result of the 1980 elections and subsequent elections whether presidential or gubernatorial. Such a gain is hollow and empty and absolutely useless if it is not used to bring about economic emancipation. Political emancipation there for leads to and of necessity must lead to economic emancipation. This has eluded not only Africa but most of the former colonies through the practice of neo colonialism by the former colonizers and the USA and most of the developed world. The war for economic emancipation is the last war and it is the most difficult war in that it is now being fought at the psychological level through global media houses and the agency of corrupted local comprador/reactionary/collaborator journalists who raise and imagine and publish false notions of the freedoms of expression assembly and association. This leads to people as it were shooting themselves in the foot because they through a corrupted democracy – one in which the voters’ perceptions have been warped in favour of their colonisers - vote into power those who perpetrate their economic subjugation. The battle for perceptions is an unfair war, and it is most cruel and criminal because of the open aggression through demands made on former colonies under the guise of human rights.

At the political level the second chimurengas’ heritage is that as a people we are sovereign and can determine our own destiny without outside interference and through democratic processes designed to safeguard our hard won independence. (see governance under legal and parliamentary affairs.)

National resources.

Zimbawe is endowed with many natural resources which in certain instances places the nation on the strategic resources map of the world.


Zinbabwe’s land mass is about - million square miles and has a very conducive climate being neither too hot nor too cold and has an average rainfall of about 1500 ml.


Zimbabwe has the following minerals; chrome, iron, coal, gold, copper, tin, emeralds. Diamonds, platinum nickel.

Our Chrome, platinum, nickel and coal reserves are of global strategic importance because they are ranked in the top five in terms of quantity and quality. Unfortunately control of these minerals is still in foreign hands and as a nation we also are not yet adding value to them.

Wild life

The three major game parks in Zimbabwe are second to the combined Kenyan and Tanzanian wild life population of the Serengeti game park. The big five wild game –elephant, buffalo, giraffe, lion and rhino are more abundant in our game parks than in any other park in the world..


With a population of about 14 000 000 people Zimbabwe is still sparsely populated considering that our land mass can sustain seventy million people with optimal economic utilization. The plus about this population is its literacy levels –about 87% and its varied skills base from which even the most advanced nations are tapping into. Through many tricks especially after the 2000 parliamentary elections, the Western countries have not rested in trying to spark a civil war in Zimbabwe which they will use as a pretext to directly interfere in the politics of this nation. Thatchell the infamous homosexual has been quoted as saying that he is not only organizing but sponsoring a group consisting of personnel in Zimbabwe’s armed forces and in the diaspora to militarily bring about an end to the Mugabe regime in Zimbabwe. The West Minister Foundation And even much earlier the Heritage Foundation a USA right wing organization are trying and had tried to use opposition parties in Zimbabwe to engage the Zimbabwean armed forces . On the whole the people of this nation have refused to be used in this very destructive and dangerous way and have democratically expressed their wishes at the polls. The people of this nation save those who pipe and beat the drum of this nation’s enemies remain resolutely united in the face of an unprecedented onslaught from Europe and the USA. o


The National Anthem

Born and inspired by the war of liberation, the national anthem is as it were the rallying point of the nation. Authored by Professor Mutsvairo, it describes and narrates in a few words our origins, history, beliefs and aspirations.

The National Flag

The national flag represents state wood and together with the court of arms they are the official and visible tokens of the state and its authority and existence. The flag is also a product of the war of liberation. The red star represents our socialist ideals and the Zimbabwe bird proudly points back to our distant origins and prowess as a people and nation in antiquity among the great civilizations of the world. The white background on which the above two are superimposed represents our desire for peace and tranquility within and without. The red stripes symbolize the blood of the heroes who died liberating the country, yellow our mineral resources, green our flora and fauna and black the indigenous African natives of this nation. It is incumbent upon every Zimbabwean and any foreigner on our soil to acknowledge our statehood by standing at attention when the flag is lowered where ever and whatever one is doing. Standing at attention is not a religious act as some overzealous and misguided so called Christians think. Kneeling or bowing down in reverence is a religious act reserved for God, which is why Shadrech and his other two friends were thrown into a furnace. Nowhere in Christian writing is standing erect an act of worship or homage. It would be only right and fair to refuse to kneel to the flag for every Christian. It is only right and fair for every Christian to stand erect in recognition not homage of those who rule them.

The Great Zimbabwe monument.

Located near Masvingo town , it represents unparalleled architectural design and construction and stands as a direct insult to those who have ridiculed Africans of possessing no scientific psychological make up or achievements or capability. It was used as a palace and a temple by the kings of the great Zimbabwe period and latter dynasties.

The Victoria Falls.

A natural geological formation from years of erosion, the feature has few rivals if any and has water plunging a hundred meters forming thunder and mist from which its more appropriate Tonga names is derived from –mosi a-tunya the smoke that thunders. It is the nation’s prime tourist resort attraction.



