Free Essay

Ngos Regulation in Zambia

In: Social Issues

Submitted By THAMEGI
Words 2387
Pages 10
1.0 INTRODUCTION

This paper sets out to give the reason why of late the Zambian Government have been pushing for the enactment of the NGO Bill into an Act of Parliament. In doing so the essay will firstly define the key concepts in the question. Thereafter give an analysis of why the NGO Bill and why it met with a lot of dissent from the NGO fraternity and other stakeholders. Furthermore, why government was so eager to enact such a law and what factors contributed to the NGO’s reaction towards Governments intention.

2.0 DEFINITIONS

2.1. Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO)

There are so many definitions of the Non-governmental Organisation. World Bank defines the NGO as many groups and institutions that are entirely or largely independent of government and that have primary humanitarian or cooperative rather that commercial objectives. They are private agencies in industrial countries that support international development; indigenous groups organized regionally or nationally; and member-groups in villages. NGOs include charitable and religious associations that mobilize private funds for development, distribute food and family planning services and promote community organization. They also include independent cooperatives, community associations, water-user societies, women’s groups and pastoral associations. Citizen groups that raise awareness and influence policy are also NGOs.

It is also defined as an organization established by and for the community without or with little intervention from the government; they are not only a charity organization, but work on socio-economic-cultural activities. It is also an organization that is flexible and democratic in its organization and attempts to serve the people without profit for itself.

In this paper I am going to define an NGO as a private voluntary grouping of individuals or associations not operated for profit or for other commercial purposes but which have organized themselves nationally or internationally for the benefit of the public at large and for the promotion of social welfare, development, charity or research in areas inclusive of, but not restricted to, health, relief, agriculture, education, industry and the supply of amenities and services (Yansah 1995:16).

2.2. A Bill

To bring the discussion into context I want to define what a Bill is. For purpose of this discussion we are referring to the enactment of the NGO Bill that government introduced into parliament this year. A bill is an Act to provide for the co-ordination and registration of non-governmental organizations (NGO) Board and the Zambia Congress of Non-governmental organization, to enhance the transparency organizations; and provide for matters connected with or incidental to the foregoing. In Zambia it is by the Parliament of Zambia (Draft NGO bill, 2007).

3.0 Why Government was so eager to Enact the Law

In understanding this question it is important to understand the role of NGOs. There are a lot of views on the role of NGOs. Among the wide variety of roles that NGO’s play six important roles have been identified:-

(i) Development and Operation of Infrastructure

These are community-based organizations and cooperatives that can acquire, subdivide and develop land, construct housing, provide infrastructure and operate and maintain infrastructure such as wells or public toilets and solid waste collection services. They can also develop building material supply centres and other community-based economic enterprises. In many cases, they will need technical assistance or advice from governmental agencies or higher-level NGOs.

(ii) Supporting Innovation, Demonstration and Pilot Projects

NGO’s have the advantage of selecting particular places for innovative projects and specify in advance the length of time which they will be supporting the project-overcoming some of the shortcomings that governments face in this respect. NGO’s can also be pilots for larger government projects by virtue of their ability to act more quickly than the government bureaucracy.

(iii) Facilitating Communication

NGO’s use interpersonal methods of communication, and study the right entry points whereby they gain the trust of the community they seek to benefit. They would also have a good idea of the feasibility of the projects they take up. The significance of this role to the government is that NGOs can communicate to the policy-making levels of government, information about the lives, capabilities, attitudes and cultural characteristics of people at the local level.

NGO can facilitate communication upward from people to the government and downward from the government to the people. Communication upward involves informing government about what local people are thinking, doing and feeling while communication downward involves informing local people about what the government is planning and doing. NGOs are also in a unique position to share information horizontally, networking between other organizations doing similar work.
(iv) Technical Assistance and Training

Training institutions and NGOs can develop a technical assistance and training capacity and use this to assist governments

(v) Research, Monitoring and Evaluation

Innovative activities need to be carefully documented and shared-effective participatory monitoring would permit the sharing of results with the people themselves as well as with the project staff.

(vi) Advocacy for and with the poor.

In some cases, NGOs become spokespersons for the poor and attempt to influence government policies and programs on their behalf. This may be done through a variety of means ranging from demonstration and pilot projects to participation in public forums and formulation of government policy and plans, to publicizing research results and case studies of the poor. Thus NGOs play roles from advocates for the poor to implementers of government programs, from agitators and critics to partners and advisors; from sponsors of pilot projects to mediators.

