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In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By ishmaster
Words 3597
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GNED 1401: Intermediate Composition
Instructor: Sharren Patterson

Sentence Fragments

Identify and correct sentence fragments wherever they occur in the following exercises. Some of these are correct sentences. If the sentence is correct, indicate this by writing a capital "C" beside the sentence.

1. Why she persists in refusing to look for a job.

2. Part-time students assembling to discuss tuition fees.

3. Animals that are abandoned are brought to this shelter in the hope that they will be adopted.

4. In rare cases, cruises beginning in July continue until September.

5. Which I knew about in the first place.

6. What I have always liked about it.

7. What are his chances of recovery?

8. Barring unforeseen complications, somewhere in the neighborhood of six to eight weeks, if he’s careful.

9. Whatever she does, wherever she goes, there are problems.

10. Repairing the roof was a costly and difficult job.

11. Will he answer?

12. Though I’ve never been to Vancouver before.

13. Because he had never seen a case of encephalitis, the diagnosis took some time.

14. As long as you know what you’re doing.

15. Move over!

16. Even though you ought to know better.

17. Money talks.

18. Looking forward to hearing from you soon.

19. Who’s the designated driver?

20. The terrier that growled at the intruder.

Run-on sentences (comma splices and fused sentences)

Correct all the run-on sentences.

1. The Beatles were originally called the Quarrymen, later they changed their name to the Silver Beetles.

2. Most people remember John, Paul, George, and Ringo, only a few people know that Pete Best was the group’s first drummer.

3. Brian Epstein, who at the time worked in a record store, discovered the group in a small Liverpool nightclub called the Cavern, he became their manager.

4. At first, they were popular only in England and in Germany where they had performed when starting out, they became a hit in America in 1964.

5. The Beatles arrived in the U.S.A. in February 1964 they made their television debut on The Ed Sullivan Show.

6. They had five best-selling singles in the top ten in March 1964 this record has been surpassed by few others.

7. Two movies followed in 1964 and 1965, A Hard Day’s Night and Help, these films were well received, consequently, the group met with increasing financial success.

8. About 100,000 people watched them perform at Shea Stadium in New York during their last tour in 1966, however they decided to give up live performances.

9. Many of the songs the group wrote and performed in the late sixties were considered controversial, for example, “Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds” was thought to be a song celebrating the use of LSD.

10. Despite their success, and to their fans’ dismay, the Beatles disbanded in 1970, Paul McCartney sued the others in order to break their contract.

Run-on sentences (comma splices and fused sentences)

Correct the run-on sentences in the following student paragraphs, keeping in mind that not all of the sentences are incorrect. Remember that different methods of correction are possible.

A. For decades, we have sent terminally ill patients to the hospital to die. In hospitals, visiting was restricted, patients were isolated, a strict schedule was maintained these measures were often employed to prolong life, even though everyone knew the patient would die anyway. Discussions about the patient’s coming death were discouraged. Family members were cut off from their loved one, they had no one to help them cope with their grief. There is now a much-needed alternative to our traditional methods of caring for the terminally ill, it is called palliative care.

B. In a palliative care unit, overall care is provided by a multi-disciplinary team, this team includes nursing staff, social workers, pharmacists, dieticians, chaplains, occupational therapists, physiotherapists, speech pathologists, trained volunteers, and physicians. When the patients arrive, they are welcomed by members of the staff they encourage the patients to call them by their first names. To make the patients feel at home, staff members encourage them to bring and use their personal belongings. Visiting is not restricted, family may help with day-to-day care, relatives often stay overnight, especially when death is near, even pets are allowed to visit occasionally.

C. Most patients know they are going to die they become angry and upset when people attempt to hide this reality from them. Staff members in a palliative care unit help patients to cope with the facts, patients are encouraged, but not forced, to talk about their feelings. PCU staff are trained to recognize signs that patients are ready and willing to talk to others, members of the family are also encouraged to lend support. Because patients are made aware of any changes in their condition, the family may help them work through their feelings as death comes closer.

D. Palliative care offers us a far more satisfactory method of caring for the terminally ill than standard hospital treatment, patients and their families receive encouragement and support from the palliative care team. Patients are treated like contributing members of society. This treatment reduces or eliminates their feelings of alienation. Patients remain alert they are free of pain, they die with their families close by. The palliative care concept allows patients to die peacefully and with dignity it, therefore, provides us with a humane method of caring for the terminally ill.

