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Overview Of Telecom Industry | | |
Indian Telecom sector, like any other industrial sector in the country, has gone through many phases of growth and diversification. Starting from telegraphic and telephonic systems in the 19th century, the field of telephonic communication has now expanded to make use of advanced technologies like GSM, CDMA, and WLL to the great 3G Technology in mobile phones. Day by day, both the Public Players and the Private Players are putting in their resources and efforts to improve the telecommunication technology so as to give the maximum to their customers. | |
Nokia's market share falls below 30 per cent

Helsinki: Nokia Corp. reported better than expected first-quarter profits Thursday but its global market share dropped to below 30 per cent for the first time in over a decade as the world's top cellphone maker continued to lose ground to rivals.
The Finnish company's net profit in January through March fell euro5 million to euro 344 million ($499 million) from a year earlier. Revenue grew 9 per cent to euro 10.40 billion.
The company's share price climbed several per cent as markets had anticipated a greater fall in profits and lower sales, but closed almost unchanged at euro 5.96 ($8.65) on the Helsinki Stock Exchange.

The Finnish company has faced stiff competition in recent years in the high-end sector, particularly from Apple Inc.'s iPhone, Android-based handsets and Research in Motion's Blackberry.
Nokia sold 24 million smartphones in the period, 13 per cent more than in 2010, but its market share for the devices plunged to 24 per cent from 39 per cent a year earlier, according to Strategy Analytics market research.
The company's overall global market share also fell - to 29 per cent, its lowest level since the late 1990s. A year ago its total market share was 33 per cent and 31 per cent in the previous quarter.
Nokia sold 108.5 million devices in the first quarter, above the Strategy Analytics estimate of 105 million, and the average selling price of its handsets continued its growth to euro65, from euro62 a year earlier, indicating it is selling more top, expensive models.
"Volumes were better than expected and pricing was stronger," said Neil Mawston, an analyst at Strategy Analytics . "But it's clear that competition is still tough."
Mawston said Nokia can expect "bumpy revenues and profits for the next couple of quarters," as its recently announced linkup with Microsoft Corp. comes onstream.
CEO Stephen Elop said Nokia has now signed a "definitive" deal with Microsoft Corp. to develop software for smartphones "and that product design and engineering work was "well under way."
The partnership, first announced in February, will make Windows Phone software the main platform used in the Finnish company's smartphones
Elop did not say when the Nokia Windows phone would be launched. But he said that "devices that take advantage of the Windows phone platform will be shipping in volumes in 2012, and there is pressure
"In recognition of the unique nature of Nokia's agreement with Microsoft and the contributions that Nokia is providing, Nokia will receive payments measured in the billions of dollars," Nokia said.
Elop did not say when the Nokia Windows phone would be launched, but added that "devices that take advantage of the Windows phone platform will be shipping in volumes in 2012."
Describing the first quarter as "remarkable," he said the company will face "a more challenging second quarter," as it goes through a restructuring period with Microsoft.
Nokia said the tsunami and earthquake in Japan had disrupted the supply of some components linked to Japanese suppliers and would impact its results in the second quarter.
Facing fierce competition, Nokia has lost its position as the industry's innovative leader and the company's stock dipped to a 13-year low of euro5.60 in March.
At the end of last year its Symbian platform was surpassed by Android as the world's No. 1 smartphone software, according to Canalys research firm.
On Thursday, Strategy Analytics said Apple had overtaken Nokia in the first quarter to become the world's largest handset vendor in revenue terms, selling a record 18.6 million iPhones.
Nokia, an Espoo-based company near Helsinki, employs 132,500 people.

Personal view point :

The results are as per expectations. From last 2 years market has dramatically changed due to technology and competitors. In innovation and technology Nokia is lagging behind, Nokia is no more into the same league, I have used Nokia from last 12 years, in fact now also i am using Nokia only. However in business phones segment is concern Nokia is confused their touch screen, apps have worst performance whereas the competion phones are giving best performance in just Rs. 10000 bucks or less, where for Nokia I have to pay more than Rs.20000. Nowadays Nokia is good for simple phones with worth less than Rs. 3-4 K. For Nokia, once upon a time Symbian was the killer, now Symbian is only killing Nokia. With collaboration of Microsoft, Nokia is nowhere to go, it will more go down rather than up in market, whats the market share of Windows platform in Mobiles ?? you can guess. Nokia has to be innovative and as per market. I request top honchos of Nokia to make some strategy. Direct Competitor Comparison | |

