Free Essay

National Income Trens

In: Business and Management

Submitted By RVG89
Words 399
Pages 2
1950 to mid-1970s: Income poverty reduction shows no discernible trend. In 1951, 47% of India's rural population was below the poverty line. The proportion went up to 64% in 1954-55; it came down to 45% in 1960-61 but in 1977-78, it went up again to 51%.
Mid-1970s to 1990: Income poverty declined significantly between the mid-1970s and the end of the 1980s. The decline was more pronounced between 1977-78 and 1986-87, with rural income poverty declining from 51% to 39%. It went down further to 34% by 1989-90. Urban income poverty went down from 41% in 1977-78 to 34% in 1986-87, and further to 33% in 1989-90.
After 1991: This post-economic reform period evidenced both setbacks and progress. Rural income poverty increased from 34% in 1989-90 to 43% in 1992 and then fell to 37% in 1993-94. Urban income poverty went up from 33.4% in 1989-90 to 33.7% in 1992 and declined to 32% in 1993-94 Also, NSS data for 1994-95 to 1998 show little or no poverty reduction, so that the evidence till 1999-2000 was that poverty, particularly rural poverty, had increased post-reform. However, the official estimate of poverty for 1999-2000 was 26.1%, a dramatic decline that led to much debate and analysis. This was because for this year the NSS had adopted a new survey methodology that led to both higher estimated mean consumption and also an estimated distribution that was more equal than in past NSS surveys. The latest NSS survey for 2004-05 is fully comparable to the surveys before 1999-2000 and shows poverty at 28.3% in rural areas, 25.7% in urban areas and 27.5% for the country as a whole, using Uniform Recall Period Consumption. The corresponding figures using the Mixed Recall Period Consumption method was 21.8%, 21.7% and 21.8% respectively. Thus, poverty has declined after 1998, although it is still being debated whether there was any significant poverty reduction between 1989-90 and 1999-00. The latest NSS survey was so designed as to also give estimates roughly, but not fully, comparable to the 1999-2000 survey. These suggest that most of the decline in rural poverty over the period during 1993-94 to 2004-05 actually occurred after 1999-2000.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Lebanon vs. Egypt

...224,000. The Lebanese economy is noted for its resilience, having withstood wars and invasions with Israel as well as internal sectarian clashes and at times dominating influence from Syria. It is this resilience that helped Lebanon achieve 9% growth during the Great Financial Crisis. The growth was nurtured by controlled banking regulations that restricted credit and therefore, its impact during the recession. As of 2011, the World Bank classified the middle class in Lebanon as those people who earn between $15,000 and $27,000 annually. But the World Bank statistics tell Lebanon’s actual story. Citing its (World Bank) numbers, Neaime estimates that only 5-10 percent fit this category. Seventy percent of the population generates an annual income of less than $10,000 annually while 15 percent live in abject poverty The other country I am focusing on is Egypt. Egypt is an...

Words: 1909 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Hello

...ECONOMIC SURVEY 2014-15 STATISTICAL APPENDIX STATISTICAL APPENDIX : ECONOMIC SURVEY 2014-15 1. National Income and Production 1.1 1.2 1.3 A1 1.3 A2 1.3 B1 1.3 B2 1.4 A 1.4 B 1.5 1.6 1.7 A 1.7 B 1.8 A 1.8 B 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.25 1.26 1.27 1.28 Gross National Income and Net National Income .................................................................................................. Annual Growth Rates of Gross National Income and Net National Income ...................................................... Gross Value Added at Factor Cost by Industry of Origin (at Constant Prices) ................................................... Gross Value Added at Basic Prices by Industry of Origin (at Constant Prices) ................................................... Gross Value Added at Factor Cost by Industry of Origin (at Current Prices) ...................................................... Gross Value Added at Basic Prices by Industry of Origin (at Current Prices) ...................................................... Annual Growth Rates of Real Gross Value Added at Factor Cost by Industry of Origin (Per cent) ................ Annual Growth Rates of Real Gross Value Added at Basic Prices by Industry of Origin (Per cent) ................ Gross Domestic Saving and Gross Capital Formation (at Current Prices) .......................................................... Gross......

