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Mid Finals I. Age of Exploration
The Age of Exploration or Age of Discovery as it is sometimes called, officially began in the early 15th century and lasted until the 17th century. The period is characterized as a time when Europeans began exploring the world by sea in search of trading partners, new goods, and new trade routes. In addition, some explorers set sail to simply learn more about the world. Whatever their reasons though, the information gained during the Age of Exploration significantly helped in the advancement of geographic knowledge.
Reasons for Exploration and Key Voyages
Though the desire to simply explore the unknown and discover new knowledge is a typical human trait, the world's famous explorers often lacked the funding needed for a ship, supplies, and a crew to get underway on their journeys. As a result, many turned to their respective governments which had their own desires for the exploration of new areas.
Many nations were looking for goods such as silver and gold but one of the biggest reasons for exploration was the desire to find a new route for the spice and silk trades. When the Ottoman Empire took control of Constantinople in 1453, it blocked European access to the area, severely limiting trade.
In addition, it also blocked access to North Africa and the Red Sea -- two very important trade routes to the Far East.
The first of the journeys associated with the Age of Discovery were conducted by the Portuguese under Prince Henry the Navigator. These voyages were different than those previously conducted by the Portuguese because they covered a much larger area. Earlier sailors relied on portolan charts which are maps created for navigators based off of land features.
Because these charts relied on the ability to see land, the voyages prior to those conducted by Prince Henry stayed along the coastlines.
In challenging this form of navigation, the Portuguese sailed out of sight of land and discovered the Madeira Islands in 1419 and the Azores in 1427. The main goal for the Portuguese voyages though was to discover a trade route to West Africa without having to go through the Sahara Desert. By the mid-1400s, this goal was realized and a trading port was established at Elmina in West Africa.
Also during the Age of Discovery were the famed voyages of Christopher Columbus.
These voyages started as an attempt to find a trade route to Asia by sailing west. Instead, he reach America in 1492 and shared information on this newly found land with Spain and the rest of Europe. Shortly thereafter, the Portuguese explorer Pedro Alvares Cabral explored Brazil, setting off a conflict between Spain and Portugal in terms of the newly claimed lands. As a result, the Treaty of Tordesillas officially divided the world in half in 1494.
Some other important voyages of exploration that took place during the Age of Exploration were Ferdinand Magellan's attempted circumnavigation of the globe, the search for a trade route to Asia through the Northwest Passage, and Captain James Cook's voyages that allowed him to map various areas and travel as far as Alaska.
The End of the Age of Exploration
The Age of Exploration ended in the early 17th century after technological advancements and increased knowledge of the world allowed Europeans to travel easily across the globe by sea. In addition, the creation of settlements along the coasts of the newly found areas created a network of communication and trade, therefore ending the need to search for trade routes.
Though the Age of Exploration officially ended in the 17th century, it is important to note however that the exploration did not cease entirely at this time. Eastern Australia was not discovered until 1770 and the Arctic and Antarctic areas were not heavily explored until the 19th century. Much of Africa also was also unexplored until the 19th and even early 20th centuries. II. The Spanish Period
Magellan’s Arrival to the islands of the Philippines mark the first attempt to convert the Filipinos to Christianity. This conversion was received by mixed responses. Most of the Filipinos received the conversion with open arms, and were happily converted to Christianity. Some did not like the conversion, such as Lapu-Lapu. He did not believe that the Filipinos needed to change, so he killed Magellan, making him the first ever Philippine hero. Thats not to say that Christianity should not have been spread to our country, because if not, the Philippines would mostly be a Muslim country (which I do not like). After Magellan, the Spanish sent Legaspi to the Philippines, and he conquered a Muslim settlement in Manila during 1570. The religion slowly spread throughout the Philippines, evident in present Filipinos, most of whom are Christians.
Christianity spread throughout the Philippines in numerous ways, including:
1. Mass Baptism – baptizing the Filipinos is very large groups at once. It is said that the Filipinos interpreted Baptism as healing, which relies on the presence of Holy Water.
2. Reduccion Policy – moving small groups of Filipino settlements into one, large town. This was to regulate the Filipinos, and teach them the basics of Christianity
3. Early Attitude of the Spanish Clergy – early on, the Spanish clergy was forced to learn the Filipinos’ native language if they want to teach them. Without Spanish schools, the priests were forced to say Mass in the Filipinos’ native languages. Early on, (first 150 years) the Spanish priest supported the Filipinos over the military. Later, the priests enraged the Filipinos by being unfair to Filipino priests who are bound to reach a higher position.
4. Adaptation of Christianity to the local culture – the Filipinos believed in spirits, which were responsible for the good, and bad. They had statues and altars, all of which were destroyed by the Spaniards. They replaced them with Christian adaptations of their early beliefs, and used theatrical presentations of Bible stories to appeal the Filipinos. This is even seen today, whenever the Filipinos re-enact the Passion of Christ using religious drama, during Holy Week.

The most important contribution of the pre-Hispanic Philippines was the regional link that was maintained. All of the islands were linked with trade between Malaysia, Indonesia, China and Viet Nam to say but a few.

There was a vitality in the Philippines that the Spanish didn't create, they found it already established. When they arrived, the Filipinos were already involved in trade, using prescribes weights and measures, a standardised approach to the rules and regulations.

They unfortunately also knew how to short change the Spaniards!!

Remember that the basic Spanish ideas about culture and religion, etc was that if it didn't conflict directly with church teaching, it wasn't to be stamped out. This is why the "albalaryo" still exists, as well as other beliefs such as "dwende" and :gigante" are in the culture.

The Spanish didn't even bother to teach the Filipinos their language, it was kept for the privileged people only. The Spanish kept the datus in their positions, they became the ruling class under their system, so things in that regard changed little until the present day.
Here's another contribution from the Pre-Spanish period: the Banawe Rice Terraces of northern Philippines, built around 1 A.D. by the ancestors of the Batad indigenous people. These ancient people built this engineering wonder at Banawe using only Stone Age tools. They carved entire mountains into terraces so that they could grow rice on the slopes. Today, the terraces are maintained by the Ifugao tribe, and Filipinos consider the terraces to be the eighth wonder of the world. It is a popular tourist destination, so in a sense, it is also a contribution made by the ancient people of the Philippines for their present-day posterity. III. Development of Literature under Spanish Period A. Religious Writing
The arrival of the Spaniards in 1565 brought Spanish culture and language editors. The Spanish conquerors, governing from Mexico for the crown of Spain, establish a strict class system that imposed Roman Catholicism on the native population. Augustinian and Franciscan missionaries, accompanied by Spanish soldiers, soon spread Christianity from island to island. Their mission was implemented the forced relocation of indigenous peoples during this time, as the uprooted natives turned to the foreign, structured religion as the new center of their lives. The priests and friars preached in local languages and employed indigenous peoples as translators, creating a bilingual class known as ladinos.
The natives, called "indios", generally were not taught Spanish, but the bilingual individuals, notably poet-translator Gaspar Aquino de Belén, produced devotional poetry written in the Roman script in the Tagalog language. Pasyon, begun by Aquino de Belen, is a narrative of the passion, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ, which has circulated in many versions. Later, the Mexican ballads of chivalry, the corrido, provided a model for secular literature. Verse narratives, or komedya, were performed in the regional languages for the illiterate majority. They were also written in the Roman alphabet in the principal languages and widely circulated.
In the early 17th century a Chinese Filipino printer, Tomas Pinpin, set out to write a book in romanized phonetic script writer, His intention was to teach his fellow Tagalog-speakers the principles of learning Spanish. His book, published by the Dominican press (where he worked) appeared in 1610. Unlike the missionary's grammar (which Pinpin had set in type), the native's book dealt with the language of the colonizers instead of the colonized. Pinpin's book was the first such work ever written and printed by a Philippine native.[citation needed] As such, it is richly instructive for what it tells us about the interests that animated Tagalog translation and, by implication, Tagalog conversion in the early colonial period. Pinpin construed translation in simple ways to help and encourage Tagalog readers to learn Spanish. B. Writings in translations
There are approximately 4,000 Spanish words in Tagalog (between 20% and 33% of Tagalog words),[61] and around 6,000 Spanish words in Visayan and other Philippine languages. The Spanish counting system, calendar, time, etc. are still in use with slight modifications. Archaic Spanish words have been preserved in Tagalog and the other vernaculars such as pera (coins), sabón [(Spanish: jabón) at the beginning of Spanish rule, the j used to be pronounced [ʃ], the voiceless postalveolar fricative or the "sh" sound; (soap)], relos [(Spanish: reloj) with the j sound; (watch)], kwarta (Old Spanish: cuarta; money), etc.[76] The Spaniards and the language are referred to as either Kastila or Katsila (mostly Visayan languages) after Castilla (Castile), the original Spanish Kingdom under which Spain was unified in 1492, which later became a Spanish region.
Chavacano, also called Zamboangueño, is a Spanish-based creole language spoken mainly in the southern province of Zamboanga and, to a much lesser extent, in the province of Cavite in the northern region of Luzon.[77] Chavacano became the main language in the Zamboanga City and some parts of Zamboanga Peninsula as a result of the migration into the area of a large number of workers who came from different linguistic regions to build military and other Spanish establishments. C. Literature of Protest
The Propaganda Movement was a period of time when insulares (Filipinos) were calling for reforms, lasting approximately from 1868 to 1898[1] with the most activity between 1880-1895.[2]
The word "propaganda" in English and American usage has acquired a pejorative connotation which is absent from the original Latin. One can see its true meaning in the Roman institution called "Congregatio de propaganda fide" - the Secretariate for the Spread of the Faith (or, as the modern translation has it, For the Evangelization of Peoples). It was in this latter sense that the word was used by the Filipino group that sent Marcelo H. del Pilar to Spain to continue the "propaganda" on behalf of the Philippines. It was essentially a campaign of information, as well as a bid for sympathy. Dr. Domingo Abella, the learned Director of the National Archives, has made the suggestion that the so-called Propaganda Movement was misnamed. It should have been called the Counterpropaganda Movement, because their essential task was to counteract the campaign of misinformation that certain Spanish groups were disseminating in Spain, and later in Rome.[3]
Prominent members included José Rizal, author of Noli Me Tangere (novel) and El Filibusterismo, Graciano López Jaena, publisher of La Solidaridad, the movement's principal organ, Mariano Ponce, the organization's secretary[4] and Marcelo H. del Pilar.
Specifically, the Propagandists aims were: * Representation of the Philippines in the Cortes Generales, the Spanish parliament; * Secularization of the clergy; * Legalization of Spanish and Filipino equality; * Creation of public school system independent of Catholic friars; * Abolition of the polo y servicios (labor service) and vandala (forced sale of local products to the government); * Guarantee of basic freedoms; * Equal opportunity for Filipinos and Spanish to enter government service; IV. The Role of the Church

