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Nhs Internet Services Research

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NHS Internet Services Research: An Annotated Bibliography

First technology solutions: Satellite Internet
Business Internet: Select Plans. (n.d.). Retrieved November 24, 2014, from http://business.hughesnet.com/bi/resources/business-internet-gen4
The HughesNet website explains the viability of satellite internet service for businesses. The information provided demonstrates how the HughesNet Gen4 service can provide high speed internet access for multiple remote branch offices. HughesNet demonstrates how it compares favorably to other services such as cable or DSL (digital subscriber line) internet.
Satellite Internet has the ability to synchronously transmit and receive data from a small client satellite dish on Earth and communicate with an orbiting satellite above Earth's equator. The orbiting satellite transmits and receives its information to a ground server on Earth called the Network Operations Center (NOC). The NOC is connected to the Internet or private network. All communication made from a satellite dish connection to the Internet must flow through the ground server.
HughesNet satellite service has the flexible capabilities of reaching every office in the NHS network as well as any new locations that NHS may add as they expand their operations. Satellite service provides speeds of up to 15 Mbps, which exceeds the necessary speed required to transfer large 100MB files between each NHS office and their partner in New York City. HughesNet Gen4 service can provide end-to-end secure and encrypted data through connections with virtual private networks (VPN). However, Satellite service is vulnerable to interference from both solar flares and inclement weather. Based on the locations of the NHS offices, this may prove to be a significant concern.

Kruse, H. (n.d.) Satellite Services for Internet Access in Rural Area. Retrieved November 24, 2014, from http://www.its.ohiou.edu/kruse/publications/Satellite%20Internet.pdf
This paper offers a discussion regarding the ability of satellite internet service to fill the need for high speed internet in rural areas. This paper thoroughly demonstrates the capabilities of satellite technology and its design to enable faster service to rural areas. The author explains how satellite internet service has matured to the point where it can be used to fill in needs of rural areas with a practical internet access infrastructure.
Satellite internet access is provided through communications between a series of satellites. Satellite Internet service is characteristically supplied to users through geostationary satellites that can offer high data speeds. The technology uses satellites to transmit signals from ground servers up to an orbiting satellite and back down to a satellite on the client-side and vice versa. The communication of data is made achievable regardless of the client’s geographic location.
This technology meets the needs of NHS by assuring network internet connectivity throughout its locations and its partner location in New York City. Satellite internet can provide the throughput to enable the transmission of large files such as the 100MB image files NHS transfer between offices. The technology enables secure end-to-end communication of data with encryption and private connections. The only flaw is that it is susceptible to bad weather conditions and solar flare ups which can hinder communication.
Second technology solutions: Fiber Optic Internet
Black Box Network Services. (2010). Fiber Optic Technology: Principles and Advantages When is fiber the ideal choice for your network? [White paper] Retrieved November 24, 2014, from http://www.blackbox.com/resource/genpdf/White-Papers/Fiber-Optic-Technology.pdf
This white paper by Black Box Network Services gives a technical overview of how fiber optic technology works and the advantages in implanting it in a network. Black Box demonstrates how fiber optic cable is one of the fastest-growing transmission mediums for new cabling installations and upgrades, including backbone, horizontal, and even desktop applications. It works very well in applications that need high bandwidth, long distances, and complete immunity to electrical interference.
Fiber optics is synchronous technology uses conventional electrical data signals that are converted into a modulated light beam, introduced into the fiber and transported via a very small diameter glass or plastic fiber to a receiver that converts the light back into electrical signals. That makes it ideal for high-data-rate systems any other network that requires the transfer of large, bandwidth-consuming data files, mainly over long distances.
Implementing fiber optics for NHS would allow it to reach all its remote branches as well as its partners in New York City, which can be provided by local telecom companies. The ability that fiber optics has to deliver secure end-to-end, high speeds ranging from 100 Mbps up to 10 Gbps more than delivers the speed required to send large files of 100MB in size. The technology involved with fiber optics allows it to be immune from interference or down time obstacles often associated with solar flares and bad weather.
Corning Inc. (2005, June 1). Broadband Technology Overview: Fiber Optics [White paper]. Retrieved November 25, 2014, from http://www.corning.com/docs/opticalfiber/wp6321.pdf
The white paper reviews the benefits and advantages of fiber broadband connectivity for consumers. The paper explains how fiber meets the requirements for future emerging technologies. The differences in performances between fiber optics and its competitors are examined to show the advantages over rival technologies.
Fiber optic internet is broadband internet delivered over fiber optic lines which are made of extruded glass or silica core. The fiber optic lines use light to transmit data signals at far faster speeds over longer distances than traditional copper wires or coaxial cable. The technology has speeds of 100 Mbps and possibly up to 10 Gbps in both upward and downward directions. Most internet and cable backbones already use fiber for their backend infrastructure and are now offering fiber for the final delivery of their services.
Fiber optics broadband is reachable to all NHS locations. There are telephone and cable providers within the locations areas that offer fiber optic broadband service. Fiber optics offers more than enough of the speeds required to deliver image files of up to 100MB throughout all its locations including its partners in New York City. The technology offers a high level of security for end to end service. The reliability due to its immunity to electro-magnetic interference and other hindrances such as bad weather and solar flares make fiber optics a dependable option with a high up time.

