Free Essay

No Longer Missing Links

In: Science

Submitted By mustafadayan
Words 846
Pages 4
ARDI:
ARDI:
1. Ardipithecus ramidus dates back about ______ years.
Answer:
Ardipithecus ramidus dates back some 4.4 million years ago.
2. A big difference between Ardipithecus and Australopithecus was: (compare the diagrams of Australopithecus skulls, jaws, teeth, pelvises and feet)
Answer:
Skeleton majorDifferences | Ardipithecus | Australopithecus | Skulls | Ardipithecus skull rests atop the spinal column, indicating this species was bipedal, although it probably walked in a slightly different manner than humans. | -The dark area at the bottom of the skull is the foramen magnum, the hole through which the spinal column passes. It has a forward position in australopithecine skulls | Jaws | -Ardipithecus has rectangular shape of ape jaws. | -Their jaw has the parabolic shape of human jaws. | Teeth | They have large canine teeth. | -The teeth of australopithecines are similar to those of humans.-They do not have the large canine teeth of apes | Pelvises | -Their pelvis has a mix of features useful for both climbing and upright walking and suggests the species still spent significant time in the trees.-The lower pelvis is large and the angle of the ischial surface does not face upward as it does in humans and Australopithecus. | -Australopithecine pelvises are far more similar to humans than to those of apes, and shows that they were undoubtedly bipedal.- Despite the overall similarity, australopithecine pelvises are not identical to those of humans | Feet | The foot bones in this skeleton indicate a divergent large toe combined with a rigid foot. | They had a big toe that was more closely aligned with the other digits on the foot, an adaptation that provides support during upright walking. |

Ape to Man: Chapters 4-7
3. The first Australopithecus fossil was found in 1924 in what country?
Answer:
The first Australopithecus fossil was found in 1924 in Taung in the North of South Africa.
4. List two reasons why Raymond Dart's claims about Australopithecus were rejected:
Answer:
a. In a paper published in the journal Nature (Dart 1925), he argued that Australopithecus africanus represented a missing link between apes and humans. After reviewing evidence gathered by Dart, scientists were initially reluctant to accept that the Taung Child and the new genus Australopithecus were ancestral to modern humans. In the issue of Nature immediately following the one in which Dart's paper was published, several authorities in British paleoanthropology criticized Dart's conclusion. Dart's former mentor Arthur Keith, one of the most prominent anatomists of his time, claimed there was insufficient evidence to accept Dart's claim that Australopithecus was transitional between apes and humans. Grafton Elliot Smith stated that he needed more evidence – and a larger picture of the skull – before he could judge the significance of the new fossil. Arthur Smith Woodward dismissed the Taung Child as having "little bearing" on the issue of "whether the direct ancestors of man are to be sought in Asia or Africa. b. Secondly, he was the wrong man (he was Australian) and was not part of the scientific establishment in England, he was at the wrong place (Southern Africa) everyone was expecting such discovery from any other place, either Asia or Europe and finally, it was the wrong thing, Dart called it an ape and everybody called it an ape too, so his discovery did not fit in the context which was (finding the missing link).
5. How did the Taung Child die?
Answer:
The Taung Child is thought have been attacked and killed by an eagle. Scientists suspect an eagle killed the Taung Child because puncture marks were found at the bottom of the Taung Child’s eye sockets. These marks resemble those made by a modern eagle’s sharp claws and beak when they attack monkeys in Africa today.

Meet "Selam", a young australopithecine
6. Where was "Selam" found?
Answer:
Selam is the fossilized skull and other skeletal remains of a three-year-old Australopithecus afarensis female hominin, whose bones were first found in Dikika, Ethiopia in 2000.
7. How do scientists know that "Selam" was 3 years old and a female?
Answer:
To determine the sex and age of primates scientists use a term called sexual dimorphism which basically means men are larger and female in terms of body size and teeth, but to exactly find that, scientists use permanent dentition (which shows the baby teeth and the adult teeth), so in case of Selam, with the help of technology scientists found out that she was a girl and had small teeth and the estimated answer was she had 3 years old when she died.