Bienvenido Macario clarifies for us the religious situation in the Philippines: "Iglesia Ni Kristo, which has branches here in California and other parts of the world, was founded by Erano Manalo in San Juan, where President Joseph Estrada served as mayor from 1968 to 1986. Now San Juan's mayor is his son Jinggoy.
The founding of Iglesia Ni Kristo (INK) was inspired by Gregorio Aglipay, who established the Philippine Independent Church in the 19th century. In 1872, three Catholic priests, Gomez, Burgos and Zamora, were executed by Spanish authorities for having been implicated in a revolt. My grandfather told me that in his time, the 1880's, Catholic revolutionaries would still go to mass but would step out of the church to skip the sermon, after which they would return for the rest of the mass. In a male-dominated society, only men observed this practice. When I asked him why not the women, he said: "Have you ever seen nuns officiate a Mass?" This was corroborated to me by a classmate at De La Salle, who was told about the same practice by his grandfather, who was from Batangas [south of Manila].
My grandfather emphatically advised me is never to confess my sins to another human being. He told me that Philippine revolutionaries were often caught and arrested after being asked by the priest if indeed they were revolutionaries. I was also told of cases in which a rich dying man would be given the last rites and confess his sins in private. Upon his death, the priest would confidently and gladly tell his children that their dead father would surely go to heaven. Why? He just donated his entire estate to the church. Since no one dared question a priest, this went on until the Americans came and educated the masses.
INK is a small solid group that often supports a candidate whom the Catholic Church opposes. While the Catholic Church sends funds overseas, INK's headquarters collects from all over the world. Men of honor, INK vote as one and fight to the bitter losing end, but they always abide by the law. They were supporters of Marcos, who was a member of the Philippine Independent Church before converting to the Catholic faith on marrying a Catholic.
The more significant group ( 8 million strong) is the Catholic church-backed El Shaddai ministry, headed by servant-leader Mike Velarde. Published reports indicate that his wife checked-in at Stanford Medical Center for treatment towards the last week of November 2000. With a more affluent, educated and thinking followers who are apparently fed up with established religion's inefficiency and corruption, no candidate wins without the endorsement of this group, together with INK.
The jueteng scandal found the Catholic church duty bound to pressure Mike Velarde to abandon Estrada and endorse the Catholic church's call for him to resign. It was said that Velarde could not in conscience do so and sought refuge at Stanford Medical Center, using his wife´s health as an excuse. Perhaps as a reply to the expose of the Catholic Church's financial dealings, not to mention its vast land holdings in the Philippines, it was stressed that Velarde was in the real estate business prior to his ministry.
I was told by those claiming to be close to the inner circle of the El Shaddai movement that the weekly collections from their Saturday prayer-meeting is such that it takes one whole week to count all the cash collections, a rumor which some say is driving the Catholic hierarchy out of its wits.
American Philippine specialists seem to be unaware that the way the US deals with the Philippines and the Philippine Catholic Church is a gauge by which its foreign policies will be assessed. A hundred years ago, in 1900, the Philippines were governed by the US through the established ruling aristocracy which was opposed by the same members of the clergy who fought the Americans. In fact, suggestions came up that Quezon and the rest of the mestizo politicians where actually sons of friars.
Finally, however way the new US administration approaches the Philippine powder keg, it will have to deal with the Catholic Church. While in the '80's an agreement of sorts was forged between Pope John Paul II and President Ronald Reagan, I doubt it very much if the same could be worked out with the same Catholic Church in Asia.The stakes are higher than it seems, with China, Japan and all non-Christians watching. A case in point is Indonesia's recent surge of vigilante justice.
My comment: Bienvenido does not stress that many of the leading priests were Spaniards, while the rebel priests were mestizo. I have long been puzzled by Spanish anti-clericalism. Perhaps much of Bienvenido's explanation applies to Spain as well.

V. Narratives a. Mi Ultimo Adios

Dr. Jose Rizal

Farewell, my adored Land, region of the sun caressed,
Pearl of the Orient Sea, our Eden lost,
With gladness I give you my Life, sad and repressed;
And were it more brilliant, more fresh and at its best,
I would still give it to you for your welfare at most.

On the fields of battle, in the fury of fight,
Others give you their lives without pain or hesitancy,
The place does not matter: cypress laurel, lily white,
Scaffold, open field, conflict or martyrdom's site,
It is the same if asked by home and Country.

I die as I see tints on the sky b'gin to show
And at last announce the day, after a gloomy night;
If you need a hue to dye your matutinal glow,
Pour my blood and at the right moment spread it so,
And gild it with a reflection of your nascent light!

My dreams, when scarcely a lad adolescent,
My dreams when already a youth, full of vigor to attain,
Were to see you, gem of the sea of the Orient,
Your dark eyes dry, smooth brow held to a high plane
Without frown, without wrinkles and of shame without stain.

My life's fancy, my ardent, passionate desire,
Hail! Cries out the soul to you, that will soon part from thee;
Hail! How sweet 'tis to fall that fullness you may acquire;
To die to give you life, 'neath your skies to expire,
And in your mystic land to sleep through eternity !

If over my tomb some day, you would see blow,
A simple humble flow'r amidst thick grasses,
Bring it up to your lips and kiss my soul so,
And under the cold tomb, I may feel on my brow,
Warmth of your breath, a whiff of your tenderness.

Let the moon with soft, gentle light me descry,
Let the dawn send forth its fleeting, brilliant light,
In murmurs grave allow the wind to sigh,
And should a bird descend on my cross and alight,
Let the bird intone a song of peace o'er my site.

Let the burning sun the raindrops vaporize
And with my clamor behind return pure to the sky;
Let a friend shed tears over my early demise;
And on quiet afternoons when one prays for me on high,
Pray too, oh, my Motherland, that in God may rest I.

Pray thee for all the hapless who have died,
For all those who unequalled torments have undergone;
For our poor mothers who in bitterness have cried;
For orphans, widows and captives to tortures were shied,
And pray too that you may see you own redemption.

And when the dark night wraps the cemet'ry
And only the dead to vigil there are left alone,
Don't disturb their repose, don't disturb the mystery:
If you hear the sounds of cithern or psaltery,
It is I, dear Country, who, a song t'you intone.

And when my grave by all is no more remembered,
With neither cross nor stone to mark its place,
Let it be plowed by man, with spade let it be scattered
And my ashes ere to nothingness are restored,
Let them turn to dust to cover your earthly space.

Then it doesn't matter that you should forget me:
Your atmosphere, your skies, your vales I'll sweep;
Vibrant and clear note to your ears I shall be:
Aroma, light, hues, murmur, song, moanings deep,
Constantly repeating the essence of the faith I keep.

My idolized Country, for whom I most gravely pine,
Dear Philippines, to my last goodbye, oh, harken
There I leave all: my parents, loves of mine,
I'll go where there are no slaves, tyrants or hangmen
Where faith does not kill and where God alone does reign.

Farewell, parents, brothers, beloved by me,
Friends of my childhood, in the home distressed;
Give thanks that now I rest from the wearisome day;
Farewell, sweet stranger, my friend, who brightened my way;
Farewell, to all I love. To die is to rest. b. Kartilya ng katipunan