The Government of Zambia was so eager to enact the NGO Bill introduced in 2007 in Parliament by Justice Minister, George Kunda as it would have called for the registration and co-ordination of NGO’s to regulate the work and the area of work of NGO’s operating in Zambia. If the bill became law it would empower the Justice Minister to form a 10-member board, comprised of government members and two representatives from civil society, which would receive discuss and approve the code of conduct (of NGO’s) and provide policy guidelines to NGO’s for harmonizing their activities to the national development plan of Zambia.

In governments view NGOs have not followed these roles. NGOs have been political in the running of there programs. For instance pushing for the enactment of the constitution, pushing for government to do things not in the interest of government. They have been acting as a pressure group, have not been accountable to the people with donor funds they get and do not even disclose which donors funds their projects. Mostly the funds they get are used in allocating themselves with huge salaries and they also pay so highly to staff that are not even professional and can not even deliver to the expected standard and hence end up using resources for personal empowerment.

4.0 Why NGO Bill met with a lot of dissent from the NGO fraternity and other Stakeholders

In my view government was so eager to enact the bill to regulate NGOs to make them accountable and transparent in the delivery of there services. On the other hand this bill meet with a lot of dissent from NGOs and stakeholders because Civil Society in Zambia feared that the imminent introduction of legislation aimed at regulating non-governmental organizations (NGOs) would severely comprise their work and independence, and could even result in their work operations being closed down (afrol News, 19, July, 2007).

The NGO Bill met with a lot of dissent from Civil Society groups and aid donors who expressed misgivings over the bill, which they said was draconian and aimed at restricting the operation of NGOs, especially those involved in human rights work as the bill seeks to introduce tight rules regarding the registration, management and operation of NGOs with provisions requiring them to submit quarterly reports of their activities. The bill also met with a lot of different views as members of parliament had also opposed the bill which they said went against the constitution that guarantees freedom of association, assembly and expression (W. M. Sinkamba and W. C. Matoka, (2005).

When the draft NGO bill emerged from Government for presentation to Parliament, the NGOs who alleged the proposed bill did not reflect the original draft that they had worked on, fiercely contested the document. They alleged that the document was heavily” doctored” by government and therefore NGOs refused to associate with it. This has in the last decade led to the stalemate of the process in formulation of the National Policy on NGOs and of the NGOs legislation.

5.0 What are the Factors that contributed to NGO’s reaction towards Governments intention.

Civil society leaders and human rights activitists told the UN media ‘IRIN’ the new law was a ploy by government to silence their critics and erode the role of civil society. It is believed the bill is dictatorial and seeks to constrain and limit space for civil society in the country. Further, the bill sends a very wrong signal and threatens the existence of NGOs’, the board is to be directly under the Minister of Home Affairs, then it would mean that the same board would be de-registering, at will, any NGO whose style the government would not like (Lee Habasonda, 2007).

Currently NGOs are registered by the Registrar of Societies, a quasi-government organization, but after registration the government has little power to restrain NGOs from voicing political dissent, and any attempt to de-register an NGO usually involves long court battles. In the proposed bill, NGOs will be obliged to register annually.

The other concern in the draft NGO Bill is that the provisions do not conform to, and are inconsistent with the present democratic dispensation as they had vested too much unilateral power in the Minister. In understanding these concerns it is important to look at some of the powers allocated to the Justice Minister and any authorized officer as the Justice Minister may direct. The following are some concerns cited;

(1) The bill gives powers to the Minister to issue directives to the Registrar of Societies, and the Registrar is compelled to carry out the action”. These directives include the de-registering of NGOs.

(2) That the Board would be responsible to administer the Code of Conduct, and perform such other functions as the Minister may from time to time prescribe.

(3) That the Minister shall, by statutory instrument and after consultation and on the advice of the Board, make regulations for a Code of Conduct for organizations registered under this Act and in all these acts a question may arise as to why prescription is by the Minister.

The government have been failing to put an end to the activism or existence of SACCORD because there was no legal basis for de-registering them for holding dissenting views from the government. It is further believed that the bill reduces the right to freedom of expression and the right to freedom of association; it reduces the efficacy of NGOs, because if they can’t effectively criticize the state, then it means democracy would be losing ground and dictatorship would now creep in.

