Native Studies

In: Social Issues

Submitted By jamer12
Words 2423
Pages 10
Changes in the Aboriginal
Justice System through Colonialism

Austin Jamieson
11153678
Native Studies 107
Ron Laliberte
November 20, 2013

Aboriginal justice system has gone through many changes throughout history. This has mostly been because of Colonialism. Its presence is highly noticed in the formation of cultures and their ways, as well as in the elimination of others cultures and their ways. Colonialism has affected Aboriginal culture in several ways; however, a significant area that has been affected is the traditional Aboriginal justice system. Aboriginal communities had their own sense of justice and punishment prior to the arrival of the Europeans in Canada, Aboriginal communities lost their traditional means of sentences to the implementation of European corporal punishment. In the Western concept of justice, the system punishes the offender through a process of trying to make the offender conform, often locking them away to protect society from the dangers that offender brings to those around them. Aboriginal systems (which varying) try to focus on restoring the peace and harmony of the community. The concept is meant to use the justice system to bring equilibrium into the offender and community, as balance is necessary for kinship and relationships to flourish. Elders within Aboriginal communities began to bring many of these traditional correction techniques back into society to fix the growing numbers of criminal offenders throughout the country nearing the end of the twentieth century. The purpose of this paper will be to first explore the different alternative techniques that are being restored into traditional Aboriginal communities, as discussed in Katherine Chiste’s article, “Getting Tough on Crime the Aboriginal Way: Alternative Justice Initiatives in Canada.” Next the paper will demonstrate critical reasons for the return of…...

Similar Documents

Native Americans

...Native Americans The people who first lived in North America can be called American Indians or you can use the term Native Americans. You should not use the terms such as Red Indian or Redskin,   because this name originally referred to a specific tribe, the Beothuks, who painted their  bodies and faces with red ochre.  All of the Native American tribes had some things in common. They lived on the  land and they were gathering food in the earliest times and then planting crops later in history.  Once they began planting crops, they were able to begin creating villages that were permanent. They all hunted animals. Most of the tribes used as much of the animal as they could. Meat was used for food and Furs and skins were used for  clothing and shelters.  The stomach of the animal was used to carry and hold water. Bones were used for needles and weapons. All Native American people were very spiritual and they had many religious customs and rituals. They also believed in many gods. They believed in a special relationship with nature. The sun was their most important god. They worshiped the sun because they needed it to grow their crops but they also needed rain, so with that beeing said many had a rain god.  Other elements in nature were also worshipped. Most tribes believed in the power  of their dreams They were considered to be revelations made by the gods. Most had an important religious leader which some called Shaman wich means medicine man. When Columbus arrived......

Words: 379 - Pages: 2

Native American

...Native American Culture, Text and Curriculum ! 1 Native American Culture, Text and Curriculum Scott T. Timmerman Wisconsin Lutheran College Native American Culture, Text and Curriculum ! 2 Abstract In Wisconsin there is nothing so familiar yet so invisible as the presence of the Indian culture. We find ourselves surrounded by the history of the Native Americans no matter where we go. There are 11 Indian reservations, numerous cities and counties named after Indians and historical images and museums throughout the state. Nonetheless, the vast majority of people from Wisconsin know little about the past or the current culture of the original Americans. There are currently hundreds of different cultures today for Native Americans, yet the still existing Native cultures are lumped under one mistaken title, Indian. Most non-Natives have either never knowingly met a Native person or are unaware of the presence of modern Native communities. They do not know Native American history and they assume Native Americans are only to be found in history. Most children today do not realize that Native Americans are still part of our state today. We need to take a close and honest look at the ways in which Native stories, Native life, and Native people are presented to our children in the classrooms. We need to examine and understand how important children’s literature can be. It can reinforce the worst in us and in our children or it can encourage true intellectual growth...

Words: 2005 - Pages: 9

Native American

...Native Americans are the indigenous peoples within the boundaries of the present-day United States, including those in Alaska and Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes and ethnic groups, many of which survive as intact political communities. The terms used to refer to Native Americans have been controversial. According to a 1995 U.S. Census Bureau set of home interviews, most of the respondents with an expressed preference refer to themselves as "American Indians" or simply "Indians"; this term has been adopted by major newspapers and some academic groups, but does not traditionally include Native Hawaiians or certain Alaskan Natives, such as Aleut, Yup'ik, or Inuit peoples. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of conflict and adjustment between Old and New World societies. Many Native Americans lived as hunter-gatherer societies and told their histories by oral traditions; Europeans therefore created almost all of the surviving historical record concerning the conflict.[2] The indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and mostly Christian immigrants. Many[citation needed] native cultures were matrilineal and occupied hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire community. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were extremely different. The differences......