Kartilya ng Katipunan ni Emilio Jacinto 1. Ang buhay na hindi ginugugol sa isang malaki at banal na kadahilanan ay kahoy na walang lilim, kundi damong makamandag. 2. Ang gawang magaling na nagbuhat sa paghahambog o pagpipita sa sarili, at hindi talagang nasang gumawa ng kagalingan, ay di kabaitan. 3. Ang tunay na kabanalan ay ang pagkakawang-gawa, ang pag-ibig sa kapwa at ang isukat ang bawat kilos, gawa't pangungusap sa talagang Katuwiran. 4. Maitim man o maputi ang kulay ng balat, lahat ng tao'y magkakapantay; mangyayaring ang isa'y hihigtan sa dunong, sa yaman, sa ganda...; ngunit di mahihigtan sa pagkatao. 5. Ang may mataas na kalooban, inuuna ang puri kaysa pagpipita sa sarili; ang may hamak na kalooban, inuuna ang pagpipita sa sarili kaysa sa puri. 6. Sa taong may hiya, salita'y panunumba. 7. Huwag mong sayangin ang panahon; ang yamang nawala'y mangyayaring magbalik; ngunit panahong nagdaan ay di na muli pang magdadaan. 8. Ipagtanggol mo ang inaapi; kabakahin ang umaapi. 9. Ang mga taong matalino'y ang may pag-iingat sa bawat sasabihin; matutong ipaglihim ang dapat ipaglihim. 10. Sa daang matinik ng buhay, lalaki ang siyang patnugot ng asawa at mga anak; kung ang umaakay ay tungo sa sama, ang pagtutunguhan ng inaakay ay kasamaan din. 11. Ang babae ay huwag mong tingnang isang bagay na libangan lamang, kundi isang katuwang at karamay sa mga kahirapan nitong buhay; gamitin mo nang buong pagpipitagan ang kanyang kahinaan, at alalahanin ang inang pinagbuharan at nag-iwi sa iyong kasanggulan. 12. Ang di mo ibig gawin sa asawa mo, anak at kapatid, ay huwag mong gagawin sa asawa, anak at kapatid ng iba. c. IBONG ADARNA
Noong unang panahon sa sang-ayon sa kasaysayan sa Kaharian ng Berbanya . May hari ngalan ay Fernando at kabiyak nitong Reyna Valeriana. Sila ay may tatlong anak na prinsipe sina Donn Pedro, Don Diego, Don Juan. Sinanay ang mga anak na humawak ng patalim.
Isang gabi naidlip ang hari diumano si Don Juan bunso niyang anak ay pinaslang mula noon nagkasakit ang mahal na Hari . Nagpatawag ng mangagamot na ang ating lunas ay ang awit ng Ibong Adarna.
Inutusan si Don Pedro para maglakbay at hanapin ang Ibong Adarna. Sa kasamaang-palad nakatulog sa awit ng Ibong Adarna at nagging Bato matapos mahulugan ng ipot ng ibon. Sa ikalawang paglalakbay inatasan ng hari hanapin si Don Pedro at hulihin ang Ibond Adarna ngunit ganun din ang naging kapalaran ni Don Diego.
Ang bunsong anak na una ayaw payagan ng hari ay naglakbay dahil sa tagal ng pagbabalik ng mga kapatid. Hiningi ang basbas ng mahal na hari at humayo. Sa kanyang paglalakbay ay nakasaubong niya ang matandang Ermitanyo na nagturo sa kanya ng Ibong Adarna. Humingi ito ng makakainn at binigyan niya ng tinapay. Itinuro ng Ermitanyo ang kinaroroonan ng ibon at nagbilin ng mga payo sa paghuli ng ibon.
Nahuli ni Don Juan ang Ibong Adarna sa pagsunod ng ipinayo ng matandang Ermitanyo. Sa tulong rin ng Ermitanyo nagging tao muli sa pagiging bato ang kanyang mga kapatid. Nagbalik ang tatlong prinsipe ngunit ang taksil na si Don Pedro ay plinanong bugbugin si Don Juan dulot ng inggit . Sa pagbabalik sa kaharian di kasamang bumalik si Don Juan at ayaw umawit ng Ibong Adarna .
Sa pagakakabugbog kay Don Juan muli may ermitanyo na tumulong kay Don Juan. Bumalik sa kaharian ng Berbanya si Don Juan at doon ay umawit ang Ibong Adarna at nagkwento ng mga pangyayari. Nagalit ngunit nagpatawad ang hari alang-alang sa bunsong anak. Nakawala ang Ibong Adarna . Umalis si Don Juan at doon ay may natagpuang balon. Sa ilalim ng balon ay may kaharian doon nakatira si Donya Juana . Dumatin ang higante ang kinalaban ng prinsipe.
Kasama ang kapatid na babae ni Donya Juana na si Donya Leonora ang kasama pupunta sa kaharian ng Berbanya . Ikalawang pagtataksil ni Don Pedro ay inhulog si Don Juan sa Balon at umuwing kasama ang dalawang prinsesa sa kaharian. Ang lobo at si Don Juan ay nagging magkaibigan. Natagpuan ni Don Juan ang Ibong Adarna at nagpayong limutin si Donya Leonora at hanapin ang Reyno Delos Crystal at si Maria Blanka.
Sa tulong muli ng ermitanyo tinulungan makapunta sa kaharian sakay ng Agila. Doon nakita si Maria Blanka. Si Haring Salermo ay marami pagsubok sa pagiibigan ng kanyang anak tulad ng: pagpupunla ng trigo at gawing tinapay, ipunin ang itang pinakawalan at ilagay sa bote, iurong ang bundok , magpagawa ng kastilyo sa gitna ng dagat, ang paghahanap ng singsing, paamuin ang kabayo at pinakahuli ang piliin ang mapapangasawa na kanyang anak. Dahil sa masamang binabalak ng hari nagtanan ang dalawa.
Sa pagbabalik sa Berbanya umuwi si Don Juan na di kasama si Maria Blanka. Ngunit bitbit ang pangakong magbabalik at magpapakasal. Sa kanyang pagdating inihanda ang pagpapakasal ni Donya Leonora .Sa pagtatanghal ay pinalala ni Maria Blanka ang pangako ni Don Juan na magpapakasal. At dahil sa pangyayaring iyon naikasal si Donya Leonora kay Don Pedro at kay Don Juan kay Maria Blanka. d. Florante at Laura
Ang kuwento ng Florante at Laura ay nagsisimula sa isang madilim na gubat sa may dakong labas ng bayang Albanya, malapit sa ilog Kositong na ang tubig ay makamandag. Dito naghihimutok ang nakataling Florante na inusig ng masamang kapalaran. Ang mga gunita niya ay naglalaro sa palagay niya ay nagtaksil na giliw na si Laura, sa kanyang nasawing ama, at kahabag-habag na kalagayan ng bayan niyang mahal.

Sa gubat ay nagkataong may naglalakad na isang Moro na nagngangalang Aladin. Narinig niya ang tinig ni Florante at dali-dali niya itong tinunton. Dalawang leon ang handang sumakmal sa lalaking nakatali. Pinatay ni Aladin ang dalawang mababangis na hayop at kanyang kinalagan at inalagaan si Florante hanggang sa muling lumakas.

Ikinuwento ni Florante ang kanyang buhay. Siya ay anak nina Duke Briseo at Prinsesa Floresca. Muntik na siyang madagit ng buwitre at iniligtas siya ng kanyang pinsang si Menalipo na taga-Epiro. Sinambilat ng isang halkon ang kwintas niyang diyamante. Pinadala siya ng kanyang ama sa Atena upang mag-aral sa ilalim ng gurong si Antenor. Natagpuan niya doon ang kanyang kababayang si Adolfo na kanya ring lihim na kaaway. Iniligtas siya ni Menandro sa mga taga ni Adolfo nang minsang magtanghal sila ng dula sa kanilang paaralan. Tapos ay nakatangap si Florante ng liham tungkol sa pagkamatay ng sinisinta niyang ina.

Pagkabalik niya sa Albanya kasama ang matalik niyang kaibigang si Menandro, pinatay niya si Heneral Osmalik na kumubkob sa Krotona. Nagkaroon siya ng mga tagumpay sa labimpitong kahariang di-pa-binyagan matapos niyang iligtas si Laura sa hukbo ni Aladin na umagaw sa Albanya nang siya’y nakikipaglaban sa ibang bayan. Natalo din niya ang Turkong hukbo ni Miramolin at iba pa. Nagwakas ang kanyang pagsasalaysay sa pandarayang ginawa sa kanya ni Adolfo matapos kunin ang trono ng Albanya at agawin sa kanya si Laura.

Nagpakilala ang Moro na siya’y si Aladin, kaaway na mahigpit ng relihiyong Kristiyano at ng bayan ni Florante. Ang kanyang kapalaran ay sinlagim ng kay Florante. Inagaw sa kanya ng kanyang amang si Sultan Ali-Adab ang kanyang kasintahang si Flerida.

Pagkatapos ng pagsasalaysay ay narinig nila ang dalawang tinig na nag-uusap. Tumayo ang dalawang lalaki at nakita nila sina Laura at Flerida na nag-uusap. Si Flerida’y tumakas sa Persya upang hanapin si Aladin at nang mapagawi siya sa may dakong gubat ay nasumpungan niya si Laura na ibig gahasain ni Adolfo, pinana niya ito at naligtas si Laura sa kamay ng sukab.

Ikinuwento ni Laura ang paghuhuwad ni Adolfo sa lagda ng kanyang ama upang madakip si Florante. Isinalaysay niya ang pamimilit ni Adolfo sa kanya at pagdadala sa gubat.

Sa ganoon ay nabatid nina Florante at Aladin na ang kani-kanilang mga katipan ay pawang tapat sa kanila. Sina Florante at Laura ay matagumpay na naghari sa Albanya at sina Aladin at Flerida, pagkatapos na maging binyagan at pagkamatay ni Sultan Ali-Adab, ay naghari sa Persya.

e. Urbana at Felisa

Si Feliza kay Urbana - Paumbong, Mayo 10, 185. . .
Urbana: Ngayong a-las-seis ng hapon na pinagugulong ng hari ng mga astro ang karosang apoy at itinatago sa bundok at kagubatan, ipinagkakait sa sangkapuluan ang kaliwanagan, at sa alapaap ay nagsasambulat ng ginto ' t purpura; ang mundo ' y tahimik, sampo ng amiha ' y hindi nagtutulin, nagbibigay-aliw ang mga bulaklak at nangagsasabog ng bangong iningat sa doradong caliz ; ang lila ' t adelpa na itinanim mo sa ating pintuan; ang lirio ' t asusena; ang sinamomo ' t kampupot na inihanay mo ' t pinagtapat-tapat sa daang landas na ang tinutungo ' y ating hagdanan; oras na piniling ipinagsasaya, nangagsisingiti ' t ang balsamong ingat ay ipinadadala sa hihip ng hangin; mapalad na oras na ipinaglilibanga ng kamusmusan at, ipinagpapasiyal sa ating halamanan.
Marahil Urbana ' y di mamakailang pagdating sa iyo ng oras na ito, ang alaala mo ' t buong katauhan ay nagsasauli sa ating halamanan, iyong sinasagap ang balsamong alay ng mga bulaklak na anaki ' y pamuti sa parang linalik na

