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Copernican Revolution
Only five centuries ago, the 16th-century polish astronomer observed into the sky. This observation has caused the big change from the past to the present. His theories sparked the scientific revolution and launched humankind a fantastic exploration and discovery. Since the beginning of civilization, human has stared in wonderment of the sky. They had intently explained about human nature according with scientific methods. As they focused on the movement of stars in the heaven, astronomers began replacing the mythology and magic with science. He initiated a revolution that transformed science forever. Nicolaus Copernicus, one of the stars observers in the renaissance age. The famous astronomer who studied about astronomy with his bare eyes. He was not only an astronomer but he also a mathematician, physician, translator, and economist. He was a church administrator who belonged to a group of humanists in the pre- Reformation church (Tyler 2). Importantly, He was an inventor of solar system and he is known as the father of modern science. Nicolaus, the only one person who proved Aristotle and Ptolemy’s theories were wrong about astronomy, which believed for over thousand years. Long time ago, the ancient Greeks believed that the heaven in closed to the earth. They had a huge confidence in the power of reason and logic. They believed that their philosophical patterns were sufficiently strong for them to reach, by processes of understanding of the true nature of the physical world. Back to four hundred BC, there were two significant people that influenced many ancient Greeks’ mind about the form of the universe (Hix). These people were Aristotle and Ptolemy. Aristotle proposed that the heavens were literally composed of fifty-five concentric, crystalline spheres to which the celestial objects were attached and which rotated at different velocities (but the angular velocity was constant for a given sphere), with the Earth at the center (The Universe of Aristotle and Ptolemy). Which is similar to Ptolemy’s that said “the earth is at the center of the universe with the sun, moon, planets, and stars revolving about it in circular orbits at increasing distance. Some of the orbits have epicycles” (Ptolemaic system). That is why the ancient Greeks considered the Earth is the center of the universe and the Earth is a stationary object. These theories has praised for nearly two thousand years. The catholic Christians and churches also strongly believed in these theories. Nobody in that time had a sensible or good enough hypothesis to argue with theirs. Until several centuries later, the other challenged theories about astronomy were created.
“The sun, rather than the earth, is the center of the solar system.” Identified by Nicolaus Copernicus in the concept of a heliocentric solar system. He spent several years to study about the universe based on the previous philosophers’ theories but the only one theory that he believed the most was Akistarchus’ theory (Nicolaus Copernicus). Therefore he studied more about this theory. He observed and studied the skies over and over until he was assured of his theories. From the studies, made he believe that the form of the universe was not complex as the previous medieval astronomers thought and he believed that his model, which is Copernicus system was closer to reality. In the Copernican system, the starry vault does not rotate; rather the earth rotates, making the stars appear to revolve around the earth. The earth’s core of rotation passes through the north and south poles (Crowe 87). After that, he told the church about the theories that he had studied but the church condemned him and his theories because the theories were conflicted with its doctrines (Hix). Anything that conflicted with Christian dogmas will considered a serious offense. He kept his theories largely secret until his first book published, he died later that. His theories were proved to be true by later scientists.

The Copernican revolution probably had its biggest impact on many ways. It affected on education and evolution of knowledge. In 18th century, there was a period of intellectual development like in philosophy, politics, society, and economy. Copernican theories is the start of scientific revolution that is the interest in astronomical observations that was caused by the presentation of Copernicus’s theory resulted in the fact that, in Europe, astronomical phenomena became regarded as inconsistent with the scientific paradigm of permanence and perfection of celestial bodies, which had existed since ancient times (Kokowski). From that, science revolution also makes the society become more developed and it is the major cause to endlessly improve on Scientific’s education. Since later scientists can further think about the theories of the previous scientists. Besides, Scientific’s education can extend in many categories such as medical, physics, chemistry, biology etc. Many technological inventions are the produce of scientific revolution. All those inventions and technology became a part of mankind from then and now. Moreover, Copernicus revolution brought a very important contribution, which is not often clarified in the way people, wrote and painted for year to come. It helped to trigger change in the attitude of Christians towards biblical interpretation (Tyler 6). Impact on religion, churches lost its place as a judge of scientific truth. The Bible is on top of discussions of fundamental science. It deals with descriptions of the natural world; what things look like. It provides us with untraditional perspective on the physical world (think more scientifically). Providing a conceptual set of rules, which is a foundation for scientific work. It is concerned with real events in the world. It also deals with God; his powerful acts in history, his revelation of himself in word and in Christ. It reminds us that the Bible is a book for all generations; with doctrines to guide our studies of God's world, but not with revealed answers to our technical questions.

Nicolaus Copernicus is the industrious astronomer who transformed the humanity history. The spark of the Copernican revolution had set fire to the European imagination. Everything can be proved by experience, experiment, and observation, like the ways Nicolaus Copernicus did. Now our world is still changing and there will be no turning back.

Works Cited
"Copernicus and the Scientific Revolution - Past Is Present (2011)." YouTube. Ed. Jeff Hix. YouTube, 18 May 2012. Web. 18 Mar. 2015.
Crowe, Michael J. Theories of the World from Antiquity to the Copernican Revolution. New York: Dover Publications, 1990. Print.
Kokowski, Michal. "NICOLAUS COPERNICUS THORUNENSIS - The Importance of Copernicus's Discovery for the Development of the Sciences." NICOLAUS COPERNICUS THORUNENSIS. Nicolaus Copernicus University. Web. 18 Mar. 2015.
"Nicolaus Copernicus." Nicolaus Copernicus. BSTI, 30 Nov. 2010. Web. 18 Mar. 2015. Trans
"Ptolemaic System." The Free Dictionary. Farlex, 2011. Web. 18 Mar. 2015.
Tyler, David J. "THE IMPACT OF THE COPERNICAN REVOLUTION ON BIBLICAL INTERPRETATION." Origins (Journal of the Biblical Creation Society) 21 (1996): 2-8. Web. 17 Mar. 2015.
"The Universe of Aristotle and Ptolemy." Astronomy 161 The Solar System. University of Tennessee. Web. 17 Mar. 2015.

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