Words: 314 - Pages: 2

Native American

...Imagine being raised in a Native tribe off the East Coast of America. The year is 1398, surrounding you is a rich abundant land full of wild plants and animals. A close knit family where everyone shares, and greed is almost non existent. Day to day survival is what keeps the mind going, but it is never threatened. As you grow up you learn only of your people, and how the world was made for you and you must return the favor with respect. No one tells you your right or wrong, and there is no doubt in your beliefs being false. On a morning just like any other, you take to your hunting trail. It is very common land and you can walk this with your eyes closed without running into vegetation. The birds whistle a common tune, and you can feel and understand what kind of mood they are in. It is quite, but you can still hear and comprehend so many things as the world talks to you. Movement catches your eye and suddenly a great whitetail bucks jumps across the ravine in a non challant manor chasing does. This buck is known in the tribe, and a kill would bring great spiritual power to the people. The buck pauses as he encounters a new scent, thus creating a opportunity to srike. The crisp red oak bow bends to a rate of optimal power, the arrow which took a day to create is perfection as it sits on the stand. The release is smooth and the feathers cut through the air speeding to the target. It is a clean kill, a sacrificed to be made that does not go un appreciative. The 180lb...

Words: 2970 - Pages: 12

Native Americans

...Native American History Michael Smith Eth/125 02/09/2014 Regena Weatherford The history of the Native American in the United States has not been an easy road to travel. Since man first came to this country, most of them have tried to control some portion of their lives. They had their land taken away from them, were lied to from political figures, and even people trying to control their religions. According to Schaefer (2012), approximately 2,500,000 Native Americans and Alaskan natives lived in the United States in 2010. This is down from an estimated 10,000,000 in 1500. History will show the Native Americans as one of the most discriminated races in the United States. It would seem that everybody who came into contact with Native Americans wanted something from them. Although the reduction in numbers may have been accidental, in 1500 they fell victim to diseases brought by the Europeans. This was just the beginning of their hardship with new people coming to their land. They have suffered famine, disease, forcible relocation, and war. War between their own tribes, and wars with outsiders. Though most of their reduction in numbers came from diseases introduced by foreigners. Once people began to settle in the west, the government became involved, and it was clear that they held the needs of the white man before the needs of the natives. A slew of political treaties were enacted to control the tribes, and...

Words: 785 - Pages: 4

Native

... the Riverside," and "Big Boy Leaves Home"; in 1940 the story "Bright and Morning Star" was added, and the book was reissued. Native Son followed in 1940, the first bestselling novel by a black American writer and the first Book-of-the-Month Club selection by an African-American writer. It sold 215,000 copies in its first three weeks of publication. Native Son made Wright the most respected and wealthiest black writer in America; he was awarded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People's prestigious Spingarn Medal in 1941. After Uncle Tom's Children, Wright declared in "How Bigger Was Born" that he needed to write a book that bankers' daughters would not be able to "read and feel good about," that would "be so hard and deep that they would have to face it without the consolation of tears"; Native Son is uncompromising. In Native Son, Wright presents his guilt-of-the-nation thesis. His main character, Bigger Thomas, is a nineteen-year-old edgy small-time criminal from Chicago's South Side ghetto. The novel races with no stops in between the three parts: Book I, Fear; Book II, Flight; and Book III, Fate. When Bigger is offered a job as a chauffeur for a wealthy white family, he imagines himself in various fanciful scenarios, including sexual ones with the daughter. Lines that referred to Bigger's sexual interest in Mary Dalton were taken out in 1940 and only restored fifty-three years later in the 1993 Library of America edition, edited by Arnold......

Words: 907 - Pages: 4

American Native

...The people know today as the American Indian or Native American were in fact the first Americans. They are believed to have originated in Siberian and tracked their way to North America. At this time there were millions of Native Americans all having different languages, cultures, and even religions. They were fisherman and hunters that lived off and respected the land while living in vibrant communities. Although there were battles between tribes these people lived relatively peacefully. The arrival of the Europeans brought extreme change that has lasted for decades. To this day the effects still plague the American Indian. Upon the arrival of the Europeans the American Indians were intrigued by the “white man”. They helped them get accustomed to the climate, taught them how to tend to the land, and shared some of their culture with them. The desire was obviously an attempt to befriend the Europeans but they had no idea how greed would change their lives. Obviously the land became a major priority to the Europeans. They saw profit and this greed inevitably lead what is considered the genocide of the American Indian. As more and more Europeans arrived the treat of the live of the American Indian grew. The Europeans would bring disease, steal their land, and made attempts to try to change everything about the way of life for the American Indians. They brought missionaries to Christianize the American Indian. With more Europeans now living in North America, food......