Si Urbana kay Feliza -Maynila
FELIZA: Tinanggap ko ang sulat mo nang malaking tuwa, nguni ' t nang binabasa ko na ' y napintasan kita ' t dinggin ko ang kadahilaran. Ang una ' y nabanggit mo si ama ' t si ina, ay di mo nasabi kung sila ' y may sakit o wala; nguni ' t pinararaan ko ang kakulangan mong ito, atdi kataka-taka sa gulang mo sa labindalawang taon; ang ikalawa ' y hindi ang buhay ko kung di ang buhay mo ang itinatanong ko, ang isinagot mo ' y ang pinagdaanan ng kamusmusan ta, at madlang matataas na puri sa akin, na di mo sinabi na yao ' y utang ko sa mabait na magulang natin at sa Maestrang nagturo sa akin. Nguni ' t pagdating sa sabing nagkukunot ang noo ko, at sa mga kasunod na talata, ay nangiti ang puso ko, nagpuri ' t nagpasalamat sa Diyos, at pinagkalooban ka ng masunuring loob.
Ngayo ' y dinggin mo namana t aking sasaysayin yamang hinihingi mo ang magandang aral na tinaggap ko, kay Doña Prudencia na aking Maestra. Natatanto mo, na ako ' y marunong nang bumasa ng sulat nang taong 185 . . . na kata ' y magkahiwalay. Pagdating ko rini, ang una-unang ipinakilala sa akin, ay ang katungkulan nating kumilala, mamintuho, maglingkod at umibig sa Diyos; ang ikalawa ' y ang kautangan natin sa ganang ating sarili; at ang ikatlo ' y

Si Urbana kay Feliza -Maynila
FELIZA: Ngayon ko tutupdin ang kahingian mo, na ipinangako ko sa iyo sa hulang sulat, noong ika. . .Sa mga panahong itong itinira ko sa Siyudad, ay marami ang dumarating na bata, na ipinagkakatiwala ng magulang sa aking maestra, at ipinagbibilin na pagpilitang makatalastas ng tatlong dakilang katungkulan ng bata na sinaysay ko sa iyo. Sa mga batanga ito, na ang iba ' y kasing-gulang mo, at ang iba ' y humigit-kumulang diyan, ay napagkikilala ang magulang na pinagmulan, sa kani-kanilang kabaitan o kabuhalhalan ng asal. Sa karunungang kumilala sa Diyos o sa karangalan, ay nahahayag ang kasipagan ng marunong na magulang na magturo sa anak, o ang kapabayaan. Sa mga batang ito, ang iba ' y hindi marunong ng ano mang dasal na nalalaman sa doktrina kristiyana, na para baga ng Ama namin, sumasampalataya, punong sinasampalatayanan , na sa kanilang edad disin, ay dapat nang maalaman ng bata, kaya hindi makasagot sa aming pagdarasal o makasagot man ang iba ' y hindi magawing lumuhod, o di matutong umanyo, ng nauukol bagang gawin sa harapan ng Diyos. Sa pagdarasal namin, ay naglulupagi, sa pagsimba ' y nagpapalinga-linga, sa pagkain ay nagsasalaula, sa paglalaro ' y nanampalasan sa kapwa-bata,

Si Urbana kay Feliza - Maynila
FELIZA: Napatid ang huli kong sulat sa pagsasaysay ng tapat na kaasalan, na sukat sundin sa loob ng simbahan: ngayo ' y ipatutuloy ko. Marami ang nakikita, sa mga babaeng nagsisipasok sa simbahan, na lumalakad na di nagdarahan, nagpapakagaslaw, at kung marikit ang kagayakan, ay nagpapalingap-lingap, na aki ' y tinitingnan kung may nararahuyo sa kaniya. Marami ang namamanyo nang nanganganinag, nakabingit lamang sa ulo at ang modang ito ' y dala hanggang sa pakikinabang at pagkukumpisal. Oh Felisa! Napasaan kaya ang galang sa santong lugar: napasan kaya ang kanilang kahinhinan! Diyata ' t lilimutin na ng mga babaeng kristiyano yaong utos ng simbahan, pakundangan sa mga angheles? Diyata ' t hanggang sa kumpisala ' y dadalhin ang kapangahasang di nagpipitagang itanyag ang mukha sa Sacerdote? May nakikita at makikipag-ngitian sa lalaking nanasok, ano pa nga ' t sampo ng bahay ng Diyos ay ginagawang pook ng pagkakasala.
Itong mga biling huli na ukol sa lalaki, ay ipahayag mo kay Honesto, na bunso tang kapatid. pagbilinan mo siya, na pagpasok sa simbahan, ay huwag makipag-umpukan sa kapwa-bata nang huwag mabighani sa pagtatawanan.

Si Urbana kay Feliza -Maynila
FELIZA: Sa alas-siete ' t kami ' y makasimba na, ay kakain kami ng agahan pagkatapos ay maglilibang-libang o maghuhusay kaya ng kani-kaniyang kasangkapan, sapagka ' t ang kalinisan at kahusayan, ay hinahanap ng mata ng taong nagising at namulat sa kahusayan at kalinisan. A-las-ocho, gagamit ang isa ' t isa ng aklat na pinag-aaralan; ang iba ' y darampot ng pluma, tintero ' t ibang kasangkapang ukol sa pagsulat, magdarasal na sumandai bago umupo sa pag-aaral, hihinging-tulong sa Diyos at kay Ginoong Santa Maria, at nang matutuhan ang pinag-aaralan: mag-aaral hanggang alas-diez, oras nang pagleleksyon sa amin ng Maestra; pagkatapos, magdarasal na ng rosario ni Ginoong Stanta Maria. Pag nakadasal na ng rosario, ako ' y nananahi o naglilinis kaya ng damit, at pag kumain ay iginagayak ko ang serbilyeta, linilinis ko ang tenedor, kutsara at kutsilyo, na ginagamit sa lamesa. Ang lahat nang ito ' y kung makita ng Maestrang marumi, kami ' y pinarurusahan. Pagtugtog nang a-las-doce, oras nang aming pagkain ay pasasa-mesa kami, lalapit ang isa ' t isa sa kani-kaniyang luklukan, magbebendisyon ang Maestra sa kakanin, kaming mga bata ' y sumasagot na nakatindig na lahat, ang katawa ' y matuwid at iniaanyo sa lugal. Pagkarinig namin ng ngalang Jesus at Glora Patri , ay itinutungo namin ang

Si Feliza kay Urbana -Paumbong
URBANA: Si Honesto ' t ako ' y nagpapasalamat sa iyo, sa matataas na hatol na inilalaman mo sa iyong mga sulat. Kung ang batang ito ' y makita mo disin, ay malulugod kang di-hamak at mawiwika mo, na ang kanyang mahinhing asal ay kabati ng Honesto niyang pangalan. Masunurin sa ating magulang, mapagtiis sa kapwa-bata, hindi mabuyo sa pakikipag-away, at mga pangungusap na di-katuwiran. Mawilihin sa pag-aaral at sa pananalangin; pagka-umaga ' y mananaog sa halamanan, pipitas ng sangang may mga bulaklak, pinagsasalit-salit ang iba ' t ibang kulay, pinag-aayos, ginagawang ramilyete , inilalagay sa harap ng larawan ni Ginoong Santa Maria; isang asusena ang iniuukol sa iyo, isang liryo ang sa akin at paghahayin sa Reyna ng mga Virgenes, a y linalangkapan ng tatlong Aba Ginoong Maria. Kung makapagkumpisal na at saka makikinabang ang isip ko ' y angelito , na kumakain ng tinapay ng mga angheles, at nakita ko, na ang pag-ibig at puring sinasambitla ng kanyang inosenteng labi, ay kinalulugdan ng Diyos na Sanggol, na hari ng mga inosentes. Ipatuloy mo, Urbana, ang iyong pagsulat, at nang pakinabangan namin: Adyos, Urbana- Felisa .

Si Urbana kay Feliza -Maynila
FELIZA: Naisulat na sa iyo, ang madlang kahatulang ukol sa paglilingkod sa Diyos, ngayo ' y isusunod ko ang nauukol sa sarili nating katawan. Sabihin mo kay Honesto, na bago masok sa eskuwela ay maghihilamos muna, suklaying maayos ang buhok, at ang baro ' t salawal na gagamitin ay malins; nguni ' t ang kanilinisa ' y huwag iuukol sa pagpapalalo. Huwag pahabaing lubha ang buhok na parang tulisan, sapagka ' t ito ang kinagagawian ng masasamang-tao. Ang kuko ay huwag pahahabain, sapagka ' t kung mahaba ay pinagkakahiratilang ikamot sa sugat, sa ano mang dumi ng katawan, nadurumhan ang kuko, at nakaririmarim, lalung-lalo na sa pagkain. Bago mag-almusal, ay magbigay muna ng magandang araw sa magulang, maestro o sa iba kayang pinaka-matanda sa bahay. Sa pagkain, ay papamihasahin mo sa pagbebendisyon muna, at pagkatapos, ay magpapasalamat sa Diyos. Kung madurumhan ang kamay, mukha o damit, ay maglinis muna bago pasa-eskuwela. Huwag mong pababayaan, na ang plana, materia, farsilla o regla, papel, aklat at lahat ng gagamitin sa paaralan ay maging dungis-dungisan. Kung makikipag-usap sa kapwa-tao ay huwag magpapakita ng kadunguan, ang pangungusap ay tutuwirin, huwag hahaluan ng lamyos o lambing, huwag kakamutkamota