| NOK | ERIC | MMI | PVT1 | Industry | Market Cap: | 23.52B | 35.12B | 11.21B | N/A | 109.75M | Employees: | 138,634 | 97,929 | 19,000 | N/A | 365.00 | Qtrly Rev Growth (yoy): | -7.30% | 14.20% | 27.90% | N/A | 12.80% | Revenue (ttm): | 61.25B | 34.00B | 12.74B | 138.14B1 | 102.78M | Gross Margin (ttm): | 29.93% | 38.09% | 26.19% | N/A | 40.35% | EBITDA (ttm): | 4.42B | 5.59B | 304.00M | N/A | 4.72M | Operating Margin (ttm): | 3.55% | 12.75% | 0.59% | N/A | 2.19% | Net Income (ttm): | 1.80B | 2.37B | -91.00M | 14.11B1 | N/A | EPS (ttm): | 0.48 | 0.73 | -0.31 | N/A | 0.02 | P/E (ttm): | 13.35 | 14.93 | N/A | N/A | 12.46 | PEG (5 yr expected): | 3.00 | 1.20 | 4.59 | N/A | 0.82 | P/S (ttm): | 0.40 | 1.04 | 0.88 | N/A | 0.93 | |

SWOT Analysis of Nokia - March 19th, 2011
-Is a dominant player in the smartphone market via its majority ownership of Symbian and its propritary Series 60 user interface which are projected to represent majority of the 100M smartphones sold in the next 4 years.
- 33% market share still the largest cell phone vendor by far, with double the market share of nearest competitr
- Size should enable Nokia to amortize R&D costs and to get cost advantages
- Brand position: probably one of the top 20 brands in the world

- The Ngage is considered a flop
- Being the market leader and its increase role in Symbian is giving Nokia a bad image, much like Microsoft in the PC industry.
- Slow to adopt new ways of thinking: a good example are clamshell phones which are preferred by many customers. Nokia was reluctant to produce a clamshell until this year, when it launched its first model.

- Increase their presence in the CDMA market, which they are just entering, as well as 3G and Edge
- New growth markets where cell phone adoption still has room to go, including India and other countries.
- Leverage its infrastructure business to get preference and a stronger position with carriers

- Late in the game in 3G creates a risk to be displaced by leaders like Motorola, LG, NEC and others.
- Asian OEMs who are entering the market very agressively (TCL, nGo Bird)
- ODMs (HTC and others) enabling carriers to leverage their customer power bypassing the handset vendor. Operators want to lessen their dependency on handset vendors and the dominance of Nokia. Orange, O2, and many other operators globally are selling their own brand of phones.

Porter five forces model, developed by Michael E.Porter of Harvard University in 1979, holds the purpose to analyze the industry in order to determine the level of intensity regarding the competition and attractiveness of the industry. The attractiveness of an industry is measured in terms of profit; more profitability means a more attractive industry and low profitability means a low attractive industry.
Porter referred to these forces as micro environment rather than macro environment because these forces are nearest in the sense of affecting the organization. Organizations have to re-assess the market if any of the forces change, it does not necessary that the organization should leave the industry if the profitability is low, because most of the organization are making good profits by applying their core competencies to gain competitive edge over their rivals and increase their profits.
The word “Strategy” is very common in this advanced era of the business and technological world, it is used even in our daily life routine, you may have heard at times that lots of people discuss about strategies (plans) to achieve something. You must be thinking that strategies are developed in dreams or common sense by higher management of the company but that is not the case, even the best of the strategies always comes after proper evaluation of internal and external environment of the company.
The strategies are made by strategists to achieve objective or goals to allow the business to compete in industry. Porter five forces model of competitive analysis is a widely used approach for developing strategies in many industries. The intensity of competition varies across the industries. The intensity of competition is higher in low return industry as compared to high return industry due to less requirement for capital and common products that require minimum R & D (Research & Development) and efforts for production.
According to Porter, the nature of competitiveness in a given industry can be viewed as a composite of the following five forces: 1. Rivalry among competitive firms 2. Potential entry of new competitors 3. Potential development of substitute products 4. Bargaining power of suppliers 5. Bargaining power of consumers