This is the first attempt by the Zambian government to regulate civil society since the onset of multiparty democracy 16 years ago, when Kenneth Kaunda, president since Zambia’s independence from Britain in 1964, was unseated in 1991 by former trade unionist Fredrick Chiluba.

Both local and international NGO’s have cried foul over government’s intentions to regulate them. Civil society organizations in Zambia, led by the Zambia Council for social development (ZCSD), civil society for poverty reduction (CSPR), the foundation for democratic process (FODEP), non-governmental coordination council (NGOCC), the Southern African centre for constructive resolution of disputes (SACCORD), and the law association of Zambia (LAZ), have since objected the government proposed NGO Bill 2007.

Local civil society organizations and international non-governmental organizations have petitioned parliament on the need to withdraw the bill so as to allow for broad based consultations.

Government has however, deferred debate on the 2007 NGO Bill, which was at committee stage, stakeholders are calling for a complete withdrawal of the NGO Bill 2007, which was tabled before parliament by Zambia’s Justice Minister George Kunda.

The NGO’s have also challenged government to stop receiving monetary support from the donor community. Reacting to persistency accusations by government that NGOs were agent of western imperialists’ forces, SACCORD Executive Director retorted that if it were so, it invariably meant that
African governments should also stop getting donor support.

6.0 CONCLUSION

Government wanted to introduce a bill so that they can introduce a regulatory frame work within which NGOs should operate and implement the activities on the other hand NGOs did not trust government and thought it was a way of controlling and undermining there activities. It is clear from discussion that an NGO bill is important so that it can provide for co-ordination and ensuring that NGOs operate within there mandate.

It is also clear to understand that the factors that led to the NGOs reaction towards government intention to enact the bill is the presentation of the bill to parliament is the failure by government to present the original draft bill as proposed. The NGOs alleged that the document was heavily doctored by government and therefore NGOs refused to associate with it. The government has decided to revive the stalled process by making amendments to the original draft bill before it is resubmitted to parliament and it was advised by stakeholders that government adopts the draft National Policy on NGOs that was drafted in 1996 as a working document and finally that the draft bill be presented to Parliament only after input from the entire NGOs sector.

REFERENCES

1. Yaansah, A. Edward (1995) : An analysis of Domestic Legislation to Regulate the Activities of Local and Foreign NGOs in Croatia, Kenya, Rwanda and Uganda. Oxford, Refugee Studies Programmes and Centre for Socio-Legal Studies.

2. Zambian draft Non-Governmentatal Organisation Bill, 2007

3. www.afrol News/IRIN, 19 July, 2007.

4. Lee Habasonda (2007): Southern African Centre for Constructive Resolution of Disputes (SACCORD), a human rights and good governance watchdog.

5. W. M. Sinkamba and W. C. Matoka (2005), Draft Bill and Code of Conduct; Zambia Council for Social Development.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Miss

...DEMOCRACY RIGHTS AND GOVERNANCE CROSS-SECTOR SPECIALIST Job Announcement No. AID-001-16 OPEN TO: All Americans who currently reside in Zambia and Eligible Family Members SOLICITATION NUMBER: ISSUANCE DATE: CLOSING DATE: POSITION TITLE: AID-001-16 February 16, 2016 February 26, 2016 Democracy Rights Governance Cross-Sector Specialist GRADE: GS-13 ($ 73,846 – 96,004) MARKET VALUE: The final compensation will be negotiated within the listed market value based on the successful candidate’s salary history, work experience, and educational background. Salaries over and above the top of the pay range will not be entertained or negotiated. PERIOD OF PERFORMANCE: One year from date of appointment with one option to extend for up to four additional years. PLACE OF PERFORMACE: United States Embassy, Lusaka, Zambia SECURITY ACCESS: FSN/LES basic security clearance A. BASIC FUNCTIONS The Democracy Rights and Governance (DRG) Cross-Sector Specialist provides programmatic support and advice to the DRG team in areas that intersect with other technical sectors and manages USAID/Zambia’s suite of cross-sector DRG activities. S/he reports to the DRG Team leader and serves as the working-level liaison between the DRG technical team and other USAID technical offices including the Education, Economic Development, Health, and Interagency PEPFAR teams. S/he identifies and advances opportunities for cross-sector DRG integration and funding and serves as activity manager or A/COR of......