Si Urbana kay Feliza -Maynila
FELIZA: Itong mga huling sulat ko sa iyo, na may nauukol sa kalagayan mo, at ang iba ' y aral kay Honesto, ay ipinauunawa ko, na di sa sariling isip hinango, kundi may sinipi sa mga kasulatan, at ang karamihan ay aral na tinanggap ko kay Doña Prudencia, na aking Maestra: at siyang sinusunod sa eskuwela namin aya ibig ko disin, na sa ating mga kamag-anak, sa mga paaralan sa bayan at mga bario, * ay magkaroon ng mga salin nito at pag-aralan ng mga bata. Ipatutuloy ko ang pagsasaysay ng mga kahatulan.Bottom of Form
Si Honesto, bago pasa-eskuwela, ay pabebendisyon muna kay ama ' t kay ina; sa lansangan ay huwag makikialam sa mga pulong at away na madaraanan, matuwid ang lakad, huwag ngingisi-ngisi, manglilibak sa kapwa-bata, o lalapastangan sa matanda, at nang huwag masabi ng tao na walang pinag-aralan sa mga magulang. Kung magdaraan sa harap ng simbahan, ay magpugay, at kung nalalapit sa pintuan ay yuyukid. Pagdating sa bahay ng maestra ay magpupugay, magbibigay ng magandang araw, o magandang hapon, magdasal na saglit; sa harap ng mga santong

Si Urbana kay Felisa -Maynila
FELIZA: Sa malabis na kadunguan ng mga bata kung kinakausap ng matanda o mahal kayang tao, ang marami ay kikimi-kimi at kikiling-kiling, hindi mabuksan ang bibig, turuan mo, Felisa, si Honesto, na huwag susundin ang ganong asal, ilagay ang loob sa kumakausap, sagutin nang mahusay at madali ang tanong, at nang huwag kayamutan.
Kung mangungusap ay tuwirin ang katawan, ayusin ang lagay. Ang pagsasalita naman ay susukatain, huwag magpapalampas ng sabi, humimpil kung kapanahunan, at nang huwag pagsawaan. Kung nakikipag-usap sa matanda ma ' t sa bata, ay huwag magsabi ng hindi katotohanan, sapagka ' t ang kabulaanan ay kapit sa taong taksil o mapaglilo.
Ang pagsasalita ay sasayahan, ilagay sa ugali, ituntong sa guhit, huwag hahaluan ng kahambugan, at baka mapara doon sa isang nagsalitang hambog, na sinagot ng kausap. Fuu, Fuu , na ang kahulugan ay, habagat, habagat. Huwag magpalamapas ng sabi at baka maparis doon sa isang palalo na sinagot ng kaharap: hintay ka muna, kukuha ako ng gunting at gugupitin ko ang labis.
Sa pakikipagharap, ay mabuti ang nagmamasid sa kinakausap, at kung makakita ng mabuting asal sa iba, at sa

Si Urbana kay Feliza - Maynila
URBANA: MINAMAHAL KONG KAPATID. Ang isang sulat ay isang pagsasalin sa papel ng nasa-isip at sa loob ipinagkakatiwala, at nang matanto ng pinagpapadalhan.
Ang sulat ay isang salitaan sa papel, kaya ang titik ay dapat linawan, at ang pangungusap ay ilagay sa ugali.
Kung ang sinusulatan ay kaibigan at kapahayagan ng loob, ay pahintulot na humaba ang sulat, palibhasa ' y marami ang masasaysay.
Kung ang ibig-sabihin sa sulat, ay isang bagay lamang, at ang sinusulatan ay di kaibigan, hindi karampatan ang magsaysay ng ibang bagay.
Ang sulat ay ibabagay sa sinusulatan, at gayon din ibabagay ang pakikipag-usap.
Iba ang sulat ng mataas sa mababang tao, at ng mababa sa mataas: iba ang sulat ng matanda sa bata, at ng bata sa matanda.
Ang galang na kailangang gamitin ng bata sa matanda hindi kailangan sa sulat ng matanda sa bata; maliban na lamang, kung sa bata ay may nakikitang bagay na sukat-igalang.

Si Urbana kay Felisa - Maynila
FELIZA: Alinsunod sa sinabi ko sa iyo na ako ' y magpapadala ng mga panuto sa pagsulat, ipababasa mo kay Honesto itong mga kasunod.
Pupunuan ng mayusculas ang mga pangalan at apellido ng tao, kaparis ng Francisco Baltazar ; ang sa mga kaharian, siyudad, bayan, lalawigan, bundok, dagat, ilog, batis, para ng España, Maynila, Binyang, Batangas, Arayat Oceano, Pasig, Bumbungan; gayon di ang ngalan ng karunungan, para ng Teologia, ng Artes , para ng Gramatica, Poesia; gayon din ang ngalan ng mga katungkulan, para ng General, Papa, Arzobispo.
Gayon man kung sa oracion o isang sabing buo ang mga ngalan ng karunungan, artes , at iba pang sinabi ko, ay di pinagkapangulo, ay pupunuan ng letrang munti, kaparis nitong halimbawang kasunod; si Benito at si Mariano ay kapwa nag-aaral sa pandayan.
Feliza, turuan mo si Honesto nang matutong maglagay sa sulat ng mga notas o tanda. Ang mga notas ay ito: Coma (,): Punta y coma (;): Dos puntos (:): Admiracion (!): Interrogacion (?): Parenthesis ( ): Puntos suspensiros

Si Urbana kay Feliza - Paumbong
URBANA: Tinanggap ko ang mga sulat mo at ako ' y napasasalamat sa iyo at kami ni Honesto ay pinagsasakitan mong matuto.

Aking iniutos sa kaniya na pag-aaralan ang mga panutong padala mo; tinanggap nang buong tuwa at nagsakit mag-aral. Sa kaniyang pagpipilit ay natuto; at ang wika mo na di lamang siya ang makikinabang ay pinatutuhanan. Nang matutuhan na, ay itinuturo naman sa iba; at palibhasa ' y ang magaling ay hindi matahimik Bottom of Formsa isa kundi sa nagpapakitaan ng kani-kanilang sulat at kung may mabating mali ng kapwa-bata, ay binabago ang sulat. Ang sulat kong ito ay titik ni Honesto. Adyos, Urbana.- Feliza.

Finals I. American Period and Contributions
Consequences of the American colonial rule

During the Spanish period the Spaniards had given enormous land properties to the Catholic church. One of the first things the Americans did was to take care for the redistribution of these land properties. To do so they first had to pay an amount of US $7.2 million to the Vatican in 1904. The small farmers or tenants didn't get any land however. The land became property of some large landowners. Most of the small farmers couldn't pay the asked price or couldn't prove that they were the former owners of the land.
The economic development during the 'American period' was rather typical colonial. The Philippine economy was strongly related to and depending on the United States. The Philippine economy was focused on mining and exporting crops. Industrial growth didn't take place.

Quezon, the first Philippine president

The Philippines was controlled by the Americans from
1900-1942. In 1934 an act was established, which made it possible that the Philippines could have a
"Commonwealth of the Philippines".
The first president of this Commonwealth was Manuel Quezon. The first president was given certain power for some internal affairs.

The Japanese occupation

The Americans were still in the Philippines when the next foreign ruler came. Japan. The Japanese army and rulers occupied the Philippines from 1942 - 1944. The first step to liberation

In October 1944 the American general Douglas Mac Arthur landed with his troops at the east coast of Leyte, one of the bigger islands in the central part of the Philippines.

This was the first step in the total liberation of the country. With 700 vessels and 174,000 army and navy servicemen, McArthur arrived in the Philippines. In December 1944, the islands of
Leyte and Mindoro were cleared of the Japanese army.
Many casualties

The casualties of the Americans in this operation is estimated 4000 - 6000.
Filipino casualties: estimated about one million!

Freedom at last!

The Philippines was granted it's independence in 1946. Freedom at last, 148 years later than the freedom which was written down by Julian Felipe in the Philippine anthem called "Lupang Hinirang".
The Republic of the Philippines was proclaimed on July 4, 1946.
These are some contributions of Americans * Democracy * Americanization * Popular Education * Public health and Welfare * Economic Progress * Transportation and Communication * Individual Freedom * Language and Literature

II. The Development of Filipino – under American Period The American occupation doesn’t only have positive results, there were also seamy sides. Thus, many Filipinos take pride in describing the Philippines not only as the Christian country in the Orient – which means nothing – but also as the most Westernized country in the Orient.

The economic invasion of the Philippines brought the American mode of living close to the Filipinos. American goods and services were at first considered luxuries. After forty-five years of occupation, they became necessities. This conditioning of the Filipino mind to the American standard of living has made them economically dependent on the United States.

The mental attitude that despises one’s own and loves anything foreign is the natural result of American “altruism” bolstered by propaganda. While the Spaniards almost killed the Filipinos by maltreatment, the Americans, on the other hand, almost smothered the Filipinos by pampering their stomach. The first became a negative factor in the development of the Filipino nationalism; the second became a positive factor in the de-Filipinization of the Filipinos. Thus, while enjoying the “blessing” of America, the Filipinos suffered a partial loss of their racial heritage.

The softening of the Filipino spine, which resulted from too many American canned goods, in turn resulted in the persistence of the colonial mentality.

“Nothing like America” in a phrase that has sunk into the subconscious of the average Filipino, even if, in trying to be charming and kittenish in humor his former master, he is, in turn, despised and looked down asa prehensile moron.

The Filipinos excel as imitators, but their limitation is usually limited to the seamy aspect of American life. Gangsterism, juvenile delinquency, promiscuous love affairs, betrayals, racketeering, graft and corruption – all these have been brought to the Philippines through Hollywood.

Under America, the Filipino standard of living was raised to a level higher than what it used to de during the Spanish times. The development of natural resources, the increase in agricultural production and the growth of commerce and industry brought about greater material prosperity. The national wealth increased, thereby enabling the people to live more comfortably and enjoy luxuries imported from abroad.

