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Negative Effects Of Acid Rain

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Acid rain- or acid deposition is rain that is made acidic (between pH 0 and pH 7) by chemical pollutants in the atmosphere, such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides that it becomes harmful to the environment. Acid rain is formed when the above mentioned chemicals react with water and oxygen to form solutions of nitric and sulphuric acid. Acid rain has two forms: dry deposition and wet deposition. The pollutants, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, enter the atmosphere as dry deposition. Dry deposition is the deposition of pollutants which come from the atmosphere and are absorbed by plants. When they react with the water and oxygen in the rain clouds, they become wet deposition. These acidic solutions may be spread across the atmosphere …show more content…
The effects of acid rain on plant growth are largely negative. Acid rain negatively affects soil. It releases aluminium into the soil, which is harmful to plants. Acid rain also removes nutrients and minerals from the soil, which are vital for plant growth. It does this by mobilising ions in the soil, which prevents the absorption of calcium. The pH balance of soil is also lowered by acid rain, which negatively affects the micro-organism population in soil, which is responsible for organic breakdown. Organic breakdown is vital for nutrient uptake. Without the correct nutrient uptake, plants cannot successfully grow. Furthermore, acid rain causes damage to the protective cuticle on the leaves of plants. The degeneration of the cuticle not only makes the plant more susceptible to the cold and allows pathogens to enter the plants, but also causes a large amount of water loss, and allows the water in the plant to be replaced by acid. Both of these things are detrimental to the plant’s photosynthesizing ability. (Authors unknown, years unknown, 2016, …show more content…
The main materials which are affected by acid rain are: marble, zinc, nickel, limestone, paint, carbon-steel and some plastics [10]. Sulphur dioxide also speeds up the process of rusting. Some structures affected are buildings, pipes and foundations. Modern buildings are much more resistant to acid rain then many ancient monuments and buildings which were made from limestone. Some examples of ancient heritage sites that are affected by acid rain are the Colosseum, Cologne Cathedral, Notre Dame, Taj Mahal and Westminster Abbey. This degeneration due to acid rain seriously reduces the value of buildings, cars etc. ( Authors unknown, year unknown, 2016)
In addition to the affects acid rain has on plants, humans and infrastructure, it also has an effect on animals. Acid rain directly or indirectly affects animals of all types. The animals most in danger are delicate aquatic animals. Because acid rain changes the pH of water, these animals’ entire habitat is altered. Fish and arthropods die in water with a pH of anything less than 5. (Batema

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