Words: 2113 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Sndp

...ASSESSMENT O DEVELO F PMENT RESULTS E V A L UA T I ON OF UNDP CONTRI BUTI ON ZAMbIA HUMAN DEVELO PMENTeffectiveness CO RDINAT O efficiency CO RDINATIO ANDPARTNERSHIP sus O N NATIO O NAL WNERSHIP relevance MANAGINGFO sustainability MANAGINGFO RESULTS responsiven R AN DEVELO PMENTresponsiveness NATIO O NAL WN NATIO O NAL WNERSHIP effectiveness CO RDINAT O efficiency CO RDINATIO ANDPARTNERSHIP sus O N NATIO O NAL WNERSHIP relevance MANAGINGFO sustainability MANAGINGFO RESULTS responsiven R HUMAN DEVELO PMENTeffectiveness CO RDINAT O ASSESSMENT O DEVELO F PMENT RESULTS EVAL UATI ON OF UNDP CONTRI BUTI ON ZAMBIA Evaluation Office, February 2010 United Nations Development Programme REPORtS PUBliSHED UNDER tHE aDR SERiES Afghanistan Argentina Bangladesh Barbados Benin Bhutan Bosnia & Herzegovina Botswana Bulgaria Burkina Faso Cambodia Chile China Colombia Republic of the Congo Ecuador Egypt Ethiopia Georgia Guatemala Guyana Honduras India Jamaica Jordan Lao PDR Libya Maldives Montenegro Mozambique Nicaragua Nigeria Peru Philippines Rwanda Serbia Seychelles Sudan Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Turkey Uganda Ukraine Uzbekistan Viet Nam Yemen EvalUatiON tEam team leader team members EO task manager EO Research assistant Erik Lyby Honorine Muyoyeta Jorry Mwenechanya Urs Nagel Zembaba Ayalew aSSESSmENt OF DEvElOPmENt RESUltS: malDivES Copyright © UNDP 2010, all rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. The analysis and recommendations of this...

Words: 48515 - Pages: 195

Premium Essay

Docx

...without disabilities are taught together, as equals. This approach is different to more traditional approaches to the education of children with disabilities, such as the SPED model used in the Philippines, that involve segregating CWDs into separate classes or even separate schools. Inclusive Education is recognized by teachers, families and policy makers to be a more beneficial way of ensuring that children with and without disabilities achieve their full educational potential. The LCD Philippines Foundation Inclusive Education program was initiated in 2005 in response to a perceived need for a remodification of the current educational system for CWDs in the Philippines. Working in partnership with the Department of Education, other national NGOs and 19 Community Support Groups (made up of volunteer parents and volunteer organisations), amongst other partners, the program involves creating awareness among stakeholders; improving access to Inclusive Education in schools and communities through providing accessible features, equipment and appropriate teacher training; adopting an holistic approach to address the needs of CWDs through comprehensive health management and rehabilitation interventions (including a program developed by one of our CHIIPS Interns – ICARE) and research and data gathering. In addition the Inclusive Education in collaboration with the Economic Empowerment programme aims to create economic opportunities for the parents and families of disabled......

Words: 11793 - Pages: 48

Premium Essay

Profile

...I have over 20 years experience in accounting , management and auditing gained from : • Post conflict and conflict geographical locations in Burundi ( specifically Ngozi, Sudan, Uganda : • Environmental disasters in Tanzania; Mozambique and Kenya • HIV affected and infected communities in Botswana and The Zambia • Donor-funded projects, financial institutions and Government organizations. I have been involved in Financial management and management audits of various organizations. This include Project Planning and Management, development of Accounting Systems and internal control systems, Budget Management on Donor funded Non-Governmental Organizations, Project Management, Finance and Management Accounting and Staff Performance appraisal, both private and public sector Organizations. Currently am managing the Regional Finance and Administration as supervisor in the East and Southern Africa Region and I have been responsible for coming up with policies and procedures that are in line with the organizations’ long term strategies. This involved review of existing structures, and Advising management on possible implementation procedures and processes and the costs/benefits associated with them. I have therefore had to work with consultants and different authorities in order to accomplish these goals. The job is based in Uganda but I receive reports from all the above mentioned countries through email on a monthly basis by the 5th of every month, import into ACCPAC ...