Generally, Filipinos who experienced life under the American era attest to their satisfaction with their lives in that era as compared to the Spanish and Japanese regimes. It was not until the last 20th century that Filipinos began to regret the cost of becoming economically-dependent on the United States.

III. Advantage and Disadvantage

a. Engligh as Language
The advantage is that it is the worlds most used business and political language, and with the vast numbers of people learning English as a second language it is quickly becoming the worlds most spoken international language, therefore anyone who wants to progress in the world needs to be able to read and speak English!
Disadvantages, it can be difficult to understand some words sound the same but have different meanings. Correct English is not the same as US english!

b. Democracy as a political constitution
Advantages: Democracy preaches the equality and fraternity of men. The idea of the equality of man was strengthened by the idea of nationalism. Every nation felt that it had the right to be free, to throw off foreign domination. If that is so, if a nation has the right of self-determination, it follows logically that every man has the right to determine how he will be governed. The modern world is dominated by two principles, viz. democracy and nationalism.
The achievements of democracy are many. It has infused into the common people a sense for responsibility and power. It has enriched the life of the people who take a warm interest in the affairs of their country and of the world. With greater and greater democracy has come greater and greater freedom. Everyone is free to express his opinions, and although occasionally there may be restrictions on individuals, personal liberty is the goal of democracy, and there is more freedom is democracy than in any other form of government.
Democracy has gradually become universal because it is inevitable. Man is born with an innate tendency to be free, and he cannot help feeling that he should govern himself. He may be more effectively governed by others, but he will say that good government is no substitute for self-government, and in actual practice, democracy has improved the lot of the common man beyond the dreams of his forefathers who lived under kingship or feudalism. The common man is now not only freer, but he is more educated and wealthier and happier than he used to be in the part.
It is democracy alone that can realize the concept of the welfare state where every man can claim the right to food, to education and to employment. Day by day, through a just distribution of taxes, through various welfare measures, the distinction between the rich and poor is being abolished and the equality of man is being realized.
Disadvantages: Democracy is the best form of government so far found, but democracy is not without its defects and its critics. In ancient times when states were small, men would gather in a particular place and decide everything by vote. Here democracy was direct.
But now-a-days as the size of states is becoming larger and larger, we have to content ourselves with indirect or representative democracy. We vote for our representatives, and it is they who carry on the government, and the common man relapses into political indolence. So the vast majority of people who form the electorate are politically active only once or twice in four or five years.
As they have very little to do in matters of government except recording their vote, they have no political experience and become and victims of powerful people who deceive them with large promises and use them for their own private ends.
The common people have no political experience. They don’t have the political wisdom. A wise and an innocent person have equal voting rights. They may or may not vote for the right candidate. And the number of innocent people in every society far outnumber the wise men. It is only likely that a company of innocent people will elect one among-st themselves and not the right candidate to represent them. It cannot, therefore, be the best form of government.
Another charge against democracy is that as it gives freedom of expression to all shades of opinion. It easily leads to the formation of parties, and party government only means talk and talk and talk, democratic parliaments being more or less dignified debating societies.
The arguments against democracy have only a temporary significance. The electorates do, indeed, vote once in a few years, but they can take an intelligent interest in the daily affairs of their countries. Democracy is becoming more and more effective as education is becoming more and more widespread.

c. Freedom
Freedom is an advantage that many are without, lacking the right of choice due to religion or their government, ect. it is something that so many people crave because when you have freedom, you have the right to choose so many things, from which religion you practice to more controversial things, like whether you feel that abortion is right for you. Freedom allows for individuality, though individuality is seriously in lacking in America.
Freedom however gives us that choice, as well as the right to say what we want to say, no matter what others may think.

The negatives of freedom are harder to say.
Freedom is a wonderful thing, as long as it is not in excess. Excessive amounts of freedom is a dangerous. Freedom has to balanced with government, control, and rules, otherwise the rules that keep us safe as a whole become endangered. Safety regulations, like those placed on the safety harnesses in amusement park rides, and vehicles, they could go without checking if freedom was not checked by the law.
Another con to freedom is that those whose views are prejudice, they are obnoxious, and pigheaded, they can express their views openly to the world, without any qualms. IV. Biography d. Jose Garcia Villa
Early life
Villa was born on August 5, 1908, in Manila's Singalong district. His parents were Simeón Villa (a personal physician of Emilio Aguinaldo, the founding President of the First Philippine Republic) and Guia Garcia (a wealthy landowner). He graduated from the University of the Philippines Integrated School and the University of the Philippines High School in 1925. Villa enrolled on a Pre-Medical course in the University of the Philippines, but then switched to Pre-Law course. However, he realized that his true passion was in the arts. Villa first tried painting, but then turned into creative writing after reading Winesburg, Ohio by Sherwood Anderson.
Writing career
Villa's tart poetic style was considered too aggressive at that time. In 1929 he published Man Songs, a series of erotic poems, which the administrators in UP found too bold and was even fined Philippine peso for obscenity by the Manila Court of First Instance. In that same year, Villa won Best Story of the Year from Philippine Free Press magazine for Mir-I-Nisa. He also received P1,000 prize money, which he used to migrate to the United States.
He enrolled at the University of New Mexico, wherein he was one of the founders of Clay, a mimeograph literary magazine. He graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree, and pursued post-graduate work at Columbia University. Villa had gradually caught the attention of the country's literary circles, one of the few Asians to do so at that time.
After the publication of Footnote to Youth in 1933, Villa switched from writing prose to poetry, and published only a handful of works until 1942. During the release of Have Come, Am Here in 1942, he introduced a new rhyming scheme called "reversed consonance" wherein, according to Villa: "The last sounded consonants of the last syllable, or the last principal consonant of a word, are reversed for the corresponding rhyme. Thus, a rhyme for near would be run; or rain, green, reign."
In 1949, Villa presented a poetic style he called "comma poems", wherein commas are placed after every word. In the preface of Volume Two, he wrote: "The commas are an integral and essential part of the medium: regulating the poem's verbal density and time movement: enabling each word to attain a fuller tonal value, and the line movement to become more measured."
Villa worked as an associate editor for New Directions Publishing in New York City from 1949 to 1951, and then became director of poetry workshop at City College of New York from 1952 to 1960. He then left the literary scene and concentrated on teaching, first lecturing in The New School|The New School for Social Research from 1964 to 1973, as well as conducting poetry workshops in his apartment. Villa was also a cultural attaché to the Philippine Mission to the United Nations from 1952 to 1963, and an adviser on cultural affairs to the President of the Philippines beginning 1968.
On February 5, 1997, at the age of 88, Jose was found in a coma in his New York apartment and was rushed to St. Vincent Hospital in the Greenwich Village area. His death two days later, February 7, was attributed to "cerebral stroke and multilobar pneumonia". He was buried on February 10 in St. John's Cemetery in New York, wearing a Barong Tagalog.
New York Centennial Celebration
On August 5 and 6, 2008, Villa's centennial celebration began with poem reading at the Jefferson Market Library. For the launch of Doveglion: Collected Poems, Penguin Classics’ reissue of Villa's poems edited by John Edwin Cowen, there were readings of his poems by Cowen, by book introducer Luis H. Francia, and by scholar Tina Chang.[4] Then, the Leonard Lopate Showwill interview Cowen and Francia on the "Pope of Greenwich Village's" life and work, followed by the Asia Pacific Forum show.
In 1946 Villa married Rosemarie Lamb, with whom he had two sons, Randall and Lance. They annulled ten years later. He also had three grandchildren, Jordan Villa, Sara Villa Stokes and Travis Villa. Villa was especially close to his nieces, Ruby Precilla, Milagros Villanueva, Maria Luisa Cohen and Maria Villanueva. e. Salvador Lopez
Salvador Ponce Lopez (May 27, 1911 – October 18, 1993), born in Currimao, Ilocos Norte, was an Ilocano writer, journalist, educator, diplomat, and statesman.
He studied at the University of the Philippines and obtained a Bachelor of Arts degree in English in 1931 and a Master of Arts degree, also in philosophy, in 1933. During his UP days, he became a drama critic for the Philippine Collegian and was a member of the Upsilon Sigma Phi. From 1933 to 1936, he taught literature and journalism at the University of Manila. He also became a daily columnist and magazine editor of the Philippine Herald until World War 2.
In 1940, Lopez' essay "Literature and Society" won in the Commonwealth Literary Awards. This essay posited that art must have substance and that poet Jose Garcia Villa's adherence to "art for art's sake" is decadent. The essay provoked debates, the discussion centered on proletarian literature, i.e., engaged or committed literature versus the art for art’s sake literary orientation.
He was appointed by President Diosdado Macapagal as Secretary of Foreign Affairs and was ambassador to the United Nations for six years before reassigned to France for seven years.
Lopez was the president of the University of the Philippines from 1969 to 1975. And he established a system of democratic consultation in which decisions such as promotions and appointments were made through greater participation by the faculty and administrative personnel; he also reorganized U.P. into the U.P. System. It was during his presidency that U.P. students were politically radicalized, launching mass protests against the Marcos regime, from the so-called "First Quarter Storm" in 1970 to the "Diliman commune" in 1971. During the Diliman Commune, Lopez called the students, faculty, and employees to defend UP and its autonomy from militarization, since the military wanted to occupy the campus, searching for alleged leftists as well as activists opposing them. Many militants, out of his defense of UP's autonomy and democracy, considered him as a progressive and a militant member of the UP academe.