8. What did the hyoid bone reveal about the language ability of "Selam"?
Answer:
The primary function of the hyoid bone is to serve as an anchoring structure for the tongue. The bone is situated at the root of the tongue in the front of the neck and between the lower jaw and the largest cartilage of the larynx, or voice box. After analysis of the hyoid bone which was not previously found in any other fossils, it revealed that it was a chimp/ape like, and her voice was more like a chimpanzee than a human.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Sealion

...actually acclimated to water, and why. After spending numerous hours researching this organism, it is still unclear to me when and why this animal changed its environment to include water. It is believed by many in the scientific world that the Sea Lion was a land dweller and became a water creature due to not have enough food in its land environment. “It's long been assumed that marine mammals in the pinniped group – seals, sea lions and walrus – evolved from a land-based common ancestor, but until now, no definitive fossil evidence had materialized” (Harmon, 2009). The animal would have had four legs that would have become webbed after its transfer to water. Its adaptation would have allowed it to survive under water for longer periods as well. The creature would have more than likely looked like the picture below if this is an accurate depiction of its ancestry. [pic] Its evolution would have included, being able to walk on land with paws that grip the earth, breathe air always to changing itself allowing it to breathe underwater and swim like a fish. Its paws slowly formed to fin like water movers however it still is able to move about on land. The creature shown above is believed to swim as shown looking for fish and other smaller life forms. It also was believed to hunt on land for smaller animals as well. It is believed that when the food ran out on land the animal slowly move its environment to the water. The......

Words: 600 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

It 220 Network Standards

...Lab 2 Exercise 2.1.1 If one of the five (Media, Interface, Signal, Pattern, and Timing) is missing you will not get a connection. You will not be able to share information. If Media is missing there is no way to transmit the signal. If the Interface is missing there is no way for the computer to access the media to get the connection. If the signal is missing you cannot transmit to get the connection. If the pattern is missing the device cannot communicate with any other device on the network. If the timing is missing the device’s communication would crash into other devices’ communication causing a roadblock in the system. Exercise 2.1.2 The Network interface card (NIC) allows this kind of integration. Exercise 2.1 review Network devices are routers, gateways, hubs, and switches. Peripheral devices are printers, mice, monitor, and scanners. You would limit incoming connections to keep spam out and viruses or malware out. Peer to peer network is good for small groups and businesses. They can share resources and data between nodes. They scale better and are more resilient because they do not rely exclusive on servers. Exercise 2.2.1 The startup cost for individual computers is $3600 versus a high-capacity printer for $500. The drawback to having only one printer for 30 users is backup (traffic jam) of pages to print as well as wearing it out causing repair costs. Setting priorities on what printed first. The cost for three printers –two......

Words: 1074 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Cry The Beloved Country Tribe

...A Tribe is a division in a traditional society consisting of families or communities linked by social, economic, religious, or blood ties. A car needs an engine, wheels, and gas in order to function; without one of those vital links the car as a whole can’t function. Likewise when regarding a tribe, each link that characterizes a tribe is vital in order for the tribe to function and thrive. In Cry the Beloved Country by Alan Paton the tribe in Ndotsheni is broken, there are vital links missing. The tribe is broken physically, politically, and spiritually. As a result of the tribe being broken the individuals that are apart of this tribe are turning to lives they believe are their only way to survive in this society. In Ndotsheni the land...

Words: 986 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Html

...The Missing Link: An Introduction to Web Development and Programming The Missing Link An Introduction to Web Development and Programming Michael Mendez SUNY Fredonia i The Missing Link An Introduction to Web Development and Programming by Michael Mendez Open SUNY Textbooks 2014 ©2014 Michael Mendez ISBN: 978-0-9897226-5-0 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Published by Open SUNY Textbooks, Milne Library (IITG PI) State University of New York at Geneseo, Geneseo, NY 14454 Cover design by William Jones Licensing This text is published by the Open SUNY Textbooks project under the Creative Commons 3.0 license format (see full length legal text at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/ by-sa/3.0/): You are free: 1. To share — to copy, distribute and transmit the work 2. To remix — to adapt the work 3. To make commercial use of the work Under the following conditions: 1. Attribution: You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work). 2. Share Alike: If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under the same or similar license to this one. With the understanding that: 1. Waiver: Any of the above conditions can be waived if you get permission from the copyright holder. 2. Public......