Seven Uses For These Little Demons:

1. LIST: Use a comma to separate each item in a simple list. Oats, peas, beans, and barley Huey, Dewey, and Louie Note: The last item usually has or or and before it; the comma before this conjunction is optional.

a) I had toast coffee orange juice bacon and eggs for breakfast this morning. b) The captain of the team will be Kevin Brian John Lou or Jennifer. c) Spock Kirk Chekov McCoy Scott and Sulu were regulars on Star Trek.

2. IC: Use a comma to separate two “mini-sentences” that belong together in one “super-sentence” ONLY IF A JOINING WORD IS ALSO USED! Each mini-sentence is technically an independent clause – hence the IC.

a) I was too tired to stay awake but I couldn’t fall asleep. b) You don’t have to be a good singer for the show but it helps if you can carry a note. c) Dr. Seuss’ real name was Ted Geisel but not many people knew him by that name.

3. INTRO(ductory): Use a comma to set off introductory material in a sentence which usually isn’t necessary for an understanding of what the sentence is about. Note: The subject and verb of the sentence are usually immediately following the introductory comma.

a) In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. b) Once upon a time a little girl lived in the forest with her grandmother. c) After all the money he spent Brent Davidson expected to win at least one prize.

4. INTERRUPTING/EXTRA: Use a comma to set off extra material inside a sentence that isn’t necessary to understand what the sentence is about but helps clarify a particular detail or point in the sentence. Note: The commas act as “detour signs” out of and then back into the main road of the sentence; unless the extra information is at the end of the sentence, there are always two of these commas.

a) The last president to be threatened with impeachment Bill Clinton resigned amid a storm of controversy and unpopularity. b) The host of the longest-running talk show Bob Loblaw has decided to retire. c) The Democrats who should be enjoying their popularity are already uneasy about the next presidential election.

5. PLACES/DATES/SPEC(ifier): Use a comma to specify a particular place or time or added personal information (sometimes a specifier can appear as an interruption).

a) John F. Kennedy was shot in Dallas Texas on November 22 1963. b) Jesse Durango a student at Mount Royal University decided to get married. c) I was born in Portland Maine not Portland Oregon.

6. NAME/ADD(ressee): Use a comma to indicate someone or something that the speaker is talking to or addressing directly (sometimes an addressee can appear as an interruption).

a) “I don’t care Tom how tired you are.” b) Bill you need to go to the store for more supplies. c) I have to tell you Deb that your hair looks awful.

7. DIALOGUE: Use a comma to set off direct quotations or dialogue spoken by someone else.

a) “John” I warned “this is definitely not a good idea.” b) “You can’t always get what you want” the Stones philosophized to us “but if you try sometimes, you might find that you get what you need.” c) In Nabokov’s famous opening to Lolita, Humbert says “Lolita, light of my life … my sin, my soul.”

For each of the following sentences, place the necessary commas in the required location.

1. “Gary the phone call is for you” Mom called.

2. My grade eight teacher who threw me out of class every other day has finally retired.

3. Snow White liked Dopey Sleepy Happy and Bashful but she didn’t like Grumpy Doc or Sneezy.

4. October 4 1957 was the date on which Sputnik was launched by the Russians.

5. Things aren’t always what they appear to be and people aren’t always friendly even if they seem to be that way.

6. “God may be perfect but he can’t be perfectly happy” the minister said looking around at the congregation.

7. It’s time for you to do your chores Cory so that will mean mowing the lawn washing the car and painting the fence.

8. Mikhail Gorbachev the last Communist Party Secretary of the Soviet Union is now working for the United Nations.


Commas and Apostrophes

For each of the four sentences below, insert the appropriate punctuation marks that are needed. You will only need to use commas (,), apostrophes ('), and quotation marks [“ ”].
The table below will help you think through what the punctuation is for.

1. By the time June 30 2001 comes around most of you people especially those who

make a habit of talking too much in class will be saying Uh-oh. I think Im in


2. Iluv Hawkey top goal scorer for the Calgary Flames is very likely to win the

Conn Smythe Trophy which is awarded to the most valuable player of the National

Hockey League play-offs.

3. I dont know whos going to win the Stanley Cup Peter but Im sure that it wont be

the Calgary Flames Edmonton Oilers Anaheim Mighty Ducks or the Montreal

Canadiens I said to him.

4. Once upon a time there was a beautiful princess named Snow White and she lived

in a house in the forest with seven dwarves: Dopey Grumpy Sleepy Happy George

Todd and Peter.

a comma used to separate items in a list b comma used to separate introductory information c comma used to separate extra information d comma used to indicate a specifier (person, place, or time) e comma used to indicate an addressee f comma used to open or close dialogue g comma used with a conjunction (linking word) to join two independent ideas together in one sentence

Correct all the apostrophe-related errors.