Rivalry Among Competitive Firms
Rivalry among competing firms is the most powerful of the five competitive forces i-e the ongoing war between the firms competing in the same industry for gaining customer share in order to increase their revenues and profits. The competition is more intense if the firm pursues strategies that gives it a competitive advantage over the strategies pursued by its rivals.
Developing new strategies is easier than retaining the uniqueness of the strategies so as to gain a competitive edge over the rivals in the industry. Changes in strategy by one firm may be met with retaliatory countermoves, such as lowering the prices, enhancing quality, adding features, providing services, extending warranties and increasing advertising.
- In the telecommunication industry, firms are lowering their prices in order to increase their consumer call ratio by minimizing their per minute profit margin but this strategy is increasing the overall company revenues.
- In the past few years a number of new features were added in the mobiles, now it not only gives the functionality of cell phone but we are also able to take pictures, make videos, watch streaming and use Internet. The firms like Nokia, Siemens, Samsung and other are following each other’s strategies to minimize the differentiation in the product so customer can easily switch brands.
- In the past television companies offered maximum one year warranty but now due to the tough competition in the media market, players as Samsung, LG, Haier, Philips and others enter in the market with their high quality products in order to compete with Sony, that’s the reason customers are getting more services in the form of extended warranty periods.
- Pepsi and Coca Cola are competing by increasing their advertising and offering new beverages in the market. We discussed about the offline business, when it comes to online business on the Internet, the competition is more fierce, consumer get more control over its purchasing by sitting at home on computer and comparing the similar and substitute products on bases of features and prices. is the best online book selling site, offering a huge library containing millions of books on a variety of subjects. People visit to amazon because they enjoy user friendly design, products, books and search capability of the site but when it come to purchase the product customer move to other site such as for purchase on discounts. CEO says, ” The Internet is going to shrink retailers margins to the point where they will not survive.”
- offers computers and laptops of high quality at low prices as compared to its competitors.
- is a site where people like to go to purchase products online at low price.
The rivalry among competing firms increases as the number of competitors increases, as competitors grow more equal in size and capability, as demand for the company products decline, products are undifferentiated, product prices decline, consumer brand switching cost is less, number of supplier available for raw material, low price substitute products are available and entry into market is easy due to less constraints. As rivalry among competing firms intensifies, industry profits decline, in some cases to the point where an industry becomes inherently unattractive. Potential Entry of New Competitors
Potential entry for new competitors is also the factor to intense the competition in the industry. A larger pool of new entrants results in more changes of intense competition. Barriers to entry, however can restrict the firms from entering the market, more number of entry barriers will make it difficult for the new entrants to exploit the opportunity of new market.
Barrier to entry, however, can include the need to gain economies of scale quickly, strong customer loyalty, strong brand preferences, large capital requirements, lack of adequate distribution channels, government regulatory policies, tariffs, lack of access to raw material, possession of patents, undesirable locations, counterattack by entrenched firms and potential saturation of the market.
If existing firms are producing at economies of scale then the new entrants must ensure to make its entry into the market with a large production scale capability to lower its fixed and variable cost per unit in order to compete with the competitors product, otherwise new entrants will face exceeding cost problems. Government policy creates hurdles for new entrants by heavy taxes and interest rates. New firms must get to know the Government regulations and policies before making a entry decision into the country.
Despite the numerous barriers to entry, new firms sometimes enter industries with higher-quality products, lower prices and substantial marketing resources. The strategist’s job, therefore, is to identify potential new firms entering the market, to monitor the new rival firms’ strategies to counterattack as per need and to capitalize on existing strengths and opportunities. Potential Development of Substitute Products
Firms mostly monitoring the trends within the industry to track the strategies but competition not only arise within the similar industry but also in different industry. Companies in other industry offer products with similar features and functionality or even better act as substitute for the products. For Instance, the producers of spectacles and contact lenses are facing mounting competitive pressures from growing consumer interest in laser surgery. Newspaper firms are feeling competitive force of the general public turning to cable news channels for late-breaking news and using Internet sources to get information about sports results, stock quotes, and job opportunities.
A firm faces intense competition from substitute product producing firms, when the customer cost of switching is lower, substitute products are better in quality and functionality , end users grow more comfortable when using the substitutes. The competitive strength can be determined by market share, sales pattern, producers adding capacity for more production, and rise in profits. Bargaining Power of Suppliers
Supplier and producer relation always matters specially in manufacturing industries. Suppliers play an important role in the production of goods and services, making the raw material better and till the final product is made. Bargaining power of suppliers affect the intensity of competition especially if there are huge number of suppliers, less availability of raw material and the cost of switching between suppliers or raw material is high. These attributes in the industry give power to the supplier to enforce terms and conditions on manufacturers and charge high cost on raw materials.
For Examples,
The bargaining power of Microsoft and Intel in more because they are the huge suppliers of software and hardware. Microsoft enforce computer manufacturers to load Windows in their computers and place their logo on laptops, desktops and server machines. Intel on the other hand also demands computer manufacturers to place their logo on machines using Intel processor. Intel and Microsoft enforcing their terms and conditions also charging high cost from the computer manufacturing companies.
Manufacturer needs to build relationship with the supplier in order to improve the quality and reduce the prices of the product by working together for improvement in processes and reduce time to market by implementing just-in-time inventory.
For Example,
Dell computer known for low cost and best quality computer, laptop and server manufacturer in the industry. The key behind dell’s success is maintaining good relationship and collaboration with the supplier of computer hardware and software. To gain control or ownership over its suppler, backward integration strategy is adopted by most of the companies. This strategy will help both suppliers and companies to work together for improvement in product quality, reduce cost, reduce time to market and earn good reputation in the industry. Bargaining Power of Consumers
Consumers are the final users of the product; performance of the companies totally depend upon the consumers. Bargaining power of consumers is more especially when they are huge in number and consumers purchase in large quantity. Rival firms offer discounts, warranty and services to switch the consumer from one brand to another in the same industry.
The bargaining power of consumers is also more when products are undifferentiated and widely available. In this case consumer can ask for more discounts, extended warranty and services. As the satisfaction level of consumer goes up more the intensity level of competition increases. Firms should monitor the competitors strategies and also take care of the consumer’s likes and dislikes by maintaining good relationship with the consumer by implementing CRM processes in the company.
For Example,
P & G has an online portal to ask the customer about their views, opinions and new ideas about the products of their desire.
Criticism on Porter Five Forces Model
In the previous few years, other forces like globalization, technology and deregulation are introduced; these factors have a deep impact on the organization as well. The strategists should consider all the internal and external environmental variables into consideration in order to formulate fine-tuned strategies.