V. God said, “I made a man”
By Jose Garcia Villa

God said, “I made a man
Out of clay –
But so bright he, he spun
Himself to brightest Day
Till he was all shining gold,
And oh,
He was handsome to behold!
But in his hands held he a bow

Aimed at me who created
Him. And I said,
‘Wouldst murder me
‘Who am thy Fountainhead’

Then spoke he the man of gold:
‘I will not
Murder thee! I do but
Measure thee. Hold

Thy peace!’ And this I did,
But I was curious
Of this so regal head.
‘Give thy name!’ –Sir! Genius’”
Leaving as heritage this islet this poem,
You and I, this country yours and mine,
This child dreaming on the edges of life. VI. When I was no bigger than a Huge
When, I, was, no, bigger, than, a, huge,
Star, in, my, self, I, began, to, write,
Of, rose, and,

Tiger: till, I, burned, with, their
Pure, and, Rage. Then, was, I, Wrath-
And, most,
Gentle: most,

Dark, and, yet, most, Lit: in, me, an,
Eye, there, grew: springing, Vision,
Gold, and,
Its, wars. Then,

I, knew, the, Lord, was, not, my, Creator!
--Not, He, the, Unbegotten—but, I, saw,
Was, I—and,

I, began, to, Die, and, I, began, to, Grow.

Salvador P. Lopez
It would seem the veriest impertinence to speak of culture at a time when the nation is preoccupied with the paramount problem of survival. Yet it is neither bland irony nor calculated irreverence to declare… that the national soul has a destiny apart from the fortunes of battle…. Our nation will survive any menace which is directed merely against its physical security . . . there will always be people somewhere in one or other in one of the . . .islands of the Archipelago, who will continue to call themselves Filipinos” and feel the noblest pride in going by that name.
But if our nation survives, is that all? . . . I do not think so. Mere survival will not only reflect any special glory on our people . . . It seems necessary, therefore to hold on to a vision of this nation . . . tempered in virtue and strong in the knowledge of its own power to build a more stately mansion for itself. In the making of such a nation, politics and economics will be important but culture will, in the long run, be more important still. And thus arises the question: what are we going to do with Filipino culture?
I use the word “culture” in its broadest sense denoting the sum-total of a nation’s achievements in art, religion, science and letters; their philosophy and way of life; the ideals and instrumentalities by which they live. Our culture, then, is the continuity of our traditional life, the whole body of the intellectual, moral, and spiritual values which have come down to us as our heritage after centuries of accretion and evolution.
On the basis of this definition, the question may be restated as follows: What are we Filipinos going to do with our soul I mean the essence of what we are as a people . . . Now this thing we have designed to call Filipino culture is the product of crossbreeding that has taken place over such a long period of time that only by using the word in its loosest sense can it be called a culture at all. Our ancestors who first came to these shores were a breed of men far different from their offspring who later fell under the influence of Islam and absorbed generous doses of the cultures of China, India, and Japan. Nor are we Filipinos today what our forefathers were when first the Spaniards came. Layer upon layer new influences have gathered upon us through the centuries . . .
In other words, we have become what we are today by the iron logic of historical events . . .We are Asiatic by birth, natural instincts, and geographical environment, but Western adoption, psychological orientation, and social conditioning . . . Was it good for us to have permitted the hybridization of our culture? . . . My answer is: Yes, we lost something – something like the pleasant and peculiar flavor that we associate with home-cooking, something like sense of . . . individuality that a . . . pagoda, a minaret, or a totempole strikes in the alien beholder . . WE lost the animistic faith of our pagan forefathers. . . We lost the slave system of social organization and the tribal system of the pretty chiefs and kings. . . We lost the entire body of our native folklore whose spirit we now vainly try to recapture through the tenuous threads of race memory.
But I also say that we gained much more that we lost. We gained the Christian religion, and without disdaining other religions, we have a right to glory in our acquisition. For Christianity. Apart from its value as a system of religious belief, was a powerful liberating force in the life of the people… In the process of cultural transformation… there gradually evolved among our people a spirit of nationalism theretofore nonexistent. Out of numerous tribes speaking various tongues, worshipping their own anitos, and owing allegiance to their own chiefs and kings, a nation was forged and welded, ironically enough, in the fires of the self-same oppressive rule by which Spain sought to hold our country in bondage. We acquired zeal for learning and education, a desire to seek knowledge throughout the world. From this sprang new confidence in our own powers… We cultivated the scientific spirit – the belief that science is the handmaiden of culture and civilization, that with science we can conquer ignorance, poverty, and even death itself – as an effective counterpoise to the fatalistic and superstitious tendencies of the race. Finally, we developed an appetite for material well-being, for the benefits of the abundant life, for the comforts and conveniences that have become synonymous with modern civilized living. Nor it can be denied that we acquired evil things with good. For it is unfortunately true that an enslaved people tend to copy the vices more avidly than the virtues of their masters. We acquired religious fanaticism and hypocrisy from or contact with the Spaniards… and we developed a certain apathetic indolence partly as a result of their oppressive and exploitative rule. From out contact with the Americans we acquired the habits of exaggerated and self-indulgent of individualism, a predilection for materialistic pursuits and pleasures, and an artificial standard of living that encouraged pretense, sham and dissipation. From both of them we barrowed many few, fascinating vices in addition to those who inherited from our Malay-Indonesian forbears. The Spaniards by oppressing us gave us our spirit of nationalism; while the Americans, by the subtle fascination of material well-being, pretty nearly took it away again. And yet when you have said the worst and numbered the many evils of our hyphenated Euramerasian culture, I still affirm that there remains a residue of good influences that far out-weighs the bad. I say that we are better off than the Solomon Islanders, and the primitive tribes of central Australia… and I also say that we are better off than our cousins the Javanese and the Sumatrans and the Borneans who have been much less exposed to that light than we have been. Recognizing, therefore, the advantages of our contact with the West, let us now face the issue of our cultural rehabilitation squarely. That we have need of such rehabilitation no reasonable man will deny. We felt the need for it years before… when, as a result of the strong nationalistic movement culminating in the approval of the Tydings-McDuffie Law, there arose a widespread clamor to read just our political institutions, economic relations, and cultural objectives to the requirements of an independent existence. Manuel L. Quezon, among others, took the lead in this salutary movement when he declared, in a speech before students at the Rizal memorial stadium in 1939, that it was necessary for the youth to abandon the life of frivolity and ease to which they had been accustomed, and for the Filipino people to fortify themselves against the rigours of independence, to “be like the molave”, strong in its fiber to withstand the wind and the storm. The current movement, therefore, maybe regarded as an extension of an earlier movement which sought to induce the Filipino to rediscover his own soul that the original gold thereof might shine through the thick incrustation of alien ways and philosophies. As a matter of fact, the movement had already taken more or less definite directions when the war broke out, as witness: first, the totalitarian drift of the government, justified by some of the ground that such a political system was more in consonance with the historical background and psychology of the people; second, the effort to discover and develop new markets of the Philippine products in Asia to make up for the inevitable loss of the American market upon the grant of independence.; third, the national economic protectionism movement designed to encourage Filipino patronage of or manufactured goods; fourth, the movement to Filipinize the personnel of the schools and the content of instruction; fifth, the movement to Filipinize the clergy by elevating Filipinos to positions of rank and responsibility in the hierarchy of the church; sixth, the adoption of Tagalog as the National language and as a compulsory subject in all Philippine schools. All these, it will be noted, bespoke a nation beginning earnestly to return inward upon itself, seeking in the depths of its own soul treasures it had long neglected. There are certain considerations in respect of culture, however, which posses certain validity apart from the transient obfuscations of hate and the struggle. While one may properly speak of a political sphere or an economic block, there is no valid, objective referent for the expression “cultural bloc” or “cultural sphere.”Most cultures, it is true, have indigenous beginnings, autochthonous with respect to given clan, tribe, or nation; but always they tend to spread tin concentric circles outward, until they become coterminous with the world. For culture is fluid, volatile, impossible to confine in an air-tight compartment; and nothing is truer than that real culture is universal, the exclusive property of no particular nation but of all nations that have intelligence to harness it to their own uses. By this token, nothing is more dangerous for a nation than cultural inbreeding. Consider the peoples of India and China We say that they already had a high degree of civilization when the peoples of Europe were still barbarians roaming in the wilderness. Yet, what price their jealousy guarded and carefully insulted civilizations? They fell prey to the energetic peoples of the west.. Considerations of pride, dignity, and even vanity enter in the cultural relations of nations, yet it is noteworthy that Japanese, who are accounted among the proudest of peoples, have not been too proud to realize the true culture belongs to the entire world, the heritage of all mankind. For they know, as we all should know, that the commerce of culture is a process of give-and-take, and that many of the things which the East now takes from the west, the west originally borrowed from the East. The east, as it were, is simply collecting and old debt- together with compound interest. If it is unreasonable to expect the Japanese people to rid themselves completely of the entire body of their cultural borrowing from the west. How much less reasonable it is to demand that the Filipino people, considering the undeniable poverty of their own native culture, undergo process of general purgation! Consider, for instance, how such a process, indiscrinately followed, would followed, would affect Filipino art and literature. We would have no painting at all, since Filipino painting, dating as it does no farther back than Juan luna and F. resurreccion hidalgo, is entirely western in manner and method, and since it would be as futile as it unsound to attempt to develop a purely native technique analogous to the Japanese style of painting, in music very little would remain, for our composers would be condemned to sterile and tiresome variations of folk airs that have long been worked to death.
In literature the policy advocated by some rabid partisans of the national language of teaching in schools only Tagalog and the literature written in it to the exclusion of all else would result in a most serious condition of cultural impovererishment. I have actually heard one such influence partisan of tagalong make the statement unbashed, that in order to mater the language and write well, it is necessary fo a person to foreswear completelt his knowledge of any other tongue. And after we have foresworn Spanish and English, let us say…. What remains? Well, we shall still have florante at laura, urbana at felisa, banaag at sikat, ang lihim ng kapisanan, and cheap novels, corridos, and novenas without number… for the avid intelligence of a young and fast-growing nation like ours. This is not merely a pat reduction ad absurdum. For it is unfortunately true that, with the exception of the bible and Don Quixote, none of the masterpieces of world literature are available in Tagalog Translation. And it is sad to record that tagalong writes, as a general rule and allowing for exceptions, are but little acquainted, if it all, with the literatures of other countries…. That we need to give our culture a new orientation is not to be gainsaid. In the past we had been guilty for two things: indiscriminate borrowing and failure to assimilate properly what we borrowed. Certain remedies dictated by our sense of dignity as people and acceptable to reason would therefore seem to dictated as follow: first, we must carefully re-examine the content of our culture and then decide what parts and features of it we should weed out and what others we should keep, regardless of whether these are of native or foreign origin. Second, we should continue borrowing from the cultural treasures of other nations, this time making absolute care that we take over only those things that harmonize with the spirit of our traditions and have power to enhance our fund of beauty and truth.
Third, we must look closely than we have been wont to do n the past into the treasures that abound in the soul of the race or that lie buried in the forgotten pages of our history, retrieving those customs, traditions and ideals that reason and practice may prove to be valid and useful still. Fourth, remembering that judicious selection and imitation are not enough, we must do more than swallow what we borrow, we must assimilate it rather by letting the juices, as it were, of our native genius permeate, digest, and transmute it into the living flesh and body of Filipino culture.
Having ourselves subscribe to those principles, we Filipinos can do no less than make our role and guide of action in our culture endeavors. It should comfort us to know that by adhering to these principles we shall be placing ourselves in the most advantageous position to erect the edifice of our culture upon the soundest possible foundation. For, as Matthew Arnold once wrote, “culture is the study and perfection, perfection which consists in becoming something rather than in having something.” And since perfection, whether in things material, intellectual, or spiritual, bears not the exclusive trademark of a particular nation or race, the study and pursuit of perfection therefore necessarily imply not only looking inward upon ourselves, but a looking out of the skyward windows of the mind, not only the cultivation of our backyard garden, but a ranging forth upon the high roads of human knowledge and experience.Let our culture, then, be Filipino and Oriental, but let it also bear the seed and the fruit of the best that men, in all ages, throughout the word, and thought and known.