Words: 280 - Pages: 2

Native Delicacies

...Introduction In demand as evident, food, is taking a great share of the market and to life of every individual, just as Filipinos are starting to have the feel of enjoying quick merienda and dessert. Filipinos are artistic and very good in making food experiment. Some of the food made become the town specialty that when you visit the place, they will surely offer you their unique delicacies. The island of Siquijor has been known in the world as one of the most beautiful places to visit. People from the different countries and overseas Filipinos are enjoying the serving foods and are attracted to the unique products and services catered to them. According to the Department of Tourism and Department of Agriculture in the province visitors are captivated with the place and the food that are served to them. Based on the recent study of the Department of Tourism visitors are looking for pasalubong especially native delicacy products that can be a present to be brought for their family, friends and relatives. HEY! K-STOP Native Delicacies, with its unique offering that customer will surely love can answer the need of any traveler as they return from a trip. They will bring with them the popular delicacies that will suite their taste at an affordable price. They may take a sit and have a taste of their chosen food from the menu in order to satisfy their curiosity. Everyone will surely be enticed to taste these delicacies and bring it home for their family members to taste......

Words: 284 - Pages: 2

Native Indians

...Native American Indians Tina Green-Burress HIS/145 November 10, 2014 Danny Scott Native American Indians There is no doubt that our history books have left out a great deal of information about American people and their lives, many black authors have tried to tell the true story of African Americans. But we must not forget American is a melting pot and Native American Indians played an important part in American history. The 1960s brought on changes for Native Indians in America and where they have come from and where they are now cannot be overlooked in American history. From the Beginning "Somewhere, these young men started the American Indian Movement. And they came to our reservation and they turned that light on inside. And it's getting bigger, now we can see things" an Oglala (ElderRedhawk (2002). The elder spoke of three men from the Minneapolis-St. Paul in 1968. The men were Dennis Banks, Clyde Bellecourt, and George Miller, and they were responsible for founding AIM (American Indian Movement). The men were an activist American Indian group concerned with the civil rights of American Indians. These three Ojibwa ex-cons were tired of the poverty and despair their fellow brothers and sisters were going through. Though Indians have always been thought of as a peaceful people, you can only get pushed so much until something is done. In the 1960s and 1970s American Indians became more aggressive with the civil rights movement taking...

Words: 867 - Pages: 4

Native American

...Native American Indian 1 Native American Candace Schneider Axia College of the University of Phoenix Native American Indian 2 My ethnic group that I belong is Native American, but to be more specific I am part of the Chippewa Band of Indians which is part of the tribe Ojibwa. My tribal reservation is the Turtle Mountain Reservation. The history of my people date back a long time ago on this continent of North America. Native Americans of all tribes have been on this continent before the pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock and before Christopher Columbus sailed the ocean blue in 1492. Native Americans lived, hunted, endure hardships of war, encountered foreign visitors and many other situations as they lived on this land. According to the book Through Indians Eyes (1995) the first people to migrate to North America arrived long before 4000 B.C. by crossing Beringia which is a land bridge that connected Siberia to Alaska (page 12-13). These people spread out all over the land. The people survived by hunting mammoths, mastodons and other large animals during that period of time. People stopped migrating here after the Ice Age ended and the bridge of the Beringia became flooded over by the rising sea. As time went by, these people started to become more advanced by having trade centers, development of weapons, and series of routes to trail on that connected to each other. This is how Native Americans came to be on this land. On this continent the people that...

Words: 877 - Pages: 4

Native Americans

...Tina Stratton ETH/125 Professor Knight September 28, 2014 Historical Report on the Native American The history of the Native American goes as far back as 1492 when Christopher Columbus first came in contact with Native Americans in Bahamas. “The name “indian” was given to them from Christopher Columbus who mistakenly thought he had landed in the “Indies”. (History.com Staff, 2009) How the attitude and image of the Native American people would change with the induction of the early settlers in Virginia in 1607. With the increase in immigration of settlers and the greed of the “white man” to lay claim to Indian lands, violence erupted in their conquest. After the American Revolution, Britain released all of its North American holdings to the United States. The claims of Native Americans were completely eradicated by this action. For a short time, United States regulated under the presumption that the Indians were overthrown, and therefore, had no rights or claims to the land. On May 28, 1830 Congress passes the Indian Removal Act, allowing the president to pursue ownership of all Indian lands east of the Mississippi River. Under this act, the Indians would be paid back with new lands drawn from the public land west of the Mississippi River. President Andrew Jackson was relentless during the 1830s, despite Supreme Court rulings in favor of the Indian Nation, to remove all eastern Indians to land west of the Mississippi River...