Words: 88740 - Pages: 355

Premium Essay

Nigeria Report

...Nigeria, located in West Africa, is Africa’s most populous country with the recent estimate at 170 million. In spite of possessing huge human capital, fertile soils and being oil-rich, Nigeria can teach the mineral rich world a lesson or two about what not to do. Corruption, political instability, pollution and poor management are some of the reasons Nigeria has not been able to rise and gain the status it should have in the African continent. Macro-economic factors • Gross Domestic Product (GDP) A look at the real GDP growth of Nigeria shows that it has ranged between 6.4% and 7.8% from 2007-2013. It reached its peak of 7.8% in 2010 and is forecasted to be 6.4% in 2012 as compared to the world average of 2.2% and 3.9% for Sub-Saharan Africa. Economists say that it is in fact the non-oil sector that has pushed the economy forward, and will continue to do so. Growth can largely be attributed to activities in telecommunications followed by building and construction, and the services sector in general. Regulatory body, the Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC) was established in 1992, and commenced full market liberalization and reform in 2000. It is sensed that investment in telecom has triggered off an economic chain which has positively impacted other sectors of the economy. GDP growth has not improved the living standards of the Nigerian people. They continue to be inundated with increased unemployment, poverty, poor healthcare among various others. As seen below...

Words: 729 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Philippine Economy

...The Philippine economy managed to grow in the first semester of 2014 despite the haunting effect of Typhoon Yolanda that hit the country during the fourth quarter of 2013 and the lingering weakness of the global economy. For the first semester of 2014, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) grew by 6.0%, relatively slower than 7.8% reported in the first semester of 2013 and below the 6.5% -7.5% National Government’s target for the year. Meanwhile, Gross National Income (GNI) accelerated by 7.2% from 6.8% in the first semester of 2013. The Philippine is usually described as domestic-demand driven economy, but because of logistical challenges this year, the second quarter growth of 2014 was driven by net exports. Total exports grew by 10.3 % in the second quarter of 2014, a rebound from the 7.7% contraction in the same period last year. The growth was fuelled by exports of goods and exports of services. Total exports of goods increased by 10.0% in the second quarter of 2014 from a decline of 8.8% in the same period last year. Electronics manufacturers, the country’s largest exporters, improved their export growth forecast for the year to 8.0% from the previous 5.0% with demand expected to improve on the back of the economic recovery in the industry’s major export markets like the United States and China, and the lifting of Manila’s extended truck ban. Household Final Consumption Expenditures continued to expand in the second quarter of 2014 by 5.3% relative to the 5.1% reported in......

Words: 489 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Ecomomic Outlook & World Development Indicators

...of 1 page, double-spaced, Word or PDF document. However, you can have unlimited number of exhibits that should be put in an Appendix in the same file. Hint: * http://globaledge.msu.edu * Go to Resource Desk: http://globaledge.msu.edu/ResourceDesk/ * Search Phrase: "World Development Indicators" * Resource Name: World Bank: World Development Indicators globalEDGE™ * Category: "News & Periodicals: Publications" * Website: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator On the World Bank website, click on the "By Country" tab and select India. Then, go to the corresponding indicators. Extended Hints: A. Economic policy and external debt Gross National Income (GNI) * Income generated by a nation’s residents from domestic and foreign activity. * Preferred over GDP which measures in addition income from nonresidents. GNI/capita: * reveals purchasing power of the country. * Compare to other countries, e.g., high values and advanced economies. Growth Rate in GNI/Capita * * Important since high values indicate a high growth market. * As GNI or GNI/capita it is affected by underground economy (ideally we need an estimate for this). * Managers usually will prefer a fast-growing market, all else constant. If a choice has to be made between (1) high GNI/capita but low...

Words: 1555 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Porshce

...From: National Accounts at a Glance 2013 Access the complete publication at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/na_glance-2013-en National income Please cite this chapter as: OECD (2013), “National income”, in National Accounts at a Glance 2013, OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/na_glance-2013-6-en This work is published on the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD. The opinions expressed and arguments employed herein do not necessarily reflect the official views of the Organisation or of the governments of its member countries. This document and any map included herein are without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area. INCOME 4. National income While per capita gross domestic product is the indicator most commonly used to compare income levels, two other measures are preferred, at least in theory, by many analysts. These are per capita Gross National Income (GNI) and Net National Income (NNI). an imputation, and, since there is no actual transaction, it is necessary to impute an outflow of the same amount. The imputed outflow is treated as a financial transaction (a reinvestment of earnings abroad) and not as an outflow of property income. Countries with large stocks of outward foreign direct investment may be shown as having large receipts of property income from abroad and therefore high GNI even though......