X. Filipino Songs - Pagbabago? by Asin - Tatsulok by Bamboo - Tayo’y mga Pinoy by Heber Bartolome
XI. Lyrics Noypi
Tingnan mo ang iyong palad
Kalyado mong kamay sa hirap ng buhay
Ang dami mong problema
Nakuha mo pang ngumiti
Noypi ka nga astig
Saan ka man naroroon
Huwag kang matatakot
Sa Baril o Patalim
Sa bakas na madilim...

Hoy, pinoy ako!
Buo aking loob, may agimat ang dugo ko
Hoy, oh pinoy ako!
May agimat ang dugo ko...

Sinisid ko ang dagat
Nilibot ko ang mundo
Nasa puso ko pala hinahanap kong gulo
Ilang beses na akong muntikang mamatay
Oh, alam ko ang sikreto kaya't andito pa't buhay.

Oh sabi nila may anting anting ako pero di nila
Alam na Diyos ang dahilan ko...

Hoy, pinoy ako!
Buo aking loob, may agimat ang dugo...
Hoy, oh pinoy ako!
May agimat ang dugo ko...

Ohh... ooohh...

Dinig mo ba ang bulong ng lahi mo?
Isigaw mo kapatid, ang himig natin...

Hoy, pinoy ako!
Buo aking Loob, may agimat ang dugo ko!
Hoy, oh pinoy ako!
May agimat ang dugo ko

Ohh... ooohh...

Totoy bilisan mo, bilisan mo ang takbo
Ilagan ang mga bangag nakatutok sa ulo mo
Totoy tumalong ka, dumapa kung kailangan
At baka tamaan ka ng mga balang ligaw
Totoy makinig ka, wag kang magpa-gabi
Baka mapagkamalan ka't humandusay diyan sa tabi
Totoy alam mo ba kung ano ang puno't dulo
Ng di matapos-tapos na kaguluhang ito
Hindi pula't dilaw tunay na magkalaban
Ang kulay at tatak ay di syang dahilan
Hangga't marami ang lugmok sa kahirapan
At ang hustisya ay para lang sa mayaman
Habang may tatsulok at sila ang nasa tuktok
Di matatapos itong gulo
Iligtas ang hininga ng kay raming mga tao
At ang dating munting bukid, ngayo'y sementeryo
Totoy kumilos ka, baliktarin ang tatsulok
Tulad ng dukha, nailagay mo sa tuktok
Hindi pula't dilaw tunay na magkalaban
Ang kulay at tatak ay di syang dahilan
Hangga't marami ang lugmok sa kahirapan
At ang hustisya ay para lang sa mayaman
Habang may tatsulok at sila ang nasa tuktok
Di matatapos itong gulo
Hindi pulat dilaw tunay na magkalaban
Ang kulay at tatak ay di syang dahilan
Hangga't marami ang lugmok sa kahirapan
At ang hustisya ay para lang sa mayaman
Habang may tatsulok at sila ang nasa tuktok
Di matatapos itong gulo
Habang may tatsulok at sila ang nasa tuktok
Di matatapos itong gulo.......
Di matatapos itong gulo......

Para sa Masa
Ito ay para sa mga masa
Sa lahat ng nawalan ng pag-asa
Sa lahat ng ng aming nakasama
Sa lahat ng hirap at pagdurusa

Naaalala niyo pa ba
Binigyan namin kayo ng ligaya
Ilang taon na ring lumipas
Mga kulay ng mundo ay kumupas

Marami na rin ang mga pagbabago
Di maiiwasan pagkat tayo ay tao lamang
Mapapatawad mo ba ako
Kung hindi ko sinunod ang gusto mo

La la la la la la la la...

Pinilit kong iahon ka
Ngunit ayaw mo namang sumama

Ito ay para sa mga masa
Sa lahat ng binaon ng sistema
Sa lahat ng aming nakabarkada
Sa lahat ng mahilig sa labsong at drama
Sa lahat ng di marunong bumasa
Sa lahat ng may problema sa skwela
Sa lahat ng fans ni sharon cuneta
Sa lahat ng may problema sa pera
Sa lahat ng masa

Huwag mong hayaang ganito
Bigyan ang sarili ng respeto


Kayo po na naka upo,
Subukan nyo namang tumayo
At baka matanaw, at baka matanaw na nyo
Ang tunay na kalagayan ko

Ganito kasi yan eh...

Verse 1:

Tao po, nandyan po ba kayo sa loob ng
Malaking bahay at malawak na bakuran
Mataas na pader pinapaligiran
At naka pilang mga mamahaling sasakyan
Mga bantay na laging bulong ng bulong
Wala namang kasal pero marami ang naka barong
Lumakas man ang ulan ay walang butas ang bubong
Mga plato't kutsara na hindi kilala ang tutong
At ang kanin ay simputi ng gatas na nasa kahon
At kahit na hindi pasko sa lamesa ay may hamon
Ang sarap sigurong manirahan sa bahay na ganyan
Sabi pa nila ay dito mo rin matatagpuan
Ang tao na nagmamay-ari ng isang upuan
Na pag may pagkakatao'y pinag-aagawan
Kaya naman hindi niya pinakakawalan
Kung makikita ko lamang siya ay aking sisigawan


Kayo po na naka upo,
Subukan nyo namang tumayo,
At baka matanaw, at baka matanaw na nyo
Ang tunay na kalagayan ko

Verse 2:

Mawalang galang na po
Sa taong naka upo,
Alam niyo bang pantakal ng bigas namin ay di puno
Ang ding-ding ng bahay namin ay pinagtagpi-tagping yero
Sa gabi ay sobrang init na tumutunaw ng yelo
Na di kayang bilhin upang ilagay sa inumin
Pinakulong tubig sa lumang takuring uling-uling
Gamit lang panggatong na inanod lamang sa istero
Na nagsisilbing kusina sa umaga'y aming banyo
Ang aking ina na may kayamanan isang kaldero
Na nagagamit lang pag ang aking ama ay sumweldo
Pero kulang na kulang parin,
Ulam na tuyo't asin
Ang singkwenta pesos sa maghapo'y pagkakasyahin
Di ko alam kung talagang maraming harang
O mataas lang ang bakod
O nagbubulag-bulagan lamang po kayo
Kahit sa dami ng pera niyo
Walang doktor na makapagpapalinaw ng mata niyo

Wag kang masyadong halata
Bato-bato sa langit
Ang matamaa'y wag magalit
O bato-bato bato sa langit
Ang matamaan ay
Wag masyadong halata (ooh)
Wag kang masyadong halata
Hehey, (Wag kang masyadong halata)
(Wag kang masyadong halata)

Isang Bandila
Wag kang mabahala sa kahol ng mga aso
Ligtas ang pag-asang nakasakay sa ating mga palad at balikat
Wag mong patulan, wag mong sakyan ang mga talangka
Panis ang angas sa respetot pagpapakumbaba
Walang matayog na pangarap
Sa bayang may sipag at tyaga
Isang ugat, isang dugo
Isang pangalan, Pilipino
Isang tadhanang lalakbayin
Isang panata, isang bandila
Pekeng bayani
Pekeng paninindigan
Subukan naman nating pagtulung-tulungan
Paglayang ating minimithi
Hindi alamat, hindi konsepto
Ang bayanihang minana mo
Isang ugat, isang dugo
Isang pangalan, Pilipino
Isang landas na tatahakin
Isang panata, isang bandila
Isang ugat, isang dugo
Pare-parehong Pilipino
Mga tadhanang magkapatid
Isang panata, isang bandila
Isang bandila

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