Words: 826 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

The Impact of Cso Legislation on Environmental Justice Movement in Ethiopia

...SOCIETIES LEGISLATION ON THE PROMOTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE IN ETHIOPIA By Gebremedhin Birega gbdagaga@gmail.com March 2014 Addis Ababa Ethiopia 1 Abstract Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) in general and environmental CSOs in particular, have been playing considerable constructive role in the nation building efforts in Ethiopia. However, all their contributions are not wholeheartedly accepted by the government. In 2009, the government introduced a new law overtly presented to register, administer and create an enabling environment for a more meaningful contribution of CSOs/NGOs. Nevertheless, it has been argued that the introduction of the new law further weakened the already young and inexperienced CSO/NGO sector in general and those engaged in environmental justice in particular. The main objective of this paper is therefore to assess the impact of the legislation on NGOs/CSOs engaged in environmental justice mainly in: limiting areas of intervention; affecting access to foreign funds and other forms of support to undertake mandated tasks; retaining competence including knowledge and skills; making government answerable to felt needs of the society; advancing meaningful networking among CSOs at national, regional and global level on environmental policy reform issues; downsized change in amount of budget and skilled staff; engaging in research undertaking; conducting quality monitoring and evaluation activities. Based on the findings recommendations......

Words: 13676 - Pages: 55

Free Essay

Logistic

...Review of Warehouse Receipt System and Inventory Credit Initiatives in Eastern & Southern Africa Final report commissioned by UNCTAD under the All ACP Agricultural Commodities Programme (AAACP) *The views expressed in this paper are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the United Nations September 2009 CONTENTS CONTENTS ............................................................................................................................................. i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .....................................................................................................................iii GLOSSARY OF ABBREVIATIONS .................................................................................................. iv GLOSSARY OF ABBREVIATIONS .................................................................................................. iv SUMMARY ............................................................................................................................................ 1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 1 Observations on the different approaches ......................................................................... 1 Policy conclusions and recommendations ........................................................................ 3 Specific proposals .....................................................................

Words: 56151 - Pages: 225

Premium Essay

Staple Food Value Chain Analysis

...STAPLE FOODS VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS COUNTRY REPORT - MALAWI November 2009 This publication was produced for review by the United States Agency for International Development. It was prepared by Chemonics International Inc. The author‘s views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the United States Agency for International Development or the United States Government. ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ACE AGRA AISP ADMARC CISANET CPL CHDI COMESA COMPETE EAC FEWSNET FNSJTF GAC GMAC GOM GTPA ICRISAT MACE MBS MoAFS MoIT MRA NASFAM NEPAD NFRA NPQS NSO SMIP SPS SABI SADC SFRFFM USAID VCA WFP WRS Agriculture Commodity Exchange for Africa Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa Agriculture Input Subsidy Program Agriculture Development and Marketing Board Civil Society for Agriculture Network Chibuku Products Ltd. Clinton Hunger Development Initiative Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa Competitiveness and Trade Expansion Programme East African Community Famine Early Warning System Network Food Nutrition and Security Joint Task Force Group Action Committee Grain Marketing Advisory Council Government of Malawi Grain Traders and Processors Association International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics Malawi Agricultural Commodity Exchange Malawi Bureau of Standards Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security Ministry of Industry and Trade Malawi Revenue Authority National Smallholder Farmers Association of Malawi New Partnership......

Words: 50613 - Pages: 203

Premium Essay

Stroke

...Graduate School of Development Studies A Research Paper presented by: Joreen Nkole Mwelwa (ZAMBIA) In partial fulfilment of the requirements for obtaining the degree of MASTERS OF ARTS IN DEVELOPMENT STUDIES Specialization: Public Policy and Management (PPM) Members of the examining committee: Prof. Dr Michael Grimm (Supervisor) Dr Bridget O’Laughlin (Reader) The Hague, The Netherlands November, 2009 Disclaimer: This document represents part of the author’s study programme while at the Institute of Social Studies. The views stated therein are those of the author and not necessarily those of the Institute. Research papers are not made available for circulation outside of the Institute. Inquiries: Postal address: Institute of Social Studies P.O. Box 29776 2502 LT The Hague The Netherlands Location: Kortenaerkade 12 2518 AX The Hague The Netherlands Telephone: +31 70 426 0460 Fax: +31 70 426 0799 Acknowledgements I give my sincere gratitude to Jehovah God for his love and care throughout my life and the fifteen months I have been here. With much honour I sincerely thank my Supervisor, Prof M.Grimm, truth be told it was a blessing to have a supervisor like him, I am short of words to describe him, I would simply say he has been...

