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Networking Essay

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By bobsuruncle
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1. Describe a local land line phone system on the following Landline Telephone Components: a. Local Loop: A local loop is a network or circuit that connects a group of telephone customers to the edge of the service provider’s network, no larger than 3 miles. b. Central Office: A central office is responsible for providing certain services to the local loop, such as, call routing, signaling, digit collecting. c. Local Exchanges: A system of devices or switches that direct local calls. Commonly called a switchboard. d. POP: POP (Point of Presence) is the location or interface point of a communicating party. Comparable to an internet POP such as a router or switch. e. Long Distance System: The long distance system is a service for making long distance calls. Before direct dialing, this was done though several switchboards spanning many different areas. f. Fixed Line: A fixed line, also called a landline, is a telephone that is physically connected to the local loop via telephone line. This differs from a cellular phone which uses radio waves to connect. 2. Define and describe the following Telecommunications Network Components: g. Cellular Telephones: Cellular Telephones use radio waves to communicate with cellular towers that direct the call. They currently use 3G and 4G connections for both voice and data. i. Voice: Voice calls are not too unlike fixed line calls; the difference being that is it transmitted wirelessly. The call is transmitted via radio waves to a cellular tower, which is then routed through the service provider and to the party on the other end. ii. Data: Data is commonly called “mobile internet”. Data is sent through radio waves in either a 3G or 4G connection, which streams data to and from the phone, much like a computer connects to the internet. h. Telephone Network Topology: Telephone network topology refers to in what way the particular telephone call is routed. Much like the Bus or Star topology in computer networking. iii. Demarcation Point: The demarcation point is the point in which the telephone providers network ends, and the customers wiring begins. There is typically a network interface device here. iv. Equipment: The equipment typically used in a telephone network is a vast array of devices, such as, network interface devices, switches and cables to name a few. v. Access Networks: An access network is a part of the network that allows the customer to connect to their provider. vi. Regional/Metro Networks: Regional/metro networks are larger networks to better cover a region or metropolis. i. Cable TV: Cable TV is television that is transmitted over a cable network. Typically transmitted over coaxial cable. vii. Broadcast TV: Broadcast TV is television that is transmitted via radio waves. viii. Community Antenna: This goes back to the beginnings of cable television; in rural areas where radio signals were harder to get, a “community antenna” would be installed and then cable would run to each individual house. ix. Network Access Point: The network access point is a device that allows users to access the network. Typically works as a sort of “router” to allow access. x. Interface Device: This is a rather broad term; this is basically any device that allows the user to interface with a device. This can range from a network interface device, to a human interface device such as a keyboard. j. Telecommunication Services: This refers to any service that allows parties to communicate electronically. Be it by phone, computer or any other device. xi. RBOCs: The Regional Bell Operating Companies are seven independent operations originally split up by AT&T in 1984. Also known as “Baby Bells”. xii. Unbundling: Unbundling refers to the process of breaking up an object (or company) into smaller pieces. Sometimes when companies “unbundle” they sell off some parts. xiii. MSOs: Multi-System Operators are companies that operate multiple telecommunication services. For instance, Time Warner Cable operates both a cable TV service and a cable internet service. xiv. ISPs: Internet Service Providers provide internet to customers and businesses. These can range from DSL ISPs to cable, and in some areas even wireless DSL. xv. Triple Play: Triple Play refers to a service where the provider “bundles” three services over one connection. Such as internet, television and phone service. xvi. Cloud Computing: Cloud computing is a service where a remote server takes orders from your device and processes it for you, essentially doing all the work. An early form of cloud computing is web-based Email. Cloud computing has grown exponentially in last few years; companies such as Microsoft are toying with the idea of even implementing “Cloud Gaming” to their consoles.

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