1. I can't get enough of Black Forest cakes, especially when theyre served with melted chocolate.

2. Josef Stalin's biggest mistake was believing Germanys lie about not wanting to expand its territory into the Soviet Union, but Germanys mistake was timing an invasion during Russias winter; five years later, after Hitler's suicide and the defeat of the Nazis, its easy to see whos mistake was worse.

3. This isnt James CD player, because it doesnt have “Tupac” scratched into its cover.

4. Between the winds whistling and the wolves howling, theres no way that Frank's going to get a good night's sleep.

5. The Calgary Stampeders last-minute win against the Hamilton Tiger Cats wasn't the best football game of all time, but it definitely boosted the CFLs status with it’s fans and advertisers.

6. Thirty-two separate scientists study’s of Vitamin C's effectiveness in controlling cancer have concluded that it doesn't do very much at all.

7. “It's not that I don't trust you with my videos,” I told James, “but I cant forget what youve done with my stuff in the past, and I'm worried your going to do the same thing again in the future.”

8. The swift fox, which saw it’s population in Western Canada dwindle to zero in the first year’s of this century, was officially extirpated, which means that a species is no longer found in its original environment and must be repopulated through mans’ intervention.

9. One of mankinds greatest achievement’s was the 1763 invention of the steam engine by James Watt, which led directly to the mechanization of Britains factory’s and the birth of the nation's railways.

10. Johns girlfriend, Kelly, is best friends with Chris sister, Michelle, who's going out with Phil, but isn't going to be going to the Valentine's Day dance because shes getting braces and Kelly told her how much it hurt when she got hers done.

Subject-Verb Agreement
For each of the possible verbs or verb phrases, circle the one that matches the subject of the sentence.

1. Neither Jane, Terry, the Bobbsey twins nor I is / are / am ready to talk yet.

2. Each one of the boys in the boat was / were wearing a life jacket.

3. Everyone who smiled in the photograph wants / want a reprint of the picture.

4. Rasputin, the so-called “mad monk” of Russia, who had a great deal of influence over Nicholas and Alexandra, was / were partly responsible for the Social Democrat Revolution of February, 1917.

5. Alexander Kerensky, with the support of the majority members of the Duma, was / were able to force the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II.

6. Kerensky and the Duma, without the support of the army, was / were not able to maintain control of Russia after 1917.

7. The army was / were not happy because they had not been paid for months, a problem which is being repeated in Russia today.

8. The situation in Russia, which is complicated by incompetence, corruption, murder, and strikes, is / are not going to improve for a while unless a strong leader, with the help of a committed Duma, is / are able to unite the people.

9. The former tsar, Nicholas Romanov, together with his wife, four daughters, son, family doctor, and two other servants, was / were shot in Ekaterinburg in the early hours of the morning of July 17, 1918.

10. Either Ukraine, Belarus, the Baltic states, or Moldava is / are going to eventually join the European Economic Community.

11. Every one of the independent nations that used to form the Soviet Union is / are having some problems dealing with independence.

12. The strength of the Soviet Union’s leaders was / were partly maintained by the efficient use of a brutal secret police.

13. The history of the Russian people is / are filled with many examples of ruthless leaders and terrible oppression.

14. The Solidarity movement, started in Gdansk, Poland, by Lech Walesa and his co-workers, deserve / deserves to be remembered as one of the contributors to the downfall of communism in Eastern Europe.

15. Everyone who tried to run for freedom across the Berlin Wall was / were shot by the Volkspolizei – the People’s Police – which was / were staffed almost completely by non-Germans. 16. Sixty-five members of the choir, which is / are still scheduled to perform at the church tonight, is / are unhappy with the choir leader’s choice of music for the program.

17. Pink Floyd, when it was / they were made up of Roger Waters, David Gilmour, Nick Mason, and Richard Wright, was / were the best of the British concept bands.

18. Everyone under the age of thirteen is / are expected to meet in the parking lot.

19. Neither John, the Watson family, nor I is / are / am going to stand for this nonsense.

20. Someone is going to pay dearly for what they have / she has done to the cheesecake.

21. One of the main reasons that I have decided to execute you is / are the terrible way you have treated the peasants in Russia.

22. Either Sean or those girls over there is / are going to have to clean up this mess.

23. I can’t tell if everyone is / are ready to board the bus, but I do know that the team is / are going to be late for the game.

24. The conclusions of a million dollar scientific study into the effectiveness of echinacea has / have resulted in a new brand of vitamin supplements.