Words: 19712 - Pages: 79

Premium Essay

Social

...Social Development Working Paper No.1 SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT ISSUES IN SECTOR WIDE APPROACHES Andrew Norton, Bella Bird May 1998 ISSN: 1462-8651 ISBN: 1 86192 042 3 The aim of the Working Paper series is to generate knowledge on social development that is pertinent to DFID’s goal of eliminating world poverty. It is hoped that the series will provoke new thought and discussion on issues of policy and practice rather than simply reflecting established ideas and positions. Social Development Division Department for International Development 94, Victoria Street London SW1E 5JL UK Tel: 44 (0) 171 917 7000 Fax: 44 (0) 171 917 0197 Email: sdd@dfid.gtnet.gov.uk DFID homepage: http://www.dfid.gov.uk Contents Executive Summary 1. 2. 3. Introduction Background - Sector Wide Approaches Issues in Sector Wide Approaches Defining the sector Who owns and who leads? Who is consulted and how? Centralisation vs. Decentralisation Projects vs. Programmes Changes in Development Practice Strengthening the Social Impact of Sector Wide Approaches Entry Points for Social Development Approaches Institutionalising Social Analysis in SWAps Strengthening Processes of Consultation & Participation in SWAps Strengthening Civil Society Capacity To Engage In Sector Policy And Programmes 4. 5. 6. Conclusions References Acknowledgements This paper has benefited greatly from comments on earlier drafts from Phil Evans, Rosalind Eyben, Charlotte Heath, Mick Foster, Peter Balacs,......

Words: 11577 - Pages: 47

Premium Essay

Corporate Social Responsibility

...GlaxoSmithKline and AIDS Drugs for Africa GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals Ltd Trimester 1 Project – Division D Prepared By (Group 4) :Nakul Agarwal Sanket Guhagarkar Tanvi Gupta Piyush Jain Saurabh Jain (D004) (D020) (D026) (D029) (D030) Table of Contents Company Overview....................................................................................................................... 1 HIV / AIDS in Africa ................................................................................................................... 1 Core interest of GSK in Africa .................................................................................................... 1 Criticism of GSK ......................................................................................................................... 1 Access to Medicine (ATM) Outlook ............................................................................................ 2 Governance .................................................................................................................................... 2 Management Structures....................................................................................................... 3 Performance Management & Incentives ............................................................................. 3 Stakeholder Engagement..................................................................................................... 4 Innovation in General Access to......

Words: 3334 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Women

...Report of Online Discussion WOMEN IN LEADERSHIP ROLES Coordinated by the Division for the Advancement of Women Department of Economic and Social Affairs United Nations Hosted by WomenWatch With support from the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) 19 November to 15 December 2007 Disclaimer: The views expressed in this report reflect the opinions of participants to the online discussion and not the official views of the United Nations Contents 1. Introduction................................................................................................................................ 3 2. Theme One: Status of women in leadership positions globally ....................................................... 5 2.1. Country experiences ................................................................................................................5 2.2. Ability of women in leadership positions to influence change .....................................................6 2.3. Instruments and methodologies to measure impact ..................................................................8 3. Theme Two: Factors that influence women’s access to decision-making positions —views from public administration, the judiciary and the private sector................................................................. 9 3.1. Representation of women in the public sector.........................................................................10 3.2.......

Words: 14075 - Pages: 57

Free Essay

China in Mozambique: a Cautious Approach Country Case Study

...OCCASIONAL PAPER NO 23 China in Africa Project January 2009 China in Mozambique: A Cautious Approach Country Case Study at io n al Af fai r s Paula Cristina Roque rn te f In eo t tit u . Ins hts can fr i ig ins South A l a Glob African perspectives. ABOUT SAIIA The South African Institute of International Affairs (SAIIA) has a long and proud record as South Africa’s premier research institute on international issues. It is an independent, non-government think-tank whose key strategic objectives are to make effective input into public policy, and to encourage wider and more informed debate on international affairs with particular emphasis on African issues and concerns. It is both a centre for research excellence and a home for stimulating public engagement. SAIIA’s occasional papers present topical, incisive analyses, offering a variety of perspectives on key policy issues in Africa and beyond. Core public policy research themes covered by SAIIA include good governance and democracy; economic policymaking; international security and peace; and new global challenges such as food security, global governance reform and the environment. Please consult our website www.saiia.org.za for further information about SAIIA’s work. This paper is the outcome of research commissioned by SAIIA’s China in Africa Project. ABOUT THE CHINA IN AFRICA PROJECT SAIIA’s ‘China in Africa’ research project investigates the emerging......