As technology has advanced so has disasters or accidents associated with it and at the same time what appears to be natural disasters have also increased. Management of these disasters has become a major science and the role of each citizen in disasters has become an imperative. Major disasters can be listed as,

-disease pandemics eg. AIDS, SARS and Ebola

-Floods as a result of unusually high rainfall due to industrialization or broken dam walls

-Drought due to changing weather patterns as a result of industrialization.

-Accidents at the work place e.g. airplane crashes, gas leaks, nuclear contamination.



← Disease management is first and foremost an individual responsibility. Correct dietary and sexual habits are the first front line. Each individual is a national resource and eating junk food or recklessly imbibing in drugs or alcohol destroys that line as much as taking irresponsible and immoral sexual behavior like sex before marriage or infidelity within marriage. With infectious diseases, each individual should take note and report any suspected infections and quarantine self or the affected victim.

← Floods, earthquakes and workplace disasters require the nation to rally behind those affected by donating food and clothes and shelter. It is also necessary to avoid flood and quake prone areas and to take heed to quake or flood warning.

← Industrial accidents are a manmade problem which require social responsibility to minimize the risks. There is no such thing as safe technology. The issue at stake is risk minimization and management.

← Droughts have always been there before the white man’s agriculture and especially exotic crops such as maize. Despite droughts, Africa was not found unpopulated as a result. A banana plant does not grow in Gokwe as naturally as it does in Rusitu valley in as much as maize thrives in Peru but is prone to drought in Zimbawe. Maize is a stock feed that grows well in its homeland in South America but is prone to drought in Zimbabwe. On the other hand small grains thrive in Zimbabwe and are highly nutritious for humans. The paradigm shift in our dietary habits will go a long way towards national food self sufficiency because eventually sooner rather than latter even irrigated crops will fail when there is no flow in the dams. There is no other credible long lasting solution to drought at the family or national level than reverting to the small grains.

← :In defense of the Nation

← All stable nations thrive on patriotism. Patriotism relates to each citizen’s ability to identify with his nation by being able to distinguish between party political issues and national issues. Sovereignty, land and defending the nation are not party political issues but national issues to which every real Zimbabwean must stand up in defense.

Patriotism means ;

- Defending the nation physically and in armed combat when called upon to do so by the authorities in power or individually when the situation so demands like in the case of unilateral superpower attack.

- Defending the nation through positive publicity. The nation’s greatest and most potent enemy today is the one amongst us who agrees to spread falsehoods about the nation’s politics and economy. Other than the dissident menace, Zimbabwe has been the most peaceful nation at par with countries like Botswana and Namibia.

- Supporting the nation through correct tax payments

- Practice environmentally friendly practices e.g. avoiding littering, pollution etc.

- Preserve the national asset that is oneself by avoiding graft, crime, corruption, greed and harmful behavior such as premarital sex, drug abuse etc..

- Respect and tolerate other races, tribes, religions opinions and beliefs.

- Cherish unity in diversity among the various stake holders in spite of differences in approaches.



• Need to develop rural areas to stop rural-urban drift and to correct a hundred years of colonial rule.

• Redirect economic priorities to serve the whole population rather than a small white section of the population.

• Bring health. Education, and shelter to all Zimbabweans.

• Recurring drought - 1983, 1992, 1997, 2002 as it negatively affects the national economy and agricultural production.

• Deal with unfavourable terms of trade.

• Stop the shrinking in the economy and reverse growing unemployment.

• Resolve inflation and the Devaluation of the Zimbabwean dollar against major international currencies

• Gradual increase in prices of basic commodities due to speculation and profiteering.

• Falling commodity prices in the international market.

• Dis investment due to a more vigorous indegenisaion economic approach.

• Political interference in the nation’s politics through the sponsoring and creation of opposition parties with a foreign agenda..

• The brain drain

• Corruption

• Decline in moral values leading to AIDS


• Drought in Zimbabwe has been partly alleviated by importing grain from abroad and construction of dams and also creating grain strategic reserves seeds packs given to peasants to help them recover from droughts. Of major importance has been the redistribution of land and reducing pressure in the congested rural areas and settling people in areas with fertile soils and high rainfall.

• The Ministry of Employment Creation and indigenisation have gone some way in creating employment.

• Externally originated and driven economic policies have been abandoned in favour of home grown solutions

• Profiteering and speculation which fueled inflation have been checked gradually restoring sanity to the financial sector.

• ESAP has been abandoned by the government and attention has been redirected to the East Asian economies to encourage investment and cooperation..

• SADC and COMESA Union trade arrangements have been adopted to encourage an increase in international trade.

• However, Zimbabwe has not managed to solve all problems.

• Cost sharing in Education and Health have been instituted to alleviate spiralling costs..

• Indigenisation, affirmative action, creation of SEDCO, The Land bank land redistribution etc. have all gone a long way towards alleviating the unemployment problem.

• New monetary policies together with an anticorruption drive have seen inflation decreasing slowly but gradually.

• Reawakening of the peoples’ moral values and their culture as a solution to decreasing and ultimately wiping out STDs and AIDS infection.

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