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Newspaper Analyse

In: Business and Management

Submitted By joanassasousa
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La subida de impuestos provoca la caída de la venta de cigarrillos

Las últimas tasas impuestas por el Gobierno, provocan un descenso en las ventas en las cajetillas de tabaco. El tabaco de liar aumenta.

El mercado de cigarrillos ha sufrido un descenso del 11,7% en su ventas hasta el mes de septiembre con respecto al mismo periodo de 2012. Las ventas se cifran en 1.822 cajetillas, por las que se obtuvieron unas ganancias de 7.809 millones de euros, según datos del Comisionado para el Mercado de Tabacos.
Por contra el tabaco de liar aumento en un 14,2% en volumen, hasta alcanzar los 5,39 millones de kilos. La facturación fue de 832,83 millones de euros. Por otro lado, la picadura de pipa cayó en los primeros nueve meses del año un 50% en volumen, al tiempo que los puros elevaron las ventas un 5,6% en los nueve primeros meses del año.
En el primer semestre destacó la modificación de la estructura fiscal de las labores del tabaco, que provocó en julio una subida media de 10 céntimos en las cajetillas de cigarrillos de las principales marcas.
El Gobierno dio el visto bueno a finales de junio a la subida fiscal del tabaco, con el alza del tipo específico de 19,1 a 24,1 euros por cada mil cigarrillos y la reducción del 'ad valorem' del 53,1% al 51%, mientras que el impuesto mínimo pasó de 123,97 euros a 128,65 euros por cada mil cigarrillos.
Al cierre de 2012, las ventas de cigarrillos se situaron en mínimos históricos, al comercializarse 2.671 millones de cajetillas, lo que supone una caída del 11% respecto al año anterior y el cuarto descenso anual consecutivo.
En los cuatro últimos años, coincidiendo con la crisis, el sector ha perdido terreno en el mercado, al pasar de 4.514 millones de cajetillas comercializadas en 2008 a 2.671 millones el pasado año. Se trata de la cifra más baja de ventas registrada desde 1989, año en el que este organismo inicia la serie estadística.



El consumo de cigarrillos puede ser visto como una externalidad negativa ya que cuando alguien fuma, eso influye en el bienestar de todas las personas que están cerca. Se puede decir incluso que es una externalidad negativa porque se produce un coste a la sociedad (enfermedades, polución del aire, entre otras).
Sin embargo, el estado puede actuar frente a las externalidades de modo a intentar disminuirlas con regulación, impuestos o subvenciones.
Como se puede ver en la noticia, el estado subió la tasa sobre el tabaco pasando de un impuesto mínimo de 123,97€ a 128,65€ por cada mil cigarrillos. Con eso, se vio que las ventas de tabaco han sido reducidas en 11,7% en 2013 cuando comparado con 2012.
Con el aumento del precio, el estado incluye el coste de los que resultan afectados por los fumadores (al menos parcialmente) así que resulta que S’ (ver gráfico) tiene en cuenta el coste social. Así, la cantidad consumida disminuye y por consecuencia el coste para la sociedad.

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