Words: 1374 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

China

...[pic] A2 Business Studies Pre-Release Research Task ‘Development in Emerging Markets: China’ Learner Name: _____________________________ Preparing for A2 Business The Unit 3 examination Strategies for success • 25% of A level • 1 hour 45 minutes exam • 80 marks • The exam is case study based and comprises one 10 mark calculation question, two 18 mark evaluation questions and one 34 mark report. The Unit 4 examination The Business Environment and Managing Change • 25% of A level • 1 hour 45 minutes exam • 80 marks • Section A: Pre-release research tasks leading to a 40 mark essay • Section B: Choice of 3 essays, one must be chosen for 40 marks • This unit is synoptic – this means that it pulls together all the material from the entire AS and A2 specification. There are two key additional elements of preparation for this paper: Complete the research task The research task is designed to enable you to investigate in detail a small part of the Unit 4 specification. The research brief will give you precise guidance on the tasks to complete. Do not make too much of this task and extend your research beyond what is asked. Do, however, relate your research to a variety of large businesses producing goods and services and operating in different markets. Read widely about business You should read newspapers, magazines, and books, watch television and surf the internet for......

Words: 6232 - Pages: 25

Free Essay

Index Economy

...There are three sections to differ the economy system used between Angola and Switzerland which are: * Index of economy freedom * Gross National Income and Gross Domestic Product * DHL Global Competitiveness Index 2013-2014. 1. Index of economy freedom Angola According to the 2014 Index of Economy Freedom, Angola listed as 160th out of 178 countries that are under observation. With total score is 47.7, this nation has a lot of troubles in term of rule of law, open market and government spending. In law, the government uncontrolled the corruption cases and it might become the barrier for international investors to contribute Angola’s wealth because it is risky to set up the business inside the distrust government. For evidence, the corruption perception index 2012 stated that Angola ranked as 22nd country most corrupt. Besides, this country got low score in term of property right which is 15. Based on the information, Angola is one of the strong socialism countries due the government control the income of the business and fail to reform the economy since the weak rule of law and trade freedom. Same with other socialism nations, the government ignore the opinion from their citizens. In fact, the labor freedom score in 2013 was 44.8, less 15.9 point from the average Index of economic freedom while the freedom of the press was under depression as ranked 157th out of 197 nations. Therefore the policy of “property is held in common and not individually, and......

Words: 2287 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

National Income of India

...The Central Statistics Office (CSO), Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation has released the advance estimates of national income at constant (2004-05) and current prices, for the financial year 2011-12. 2. These advance estimates are based on anticipated level of agricultural and industrial production, analysis of budget estimates of government expenditure and performance of key sectors like, railways, transport other than railways, communication, banking and insurance, available so far. The advance estimates at current prices are derived by estimating the implicit price deflators (IPDs) at sectoral level from the relevant price indices. The salient features of these estimates are detailed below: I ADVANCE ESTIMATES OF NATIONAL INCOME, 2011-12 Estimates at Constant (2004-05) Prices Gross Domestic Product 3. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at factor cost at constant (2004-05) prices in the year 2011- 12 is likely to attain a level of Rs. 52,22,027 crore, as against the Quick Estimates of GDP for the year 2010-11 of Rs. 48,85,954 crore, released on 31 st January 2012. The growth in GDP during 2011-12 is estimated at 6.9 per cent as compared to the growth rate of 8.4 per cent in 2010-11. 4 . The growth rate of 6.9 per cent in GDP during 2011-12 has been due to the growth rates of over 8 per cent in the sectors of ‘electricity, gas and water supply’, 'trade, hotels, transport and communication', and 'financing,......

Words: 3086 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Bangladesh Gdp 2011

...Table 1. Gross Domestic Product of Bangladesh at Current Prices, 2007-08 to 2010-11(p) (Million Tk.) Industrial origin sector 1. 2006-07 AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY a) b) c) Crops & horticulture Animal Farmings Forest and related services 2. FISHING 3. MINING AND QUARRYING a) b) 4. MANUFACTURING a) b) 5. Natural gas and crude petroleum Other mining & coal Large & medium scale Small scale ELECTRICITY, GAS AND WATER SUPPLY a) Electricity b) Gas c) Water 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11(p) 701,242 524,676 107,803 68,763 802,015 605,784 121,182 75,049 894,264 672,467 140,022 81,775 1,005,880 753,391 162,188 90,301 1,133,884 850,228 183,644 100,012 177,827 197,901 218,064 242,229 269,928 53,217 28,453 24,764 61,517 31,641 29,876 70,910 35,900 35,010 81,141 40,393 40,748 90,206 42,196 48,010 811,780 576,881 234,899 939,008 667,587 271,421 1,064,453 756,104 308,349 1,201,081 848,991 352,090 1,384,296 988,355 395,941 55,899 45,671 6,512 3,716 60,704 49,551 7,162 3,991 65,421 53,109 7,929 4,383 71,945 58,398 8,762 4,786 77,123 62,728 9,092 5,303 6. CONSTRUCTION 375,432 438,538 501,253 556,581 623,248 7. WHOLESALE AND RETAIL TRADE 660,113 782,203 882,764 1,002,946 1,139,022 8. HOTEL AND......