Words: 78185 - Pages: 313

Premium Essay

Data Mining

...data mining is to obtain knowledge from the large database. It helps to discover previously unknown patterns, most of the time it is followed by deeper manual evaluation to explain and correlate the results to establish a new knowledge. It is often practically used by government, bank, insurance company and medical researcher. A general basic idea of data mining would be introduced. In this article, they are divided into four types, predictive modeling, database segmentation, link analysis and deviation detection. A brief introduction will explain the variation among them. For the next part, current privacy, ethical as well as technical issue regarding data mining will be discussed. Besides, the future development trends, especially concept of the developing sport data mining is written. Last but not the least different views on data mining including the good side, the drawback and our views are integrated into the paragraph. 1. Introduction This century, is the age of digital world. We are no longer able to live without the computing technology. Due to information explosion, we are having difficulty to obtain knowledge from large amount of unorganized data. One of the solutions, Knowledge Discovery in Database (KDD) is introduced. KDD works by select the source, pre-process followed by data mining, some unknown patterns are able to be discovered. After that the result allows us to investigate further base on the results to find out the hidden reasons behind the patterns....

Words: 1700 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Hehe

...College students’ academic motivation, media engagement and fear of missing out Journals Books Download PDF Sign in   Export Article outline is loading... Search ScienceDirect Help Advanced search Computers in Human Behavior Volume 49, August 2015, Pages 111–119 107578|| College students’ academic motivation, media engagement and fear of missing out Dorit Alt    Show more doi:10.1016/j.chb.2015.02.057 Highlights • Possible links between FoMO, social media engagement, and three motivational constructs were examined. • A new scale was designed to measure the extent to which students used social media tools in the classroom. •......

Words: 3171 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Chapter 11 Case Questions

...to be both an offer and acceptance. At the time of the initial offer, there was no official acceptance. Once Radar Appliances did accept, the offer was no longer there, as Zook withdrew before there was an acceptance. And under common law contract principles, an offer may be revoked at any time before acceptance. Zook also never technically said that they would allow the offer to stand for more than a week, so I don’t believe it was a valid sales contract. 2. If I have read the book correctly, technically you do not have to read the agreement or even click a box that says “I agree” to be in an enforceable contract, as long as it was laid out clearly to you what was going on. She could have, and should have, read the agreement as it was stated clearly in a hypertext link, but she chose not to. The site said specifically that by entering your email and clicking “subscribe” that you agreed to the terms, and she did just that. So yes, I believe she is in an enforceable contract with E-Commerce Weekly. 3. I believe Roger’s is at fault unfortunately and is not in favor of the court. The vice president who signed and verified that he had read and agreed to the warranty coverage should have been more observing and seen the bold text stating the warranty was on the back of the page, which then he would have known was missing. Hyundai did their part and met their side of the responsibilities and established an agreement....

Words: 286 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Proposition and Opposition Arguements

...least important argument. General arguments that support your stance on the problem or issue being debated“Proposition” | Two facts that support the argument | Rank of Argument Importance / Strength | Footprints have not been able to be disproven as credible evidence that Bigfoot does exist. | * Size of foot and distance between strides justifies that the footprint cannot be human. Footprints cannot be faked of staged due to size, (Big Foot And Yeti, ). * These footprints are bigger and are different shapes than any other animal on record, (Big Foot And Yeti, ). | 6 | Eyewitness sightings of the North American Bigfoot date back to the 1830’s. | * The fact that there are still eyewitness sightings for over 180 years, possible longer with better documentation, says that this creature or rumor of creature has not gone away. * The people who have reported sightings are credible people. | 8 | Samples of DNA: hair, blood, etc., of Bigfoot have been found. | * These samples do not show human DNA. If it is not human than what is it? * Oxford University is looking for any and all...