Words: 743 - Pages: 3

Native Americans

...The identity of ‘Native Americans’ is still a process that is developing gradually in the United States for both who are Native Americans and those who are not. Many seek the identity that will make life easier for them in terms of what is required by law, social and personal reasons (Oberg, Michael L 45). Sherman Alexie is a Native American who was born on October 7, 1966. He is an entertainer and most of work is usually based around what it feels like and what it means to be a Native American within the present time circumstances. At birth he was born with a big head abnormality that made him bullied by other children and many did not expect him to survive the surgery but miraculously he survived the operation. In 1987 he left Gonzaga and enrolled in a creative writing program at Washington State University. While at the institution he read writings of his fellow Native Americans that filled him with the urge of doing his own writing and by 1992 he published his first anthology. His experience as a Native American in a society where the majorities are white always comes out in his work. He talks about his own poverty, alcoholism and hopelessness in his community .as much as his writing is filled with depression, ill-founded fears and sadness; he however, balances these with comic and pop culture so as to join the cultural difference and to have a wider audience. By 1998 he had himself as an award winning poet and novelist and had entered into film making. He......

Words: 325 - Pages: 2

Native American

...Native American R1A Name: KAIDI AN Understanding of Native Americans from a personal view Originated from a particular land, local to an area, and naturally belonging to this place…that is what “indigenous” stands for and comes into my mind immediately. This word takes the Native Americans hundreds of years to protect and struggle for, because these people, who from historical perspective are the most legit and original owners of America, have an extraordinary strong bond with this broad land. However, with the migration of Europeans to the America since the end of 15th century, this formerly harmonious society has been broken into pieces and forced to gradually adjust to the control of new rules and disciplines conducted by the exotic invaders. Whenever the word “Indians” which is a self-identification of the Native Americans, is brought up, the most common phrase I can ever think of is about slavery and discrimination. Indians have been enslaved for a long time during the history of mankind. From the textbook, we learned a lot about European colonialism and its victimization of Africans and Indians followed as the dominant paradigm. Indians are commonly depicted as succumbing in large numbers to survivors with the survivors facing with the dispossession of their lands and their assets. Indians, treated as the commodities by bargaining, or even the livestock, were flogged and whipped by the colonists and slaveholders. They didn’t own the human rights or...

Words: 857 - Pages: 4

Native Americans

...Donald Chiara Professor Brown English 102 6/19/15 6 Inches of Glass Looking back at stimulating memories of your childhood gives you a sense of euphoria. You’re spending a Sunday evening at your grandparent’s house enjoying a comforting meal. Your grandfather is wearing his favorite watch that you have grown accustomed of seeing. You associate this watch as an extension of his arm. That watch is no longer an impractical piece of jewelry to you, it is ingrained with memories. How would you feel if the only time you can now view that watch is during business hours through thick glass? Allowing museums to possess Native American artifacts infringes on that culture’s right to preserve their heritage. First I will explain who has the right to ownership; second I will analyze what the artifacts in the museum symbolize, and finally assess the extent to which their heritage is being stolen. Ownership can be defined as the legal right to possession. This is not always the person who actually possesses the item, rather the person that should possess the item. In 1990 the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) was passed. The act states: federal agencies and institutions that receive federal funding  to return Native American "cultural items" to lineal descendants and culturally affiliated Indian tribes and Native Hawaiian organizations. Cultural items include human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, and objects of cultural patrimony. (1...

Words: 757 - Pages: 4

Native American

...Is America Really a Melting Pot? Over the years the Native American mascot debate is one that has gotten major press. Native Americans are very angry and want to be heard. The tribal names that these natives go by are something that mean very much to them. School boards, and sports teams around the country have used these mascots, and names to define who the team, and or school is. Today, many people see using Native American names for mascots to be racist. These mascots and cultural figures are part of the Native American culture. To go and generalize these people into a sports team that have nothing to do with who they are, is being very prejudice, misleading, and in many ways wrong. Native Americans deserve the right to be heard and understood that their names, tribal figures, and beliefs are theirs. Mascots used to define them bring nothing but racism, shame, stereotyping, and generalization. Many sports teams, schools, and universities in the US have adopted some incarnation of the Native American warrior as their mascot. However, many people, of Native American heritage as well as non-Indians, believe that the portrayals of Native Americans in this manner is a harmful, racist aspect of our culture, and one that we should take strong measures to prevent. It is not wrong for one to say that racism all around the world needs to be put to an end. We as Americans hold ourselves to high standards of being accepting to all ethnicities. It is hard to understand how we are...

Words: 2659 - Pages: 11