Words: 4770 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Gni & Gdp

...Philippines Gross National Product 1998-2016 | Data | Chart | Calendar Gross National Product in Philippines increased to 2280919 PHP Million in the third quarter of 2015 from 2263089 PHP Million in the second quarter of 2015. Gross National Product in Philippines averaged 1476240.99 PHP Million from 1998 until 2015, reaching an all time high of 2280919 PHP Million in the third quarter of 2015 and a record low of 944320 PHP Million in the second quarter of 1998. Gross National Product in Philippines is reported by the Philippine National Statistical Coordination Board. PHILIPPINE ECONOMY POSTS 6.0 PERCENT GDP GROWTH GDP grew   year-on-year   by 6.0 percent in the third quarter of 2015. This is higher than the growth rates of 5.8 percent in the second quarter of 2015 and the 5.5 percent in the third quarter of 2014. The    third quarter growth was driven by the Services   sector   which accelerated to 7.3 percent from 5.6 percent.    This performance is   the highest   since   the 7.4 percent growth recorded in the third quarter of 2013.  The entire Agriculture sector recovered in the third quarter by 0.4 percent from a 2.6 percent decline posted during the same period last year.  On the other hand, the Industry sector slowed down to 5.4 percent from 7.8 percent last year. Among the three major economic sectors, Services gave the highest contribution to the GDP growth in the third quarter with 4.2 percentage points.  This was followed by Industry with 1.8 percentage......

Words: 366 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Cpdone

...This PDF is a selection from an out-of-print volume from the National Bureau of Economic Research Volume Title: Input-Output Analysis: An Appraisal Volume Author/Editor: Volume Publisher: Princeton University Press Volume ISBN: 0-870-14173-2 Volume URL: http://www.nber.org/books/unkn55-2 Publication Date: 1955 Chapter Title: Interindustry Economics and National Income Theory Chapter Author: Herman Liebling Chapter URL: http://www.nber.org/chapters/c2870 Chapter pages in book: (p. 291 - 320) Interindustry Economics and National Income Theory HERMAN I. LIEBLING DIVISION OF INTERINDUSTEY ECONOMICS, BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS A. Frameworks of Comparison Within the limits of the broad concepts underlying interindustry and national income accounting, the substance of this paper deals with, first, criteria of social accounting and, second, differences in analytic approach required by the specialized structure of differently composed social accounting systems. A pattern of interindustry flows of goods and services may, of course, be developed independently of considerations of social accounting or of measures of output for the economy—the two objectives of the national income system. This paper, however, seeks to evaluate the two systems of accounts, in the light of the considerations noted above, in terms of (1) similarities and differences between types of activities and transactions included, (2) the relationship of the respective sector accounts, and (3) the types of......