Third technology solutions: Cable Internet
MacDonald, B. (2014, January 10). Understanding the differences between DSL and cable high- speed internet as your business grows in 2014. Retrieved November 24, 2014, from http://www.mlive.com/business-resource- center/2014/01/understanding_the_differences.html
The article points out the advantages that a business can have by using cable high-speed internet for its enterprise. The author makes comparisons between cable internet and DSL internet to draw out the cons and pros of each technology. The overall information regarding cable internet details it as a better solution for small business functionality.
Cable Internet is an asynchronous data communication that requires a cable modem on the user's end and a cable modem termination system at the cable operator's facility. These two systems are connected using coaxial cable, the same kind that cable television infrastructure uses. The distance between the modem and the facility can be up to 100 miles for larger facilities and most nationwide cable providers operate out of several different hubs. High-speed cable can deliver download times of 100 Mbps and 5 Mbps upload.
Cable internet can provide service to all of the NHS rural office locations since all locations are within distance of local cable providers. The speeds of business cable internet ranging up to 100 Mbps and 5 Mbps upload can support the transfer of large file of 100MB in size between each office and their partner in New York City. Secure end to end communication can be provided with site-to-site connectivity over a virtual private network (VPN) using your Internet connection. It encrypts data exchange among sites and enables remote users to securely connect to the NHS network. Cable internet service is not vulnerable to bad weather conditions, but can be susceptible to electromagnetic interference from solar flares.