Words: 3547 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Oedipus

...(lack of clear purpose and /or clarity) * Thesis could be stronger * Supportive information (if required) needs strengthening or does not address writing concepts | * Major points are unclear and/or insufficiently supported * Content is missing essentials * Content has unsatisfactory purpose, focus, and clarity * Supportive information (if required) is missing | Organization and Structure(CCLO #1)33/45pts | * Writing is well-structured, clear, and easy to follow * Introduction compelling forecasts the topic and thesis * Each paragraph is unified and has a clear central idea * Transitional wording is present throughout the writing * Conclusion is a logical end to the writing | * Adequately organized with some areas difficult to follow * Introduction needs to provide a stronger gateway into the writing * Some paragraphs lack unity * Better transitions are needed to provide fluency of ideas * Conclusion is trite or barely serves its purpose | * Organization and structure detract from the writer’s message * Introduction and/or conclusion is incomplete or missing * Paragraphs are not unified (more than one topic / missing or inadequate controlling and concluding sentences) * Transitions are missing * Conclusion, if present, fails to serve its...

Words: 1871 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Marketing

...were also consistent with a beach and vacation theme creating a story of visiting a fantasy destination. The text was fairly easy to read however, the layout appeared to be cluttered as there was a lot of space that could be utilized, whilst also leaving enough white space for easier reading. The banner at the top could be longer as well, this would allow for clearer wording on the images used and also even higher quality images could be implemented. The “Specials” section and the “Destinations” section are too close, it might be confusing for some users to look at. They have also left enough white space on the sides which as mentioned before helps in reading the content, however the said content could be spaced out a little more to be easier on the eye. Commerce: This is the website’s ability to perform financial transactions. Krystal Tours’ website is not made to have commercial transactions so its need for “https” or the “lock” symbol is non-existent. The company works though emails for further information as well as for bookings. The hindrance of no transactions being done online is a huge disadvantage for the company, simply because they are missing out on the users who prefer to book online. There are some users who prefer to transact everything online rather than actually walking into a physical location. Users prefer convenience to make their lives easier and this would then...

Words: 955 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Evolution of Language

...THEORIES ON THE ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF LANGUAGE Research Report for WR227 Jeremy Byrd Winter Term, 2013 Table of Contents Introduction 3 The Emergence of Language 3 The Theories of Johann Gottfried Herder 4 Pre-Language 4 Sound and Language 5 Theory of Divine Inspiration 5 Criticism of Herder's Work 6 The Gestural Theory 6 Motor Activity and Language 7 The Mirror Neuron System Theory 7 Theory of Sound Symbolism 8 Synesthesia 8 Discontinuity Theories 9 Summary 9 Works Cited 10 Introduction The origin of human language is a mystery which has baffled scholars and scientists for thousands of years. It can only be speculated how language began and evolved; the lack of direct evidence suggesting that it is perhaps a riddle that cannot be solved (Deacon 7). Yet this has not stopped many various theories from emerging over the years, speculations ranging from wild guesses to educated, scientific deductions. According to prominent linguist Eric Heinz Lenneberg, theories surrounding the origin of language are categorized into two main groups: continuity theories and discontinuity theories (Hill 134). Continuity theories hold that language was formed through a long process of evolution. Discontinuity theories are based on the belief that language is too complex to have evolved out of natural systems and is the result of a significant evolutionary jump which took place relatively abruptly. On the side of continuity......

Words: 3620 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Collaborative Platform

...the best ideas, strategies, products, concepts, advice, trends to follow, etc. On short: anything that stands at the foundation of better choices and combats the dangers of isolating thinking. The business concept proposed targets 2 main core objectives with a longer-range: 1. To offer permanent exit options to smaller and bigger dilemmas 2. To share market intelligence For objective 1: Whoever needs a golden idea / advice / counseling / concept / objective opinion, etc - regarding any kind of problem that can be answered in less than 3 pages: • Launch their request on our platform • Set a challenging stake and a deadline for closing the submissions, project criteria, etc • Gather hundreds and thousands of answers to strengthen and uplift the quality of their choices and decisions. • Award the best one(s). For objective 2: To create a vivid and innovative open negotiation e-market place for innovations and by that to share market intelligence (part of our platform). Key Differentiations and Advantages vs the existent open innovation platforms: 1. We come with a different business concept & position differently than existent players – focusing on decision making process 2. We link people and key people to crowds and not organizations to crowds getting a larger business target, a better flexibility and a larger range of options when it comes to cashing the money. 3. We focus on...