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...Group 4 – Meals4U Manu Bhatia, Swapni Gupta, Aemish Patel, Chirag Patel, Neha Bhansali, Cheng CJ Meals4U aims to create a service that would allow you to place online orders for food, even to places that typically do not allow online orders. The way it works is simple, you pick the restaurant, load up the menu, and place your order through our service. Our freelance and hired drivers pick up the job, drive over, get your meal, and bring it over to your location. The customer is responsible for the cost of the food, a surcharge for the delivery as well as a tip for the driver. In addition to the ability to just buy individual meals, customers have the option to sign up for a subscription plan. This would allow him or her to set a budget each for each week or month, and select the days that they would like food delivered. For example, a person working a job days Monday - Friday could sign up for a plan that would allow him a hot meals delivered to his work place every single day, and he would be responsible for payment of 5 meals at the end of the day. While delivery services have existed for a while, the two unique features are the subscription service as well as the method of hiring drivers. Similar to the way Uber is set up, where average people looking for extra cash on hand sign up to be cab drivers, Meals4U would allow normal people looking for a income boost to sign up for delivery drivers....

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...M: to discussion shuru karne se pehle aap muje bata den k aap kya kartee hen or aap k kitne bache hen or wok on kon see classes me hen or konse school me prhate hen, gee aap pehle R: mera naam Ayesha he or mere 2 bache hen aik baitee he or aik baita he M: acha to un ki ages kya hen R: baita jo he wo 7,8 saal ka he or baitee jo he wo 4.5, ya 5 saal ki he M: acha to wok is school me parhate hen R: wo beaconhouse me parhate hen M: gee aap R: mera naam Shaanze he or mere 2 bache hen or bara baita jo he wo 8 years ka he or chotee baitee he wo 4 years ki he M: acha R: or dono hi school going hen or bachee ka to admission me ne abee karwaya he M: acha to aap k bache kis school me parhate hen R: mere bache Nic’s grammer school me parhate hen M: gee R: mera naam Sana he or mere 3 bache hen bara baita he wo 10 saal ka he or us se chotee bachee he wo 7 years ki he M: acha R: or phir chota baita he or us ka naam Faseeh he wo 4 years ka he M: acha to wo konse chool me jaate hen R: wo city school me jaate hen M: gee aap R: my name is Neha and I have two sons M: acha R: bara jo he wo 5 saal ka he or chota jo he wo 3 saal ka he M: acha to wo school jaate hen R: nahee abee wo school going nahee...

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Crime Investigation

...International Journal For Technological Research In Engineering Volume 1, Issue 9, May-2014 ISSN (Online): 2347 - 4718 DATA MINING TECHNIQUES TO ANALYZE CRIME DATA R. G. Uthra, M. Tech (CS) Bharathidasan University, Trichy, India. Abstract: In data mining, Crime management is an interesting application where it plays an important role in handling of crime data. Crime investigation has very significant role of police system in any country. There had been an enormous increase in the crime in recent years. With rapid popularity of the internet, crime information maintained in web is becoming increasingly rampant. In this paper the data mining techniques are used to analyze the web data. This paper presents detailed study on classification and clustering. Classification is the process of classifying the crime type Clustering is the process of combining data object into groups. The construct of scenario is to extract the attributes and relations in the web page and reconstruct the scenario for crime mining. Key words: Crime data analysis, classification, clustering. I. INTRODUCTION Crime is one of the dangerous factors for any country. Crime analysis is the activity in which analysis is done on crime activities. Today criminals have maximum use of all modern technologies and hi-tech methods in committing crimes. The law enforcers have to effectively meet out challenges of crime control and maintenance of public order. One challenge to law......

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...We would also like to thank our faculty members, Prof Juhi Shah, Prof Shweta Bambuwala and Prof Neha Rohera who gave us the right direction and guided us all through. At the same time they encouraged our efforts and...

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