Tooley, M., & Bowman, D. (2010, January 14). An Overview of the DOCSIS (Cable Internet) Platform. Retrieved November 25, 2014, from https://www.tiaonline.org/gov_affairs/fcc_filings/documents/Cable_Architecture_Declarati on_01.14.10.pdf
The document created by Sandvine Inc., explains an overview of how cable internet networks provides solutions for business and home data internet connectivity. The designs and implementations of coaxial networks are shown to demonstrate their benefits for delivering the service to customers, giving a high level insight as how coaxial based networks work. The benefits, limits and specifications to coaxial line network are detailed to explain how it is an ideal choice for an internet connectivity medium.
Coax data transfer is asynchronous, which makes it a good choice for companies that rely on large amounts of incoming data, but may have less bandwidth-intensive on outbound data. Coax cables comprise copper cores that are surrounded by a dielectric insulator, then a woven copper shield, and finally a plastic covering. This shielded design that allows the copper core to transmit data quickly, without interference or damage from environmental factors.
A cable (coaxial) internet solution can provide service to all NHS locations and its partner location in New York City since all locations are within a close proximity to cable service providers. The technology can transmit the data files of sizes up to 100MB quickly of speeds up to 100 Mbps download and 5 Mbps upload. Cable Service can provide secure connections between locations with virtual private networks and security features with data terminating devices. Cable service has an average of 99 percent uptime. Coaxial cable can withstand weather interference, but service can be compromised from electromagnetic pulses from solar flares and data signals can be compromised on the data transfer medium.
Fourth technology solutions: Digital subscriber line (DSL) Internet
Allied Telesis. (2007). DSL White Paper [White paper]. Retrieved November 26, 2014, from http://www.alliedtelesis.com/media/pdf/dsl_wp.pdf
This article discusses the benefits of DSL service over dial-up internet connections. An overview of how DSL can provide a broadband connectivity using the same telephone line as dial-up to supply homes and small businesses with high-speed data transmissions. The white paper explains how different types of DSL technology can be suited to accommodate a variety of customers’ needs.
A Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) is a broadband connection that uses the existing telephone line. DSL provides high-speed data transmissions over the twisted copper wire, that connects a customer’s home or office to their local telephone company Central Offices. An Asymmetrical DSL line or ADSL which is the most used DSL technology for small businesses can reach speeds of up to 15 Mbps downstream and 1 Mbps upstream.
A DSL service could be provided to every location in the NHS Company due to all locations being within close proximity to local telephone company wiring. Data transfer speeds for a DSL service can provide the ability to upload and download 100MB size files between all locations including those partnering in New York City. Solutions for securing the data transfers can be provided with DSL services with supplemental technologies. Service can be provided without troubles from bad weather. A weakness however it’s signaling over telephone lines can be impacted by solar flares at some of NHS locations.
Zimmerman, M., Atwell, K., Oron, M., Bolton, G., Abbas, S., Harris, S., ... Mosley, T. (2000, January 1). DSL Anywhere. Retrieved November 26, 2014, from http://www.ntia.doc.gov/legacy/ntiahome/broadband/comments/dslf/dsl_anywhere.pdf
The article discusses the use of DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) technology as a way to encourage service providers to search for more solutions to expand DSL service to more customers. The authors present a technical argument to the benefits of servicing subscribers who may be in need of a DSL solution for their internet service. Viable cases for business services in need of DSL as a solution are made with explanations on how and if implemented can fulfill the needs of these businesses.
DSL is a high-speed connection that uses the same wires as a regular telephone line. The connection is faster for receiving data than it is for sending data over the Internet. The asynchronous speeds are estimated download up to 15 Mbps and upload to 1 Mbps. A DSL modem terminates communication on the clients and connects to the telephone system to allow interconnectivity.
Local phone companies can provide DSL service to all location in the NHS network including rural areas and metropolitan partners like New York City. A DSL provider can offer an efficient service to allow the for file transfer of sizes up to 100MB, however upload speeds will be slower than download. The speeds are also distance sensitive, meaning the farther the telephone’s companies central office are located the slower the speeds will transmit. A secure end to end service connection can be provided with a DSL service line with implementation of security devices, protocols and encryptions. A DSL provider can offer service without problems from bad weather; however, signaling over telephone lines can be impacted by solar flares at some of NHS locations.
Fifth technology solutions: Fixed Wireless Broadband Internet
Fixed Wireless Broadband – The Better Option | High Speed Link. (2014, January 14). Retrieved November 25, 2014, from http://www.highspeedlink.net/fixed-wireless-broadband-the- better-option/
The websites discusses the benefits of Fixed Wireless Broadband as better solution to those seeking broadband in rural areas. The site gives an overview of information on the technology, weather effect, latency, data caps, costs and services. The overall pitch is to suggest that Fixed Wireless Broadband as an option over its main competitor satellite internet, with detailed service comparisons.
Fixed wireless broadband is a type of high-speed Internet access where fixed point-to-point connections are made from the client antenna to the service providers fixed wireless tower stations that are land based. The use of encrypted radio signals between the points is used to transmit the data and communicate with between client and service provider. Fixed wireless services generally supports between 1 Mbps to 10 Mbps with a 99 percent service uptime.
All of NHS branch office can be reached with a fixed wireless broadband network. Many of the land based towers can reach antennas up to 10 miles away. The land based towers can provide secure en to end encrypted connectivity to between all locations and partner locations including New York City. The data transfer speeds are satisfactory to be able to delivery large 100MB files across the NHS network. Weather conditions such as rain and snowfall and solar flares do not interfere with the fixed wireless network.
Larsen, M. (2011, January 1). America’s Broadband Heroes: Fixed Wireless Broadband Providers. Retrieved November 25, 2014, from http://www.wirelesscowboys.com/wp- content/uploads/2011/10/americas-broadband-heroes-fixed-wireless-2011.pdf
This paper was written in support of an alternative like fixed wireless broadband as a solution to those rural customers who are unable to obtain access to broadband services. There is sufficient evidence shown to demonstrate how fixed wireless can provide a service equal if not better than other options such as DSL or cable to rural customers. The author gives a technical and economic overview of the advantages of fixed terrestrial wireless systems. Fixed wireless broadband utilizes transmission towers ground stations that communicate with each other and with the client’s location. These ground stations are maintained by Internet providers. Clients install transceiver equipment on their building to communicate with the fixed wireless ground stations. Fixed wireless transceivers communicate only with ground stations using encrypted radio waves.
The technology of fixed wireless broadband can be able to reach all of NHS rural location offices. The technology was designed to service rural areas. The data transfer rate ranges from 1 Mbps to 10 Mbps, these speeds can provide the transfer of large files up to 100MB in size. The speed varies by the distance between the two fixed points. The technology also allows for encrypted data to travel through the network securely with a 99 percent service uptime, including locations like partner site in New York City. Fixed wireless is also less open to interference by bad weather and solar flares compare to other broadband technologies.

Recommendation
After reviewing all possible technologies for Northeaster Health Service, Inc., I have concluded that Fiber Optic High-Speed Internet service is the optimal choice to meet all the business needs for NHS. Fiber Optic broadband services are able to offer the fastest speeds in comparison to its competitors. Fiber networks can provide dedicated access to the Internet with synchronous transfer of large files, meaning that the same speed is constant for uploads or downloads. Fiber Optics offers a high level of security with encryption and data that is transmitted in light signals so it cannot be easily stolen or spoofed. The biggest advantage to a fiber network is the amount of data it can transmit without interference over very long distances. NHS branches are all located within reach of telephone service providers which offer Fiber Optic broadband, for example Verizon FiOS.
Northeaster Health Services Inc., tend to fall on the early adopters side of the bell curve. NHS is seeking to service its patients by providing state-of-the-art health services. NHS plans to provide rural areas with the same health services that can be obtained hundreds of miles in a large metropolitan city. These are business goals set by a company who is looking forward to new innovative ways to doing business. The company is willing to embrace new technology, but still selective about which to start using this makes them clearly early adopters. Based on the NHS’s business goals, progressive attitude and desire for the latest technology I believe NHS will be accept the recommendation of Fiber Optics as the solution for their high-speed internet needs.

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