Words: 621 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Happiness and Pesonal Responsibility

...Happiness and Personal Responsibility Patrick Prasch GEN-200 01/30/3012 Richard Guliuzza, MBA Happiness and Personal Responsibility “As human beings we all want to be happy and free from misery… we have learned that the key to happiness is inner peace. The greatest obstacles to inner peace are disturbing emotions such as anger, attachment, fear and suspicion, while love and compassion and a sense of universal responsibility are the sources of peace and happiness.” Dalai Lama Personal Responsibility defined is freedom and happiness. By taking responsibility we are acknowledging that we hold ourselves accountable for our choices, behaviors and decisions. Commitment and integrity are the key behaviors associated with personal responsibility, making the commitment to do what is right and demonstrating integrity, doing the right thing even when no one is watching attributes to our happiness. Personal responsibility also means that we are not only accountable but that we learn from and correct our mistakes. Individual happiness is directly tied to personal responsibility. In order to grow as a person and a student it is important to take personal responsibility because it empowers us and takes control away from others. In a nutshell, personal responsibility is freedom and the freedom to choose and to make our own decisions is essential to happiness. Accepting responsibility also changes our attitudes and we become a more positive and being positive is also......

Words: 1375 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Case Studies and Their Solution

...Change Complexity The nature of change and management of change The core conditions of social entities such as enterprises, industries, national and regional economies, but also families and personal networks, are often characterized by “dynamics”, “turbulence”, “transformation "or “discontinuity”. Change serves as an umbrella term for all these far-reaching, significant and sometimes dramatic transitions. Change as patterned and predictable vs. change as complex and unpredictable Some scholars assume change to be regular and stable with an identifiable cause-effect relationship. Such a view of change is adopted by physical sciences. On other hand Change is thought to be dynamic and complex in nature. It functions as non-linear feedback system with no clearly identifiable and predictable cause and effect relationship (Harigopal, 2001). Change and future events thus can neither be predicted nor be controlled with certainty as it continually evolves as a result of interactions between various factors. Such a view of change is adopted by social sciences Change Complexity Three formal features capture the essence of change: Complexity, Omnipresence, and Prominence Complexity Change goes along with specific features of complexity that differentiate this species of complexity from complexity as a generic feature of management. The specific accumulation of complexity represents a major challenge to both targets and managers of change. The causes of complexity in change......

Words: 1591 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Machine over Art

...more complicated and human-friendly, and after the industrial revolution, machines officially became a big part of civilization. Among all kinds of high-tech machines, things like cameras and recording machines created huge effect on artwork. In my essay, I plan to show that although mechanical reproduction can lead to the loss of originality of the artwork, reproduction can be considered as a trade off for multiplicity of shared experience. Long time after Benjamin’s essay was published, Stan Link’s “The Work of Reproduction in the Mechanical Aging of an Art: Listening to Noise” supports his idea of how reproduction can have impact on the audiences, except paintings or movies, from a new aspect: music pieces. The truth is, just as what Link writes in his article, the recording of a music piece or any other kind of sound materials will certainly create tiny differences during the process no matter how strict the condition might be, and the audience will certainly feel different due to the change of surroundings. For instance, if a person went to Lang Lang’s Spring Dance in the concert instead of listening to the same piece on YouTube, he/she is more likely to be impressed by the beauty of piano. There is some kind of magic the on-scene music has that cannot be replaced by recording pieces. However, this kind of impression does not appear in the YouTube one or any other recording files. This experience agrees to Benjamin’s argument of reproduction of art as well. Based......

Words: 1514 - Pages: 7