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Neuroanatomical Differences in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Influence of Stimulant Medication Administration

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By zoeee
Words 6112
Pages 25
Running head: Neuroanatomical Differences in ADHD

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Neuroanatomical Differences in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Influence of Stimulant Medication Administration

Zach Grice-Patil University of Minnesota

Neuroanatomical Differences in ADHD Abstract: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a common psychological disorder with a pathophysiology that is not well understood. The choice treatment is with strong psychoactive stimulants (methylphenidate), which has helped to establish much of the known pathophysiology of the disorder. Medication administration to young children is becoming exceedingly common and it is suspected here that methylphenidate has effects on neurodevelopmental processes. Much of the imaging data which suggest neuroanatomical differences observed in ADHD are confounded by the inability to control for lifetime-medication use in the sample. Animal data have demonstrated that acute methylphenidate administration can cause significant changes in juveniles. A

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multi-level analysis of the current literature assessing the structural differences in ADHD with respect to methylphenidate administration is the focus for this review. Methods include: MR structural, MR diffusion, MR spectroscopy, Positron Emission Tomography, and Histology. Based upon this review, the current administration of methylphenidate to young ADHD patients should be reevaluated to account for the uncertainty in medication-induced neurodevelopment.

Neuroanatomical Differences in ADHD Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common psychological disorder which impacts a large number of children, adolescence, and even adults. The latest epidemiology, reported by Schmitt et al. (2009) is about 5% (70,000,000 people) worldwide, and ranging from 2-18% in the United States. ADHD diagnosis is given based upon a clinician’s observation of three primary...

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