25. It’s obvious that Jennifer, together with her friends, is / are going to be successful in high school.

Subject-Verb Agreement
Find and correct the subject-verb agreement errors. Be aware that some of the sentences may already be correct.

1. Winston Churchill, one of England’s greatest statesmen and leaders, were also a notorious wit; he was perfectly capable of flattening (not flattering) anyone who were foolish enough to try to engage him in a battle of wits.

2. Once, when he, together with some of the leading political figures of the time, were at a dinner party at the Astors’, he proceeded to indulge too much in the brandy and got himself a little too drunk. Lady Astor tried to reprimand him: “Winston,” she said, “you’re drunk!” “Yes,” Churchill shot back, “and you’re ugly, but tomorrow I will be sober.”

3. On another occasion, when the House of Commons were in full session, and the members were just entering the gallery for a debate on the state of the military, as England, in alliance with some of the weak European states, were preparing to meet the challenge of a newly armed Germany, Churchill again demonstrated his ready wit against the onslaught of the opposition.

4. As he was leaving a hotel, he approached someone in a uniform whom he thought was a doorman. He asked the man to get him a taxi. “I’ll have you know that I am an admiral in His Majesty’s Navy,” the man declared. “Fine,” replied Churchill. “Then you can get me a battleship.”

5. Every single one of the people who tried to engage Churchill in repartée were doomed to failure. The strange thing is that nobody seemed to mind if they were cut down; it became a badge of honor to have been the target of one of Churchill’s jabs.

6. For example, one of the many members of the Opposition who delighted in trying to bait the formidable Prime Minister were given a stinging slap. “That individual,” Churchill frowned, “gives pederasty a bad name.” For months afterward, several of the politicians whom Churchill may have been referring to was busy fighting among themselves to determine which of them were Churchill’s intended target.

Pronoun Agreement

Choose the correct pronouns in the following sentences. Note that the verbs may also need adjustment.

1. Everyone who rides in a car should use (his or her/their) air bag or (his or her/their) seat belt to ensure safety.

2. Each of the sisters knows how to operate the jackhammer (herself/themselves).

3. No one with any sense wants to see (herself or himself/themselves) gain forty pounds.

4. Unless you stop cracking your knuckles, no one will get (his or her/their) necessary hours of sleep.

5. None of the awards shows on television is over entertaining in (itself/themselves); though such programs celebrate excellence, (it/they) bore me to tears.

6. All TV evangelists swear that (his or her/their) programs are dedicated to saving souls rather than to making money.

7. Everyone must ask (himself/herself/themselves) if (he/she/they) really wants to buy an ant farm or if (he/she/they) is just succumbing to peer pressure.

8. The child who reads Winnie the Pooh will learn the importance of playing by (himself/itself/themselves).

9. Business and economics were valuable even though (it/they) demanded a great deal of work from students deficient in mathematics.

10. Everyone who goes scuba diving should make sure (their/his or her) oxygen tank is securely fastened and (their/his or her) life insurance is paid up.

11. If anyone has information concerning the robbery, they should contact the police.

12. The front runner knew every member of the community and was counting on their vote to win the election.

13. Do you think these respected citizens will admit that he or she saw a UFO after the New Year’s party?

14. Every one of the cheerleaders were excited to be trying out for the squad.

15. People living in Canada secretly wishes they could move to California during the winter months.

16. The survey reported that each of the animals in the taste test preferred their usual brand of cat food to Brand X.

17. No one watching that soap opera really believes that their favorite character will not recover from amnesia.

18. The brothers always insists on showing everyone their tattoos.

19. Anybody who eats lunch regularly in the school cafeteria will find that their health suffers from a lack of the four basic food groups.

20. One of the boys had a mosquito bite on their elbow.

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...instructions with enough detail so that an outsider who does not have a copy of the lab instructions knows what you did. However, this does not mean writing every little step like “dip the pH test strip in the water, then shake the test strips,” these steps can be simplified to read “we used pH test strips to measure water pH”, etc. Additionally, this section should be written in the past tense and in your own words and not copied and pasted from the lab manual. Results The results section should include all tables used in your experiments. All values within the tables or graphs should be in numerical form and contain units. For instance, if measuring the amount of chloride in water you should report as 2 mg/L or 0 mg/L, not as two or none. The results section should also highlight the important results in paragraph form, referring to the appropriate tables when mentioned. This section should only state the results as no personal opinions should be included. A description of what the results really mean should be saved for the discussion. For example, you may report, 0mg/L of chlorine were found in the water, but should avoid personal opinions and interpretations of the data (e.g., “No chlorine was found in the water showing it is cleaner than the others samples”). Discussion The discussion section should interpret your data and provide conclusions. Start by discussing if each hypothesis was confirmed or denied and how you know this. The discussion......