Words: 11416 - Pages: 46

Free Essay

A股市场运行总有些时候会出乎多数人意料1

...  【开利综合分析】A股市场运行总有些时候会出乎多数人意料。1月14日,相信在郭主席表态内容曝光之前,就已能预见大涨的人堪称神仙。昨天的行情是消息面和资金面一次绝佳的配合,而郭主席的相关表态也用心良苦。   说实话,本轮行情从1949点反弹到现在,真正的单日大行情也就只有4根大阳线和2根中阳线。其他时候沪指横盘整理的情况更多。但也就是上述几个交易日的力挺,让指数涨了350多点。因此,对大阳线背后的逻辑有必要进行了解。   郭主席表示,他希望QFII和RQFII的规模能够在现有基础上扩大10倍。正是此消息使原本有意休息一下的多头被注入强心剂。用一句网络流行语来说,就是瞬间“满血复活”。希望QFII规模扩大10倍的消息为何有如此大的威力?目前QFII规模为374.43亿美元,扩大10倍就将增至3744.3亿美元。如果真的QFII能达到如此规模,对A股市场的推动作用显然毋庸置疑。   然而,是否郭主席希望那么多外资进来,就真的有那么多外资可以获批进入?我想,即便这并非一厢情愿,至少这个进程不一定能很迅速。此前郭主席多次提出要引入社保资金和其他长期资金入市,此次又提到QFII大扩容,最终效果如何,只能拭目以待。   昨天沪指收出一根大阳线,在消化了消息面利好之后,接下来行情会如何?这样的行情对于股指期货市场上做空的人而言,将会感到比较难受。的确,四、五根阳线造就一轮行情,这在历史上也不多见。而这样的行情,如果多头不是一直持股不动,操作难度也不小。因此,接下来不论是看多还是看空,投资者都有必要更加小心应对。 GDP还是 GNP?   【开利综合分析】过去数十年来,“国内生产总值”(Gross Domestic Product,GDP)是世界各国通用的经济发展指标。但其实在较早的时期,较被广泛采用的是“国民生产总值”(Gross National Product,GNP)。只是随着各国的经济活动愈来愈国际化,经济学家认为GDP较GNP更能反映一个国家的经济发达程度,是以都转用GDP以衡量经济起跌,而将GNP弃而不用。   但GDP真的是“更好”的指标吗?让我们先看看两者有什么区别。   GDP是一个以“地区为本”的指标,所量度的是一个地区在特定时间(通常为一年)之内所生产的货财与劳务(后者以受薪者的薪酬计算)的总和,其间不会理会所生产的货财是否由当地人所享用,也不理会受薪者是否本国的公民。相比起来,GNP是一个以「国民为本」的指标,所量度的是一国的国民在特定时间内(如一年)所创造的货财与劳务的总值,其间不会理会这个国民是否在国外投资或工作。按照这个逻辑,在计算GNP时,亦会把非本国国民在当地赚取的收入剔除。   中国有“世界工厂”之称,过去数十年的经济腾飞,很大部分是西方跨国企业(特别是美国公司)在中国设厂生产的结果。但跨国企业由此而赚取的每1美元中,中国能够分到多少呢?而我们赔上的生态破坏、环境污染、人民健康甚至人命(如「富士康」悲剧)又如何计算呢?我们的GDP是增加了,但它是我国财富增长的准确量度吗?   内地一名专栏作家章玉贵于2011年底在网上发表的一篇文章《中国要GDP还是GNP?》便这样说:“在国家之间的经济竞争愈来愈集中到国际秩序主导权及重要产业控制力争夺的今天,简单的GDP总量排名至多具有符号意义……例如,中国去年将近6万亿美元的GDP 中至少有三分一是由外资企业创造的。因此,有人认为GNP才是衡量一国经济实力的重要指标。”   他续说:“针对业已显得过时的GDP......

Words: 1215 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

To What Extent Do National Income Statistics (Gdp) Provide a Good Basis for Comparison Between Countries?

...Economics Essay – To what extent do national income statistics (GDP) provide a good basis for comparison between countries? In the world of Economics, GDP per capita is used to compare the way that countries are coping with different economic climates; such as recession, boom etc. This essay will be assessing whether GDP is the best statistic to use for comparing different countries’ economies. GDP is the most commonly used method by world famous economists to assess how successful an economy is. GDP stands for Gross Domestic Product and is the market value of the official goods that have been transferred in and out in a country over a certain period of time. GDP is a good method for comparing the national incomes of countries because it can be very accurate. This is especially the case when the GDP for a division is divided between the population of a country. This is a statistic called GDP per capita and is a lot more accurate at showing how wealthy a country is because it divides the value of the goods transferred in a country between the whole population. This is clearly a better way of measuring how wealthy a country is because it explains how rich each person is in a country. This is a better way of comparison between countries because it shows how rich the country is in terms of value per person instead of making assumptions. This makes a huge difference because in normal GDP, China is the richest country in the world because it is worth the most as a country;......

Words: 726 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Merger

...Then authors mention that mergers are still influenced by other national institutions. To begin with, they illustrate the factors such as nation’s legal origin, currency exchange rate and gross domestic product (GDP). Seung Hee Choi & Bang Nam Jeon (2011) found that GDP shows the largest contribution in the merger deal frequency model. When a country is just at the high speed development of economy period, with the increase of GDP, companies will have a better environment to carry on the merger activities. Secondly, authors stress that economic environment will have a significant impact on the acquisition activity. For example, countries who have signed a bilateral investment treaty or a double-taxation treaty would have a different performance according to the data collected by authors.  Huizinga and Voget(2009)state that impose high levels of international double taxation are less likely to attract the parent companies of newly created multinational firms. On the contrary, some preferential policies like tax sparing will motivate the merger activities between nations. Last but not least, authors state that religion, geographic distance and language are vital cultural institutions which have a strong effect on economic results. For example, Piekkari, Vaara, Tienari and Säntti(2005) study that compared to domestic mergers, cross-border deals introduce extra layers of difficulty. Language and communication challenges are intertwined with cultural differences. Under the......

Words: 467 - Pages: 2