Words: 9089 - Pages: 37

Premium Essay

Management Module

...aCHAPTER 1 BUSINESS ORGANISATIONS At the end of this Module the student shall be able to: Understand the various types of business organisations that can be established. Appreciate the advantages and disadvantages of each type of business Introduction A business activity is any legal activity that may be owned by one person as a sole proprietor or can be owned jointly by two or more people thereby creating a partnership. The main aim of many business operations is to make a profit either in the short or long term. A business activity is not only trading activities like the popular Kantemba business that have spread along many high ways in cities and towns. A business may be in the form of manufacturing something for sale, buying and selling for profit, providing services etc. Some examples of businesses include banking, insurance, retail trade, producing beer, providing educational services, Shoprite Chain Stores, Game stores, Internet services, tourist lodge or hotel, transport services etc. Element 1.1 Types of Business Enterprises A business may be owned by one person as a sole proprietor or can be owned jointly with another person or partner as a partnership. Another way in which a business could be owned is through the establishment of a limited liability company. A limited liability company can be privately or publicly owned. Another form of business organization could be through a cooperative society. The government may on behalf of the entire citizenry own businesses...

Words: 31725 - Pages: 127

Premium Essay

Csr Comapny Details

...spotlight on CSR Malika Bhandarkar and Tarcisio Alvarez-Rivero* 1. Introduction Corporate social responsibility (CSR)1 has become a hot topic in boardrooms across the world. Changes in corporate value systems are being driven by pressures from different actors, including governments, consumers, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and institutional investors (diagram 1). Multinational corporations (MNCs) have operations spread across the globe, relying on both foreign affiliates and arm’s-length suppliers arrayed along global supply chains, many of which encompass developing countries. What then does the growing CSR movement mean for developing country producers? The chapter addresses this question. Diagram 1 Institutional Investor Tier I Tier II Tie r III NonGovernmental Organization Multinational Corporation Supply Chain, consisting of: Consumer Government CSR has relevance to many facets of a corporation’s operations. Strong CSR policies can help to recruit the right people for the job, keep attrition rates low by promoting a “feel good” quotient, improve corporate image, prepare for future regulation, empower “soft” laws (Vogel, 2005, p.162), appease green customers, and convince institutional investors that the corporation is following sustainable practices that positively impact the bottom line. * Policy Integration and Analysis Branch, Division for Sustainable Development, UNDESA, United Nations, New York. The views......

Words: 8922 - Pages: 36

Premium Essay

Land Mafia in Karachi

...ANNUAL REPORT 2010 TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL IS THE GLOBAL CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANISATION LEADING THE FIGHT AGAINST CORRUPTION. THROUGH MORE THAN 90 CHAPTERS WORLDWIDE AND AN INTERNATIONAL SECRETARIAT IN BERLIN, WE RAISE AWARENESS OF THE DAMAGING EFFECTS OF CORRUPTION AND WORK WITH PARTNERS IN GOVERNMENT, BUSINESS AND CIVIL SOCIETY TO DEVELOP AND IMPLEMENT EFFECTIVE MEASURES TO TACKLE IT. www.transparency.org WE ARE A GLOBAL MOVEMENT SHARING ONE VISION A WORLD IN WHICH GOVERNMENT, POLITICS, BUSINESS, CIVIL SOCIETY AND THE DAILY LIVES OF PEOPLE ARE FREE OF CORRUPTION Editors: Alice Harrison and Michael Sidwell Design: Sophie Everett Cover photo: © Reuters/Yannis Behrakis Every effort has been made to verify the accuracy of the information contained in this report. All information was believed to be correct as of June 2011. Nevertheless, Transparency International cannot accept responsibility for the consequences of its use for other purposes or in other contexts. ISBN: 978-3-935711-79-1 Printed on 100% recycled paper. ©2011 Transparency International. All rights reserved. This report provides a snapshot of how the Transparency International movement was active in the fight against corruption in 2010. For the purpose of conciseness, national chapters, national chapters in formation and national contacts are referred to as chapters, regardless of their status within Transparency International’s accreditation system. Visit www.transparency.org/chapters for their current...

Words: 28414 - Pages: 114