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...the criteria for acknowledging a placebo effect taken for this present paper are as follows: (1) A placebo had to be given. (2) The event had to be an effect of the placebo treatment, i.e., the event would not have happened without placebo administration. (3) The event had to be relevant for the disease or symptom, i.e., it had to be a therapeutic event. Besides these three criteria there were no other prede- G. S. Kienle and H. Kiene 1312 fined criteria for the analysis. Basic medical knowledge and common sense were the only scientific tools. RESULT For 14 out of the 15 trial publications [2–16] detailed analysis was possible. (One publication [4] did not give account of the study design.) The overall result was that for none of these trials was there any reason to assume the existence of the slightest placebo effect. These studies were placebocontrolled drug trials. Although they were not carried out in order to investigate placebo effects, Beecher retrospectively attributed the improvements in the placebo groups to effects of the placebo administration. However, on the basis of the published data, in all of these trials the reported outcome in the placebo groups can be fully, plausibly, and easily explained without presuming any therapeutic placebo effect. The published data of these trials make it quite obvious that there were a variety of reasons for the reported results, such as spontaneous improvements, additional treatments, methodological......

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...distant galaxies had the features in their spectral lines shifted to lower frequencies in a linear manner: that is, more distant galaxies exhibit greater redshifts. The only known mechanism for generating a spectral shift is the Doppler effect, which means that distant galaxies are receding from us. Another dominant idea connects the dots between the big bang theory and the universe we find today called inflation. The notion that during the first roughly 10 to the minus 34 s the universe underwent exponential expansion, doubling in size at least 90 times. The big bang theory leaves several major questions unanswered. One is the original cause of the big bang itself. Several answers have been proposed to address this fundamental question, but none has been proven—and even adequately testing them has proven to be a challenge. The big bang theory has various problems or weaknesses. The first weakness is that of the horizon. The horizon problem correlates with the cosmic microwave background issue. The microwave “background” makes more sense as the limiting temperature of space heated by starlight than as the remnant of a fireball. The expression “the temperature of space” is the title of chapter 13 of Sir Arthur Eddington’s famous 1926 work. He calculated the minimum temperature which any body in space would cool to, given that it is immersed in the radiation of distant starlight. With no adjustable parameters, he obtained 3°K (later refined to 2.8°K [[5]]), essentially......

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...None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these......

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...clinical judgment were first discussed extensively between raters and operational descriptors anchoring rating points were developed. Using selected transcripts from 10% of the sample, we computed interrater reliability using Kendall’s tau b statistic for ordinal-level items and the kappa statistic for nominal-type coding items. Items below acceptable statistical levels of agreement were reviewed and operational scale points further refined. Where acceptable agreement could not be achieved after this second round, items were dropped. Outcome was assessed using a global measure and three specific measures (Lewis & Wallerstein, 1987). Brief Literature Review Although research on children in divorced families has grown from almost none when this study started to a full library, longitudinal studies that follow the course of divorce in children to adulthood are few. We briefly note findings from studies by Amato, Cherlin, and Hetherington. All are based on large-scale sample populations in the United States or the United Kingdom. They use standardized rating scales and symptom checklists, administered either over the phone or in person to parents, teachers, and, as the child grew up, the adult child, for their findings about psychological and social outcomes. Despite differences in particulars, these and other long-term studies using these methods largely agree that there were significant but relatively small differences between adults from divorced families......

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...overwhelm the sense of what people expect government to do? I do worry about things like the war in Syria and what that means. You wouldn't have predicted that that country in particular would fall into horrific civil war where the suffering is just unbelievable, and it is not obvious to anybody what can be done to stop it. It raises questions for somebody who thinks they can fix Africa overnight. I understand how every healthy child, every new road, puts a country on a better path, but instability and war will arise from time to time, and I'm not an expert on how you get out of those things. I wish there was an invention or advance to fix that. So there'll be some really bad things that'll happen in the next 50 or 100 years, but hopefully none of them on the scale of, say, a million people that you didn't expect to die from a pandemic, or nuclear or bioterrorism. What do you say to people who argue that America's best days are behind us? That's almost laughable. The only definition by which America's best days are behind it is on a purely relative basis. That is, in 1946, when we made up about six percent of humanity, but we dominated everything. But America's way better today than it's ever been. Say you're a woman in America, would you go back 50 years? Say you're gay in America, would you go back 50 years? Say you're sick in America, do you want to go back 50 years? I mean, who are we kidding? Does bad politics kill innovation? Immigration reform, for example, is a......

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