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Elemental Geosystems, 5e (Christopherson)
Chapter 1 Foundations of Geography

1)
Geography is described as A) an Earth science. B) a human science. C) a physical science. D) a spatial science. Answer:
D

2)
The word spatial refers to A) the nature and character of physical space. B) items that relate specifically to society. C) things that are unique and special. D) eras of time. Answer:
A

3)
A principal methodology governing geographic inquiry A) is behavioral analysis. B) involves spatial analysis. C) uses chronological organization. D) is field work. Answer:
B

4)
Which of the following best describes the current emphasis in the field of physical geography? A) understanding soil development B) modeling economic interrelationships among countries C) studying weather D) understanding how Earth's systems interact to produce natural phenomena Answer:
D

5)
Which of the following most accurately characterizes the goal of geography? A) the production of maps B) memorization of the names of places on world and regional maps C) memorization of the imports and exports of a country D) understanding why a place has the characteristics that it does Answer:
D

6)
Which of the following terms characterizes the discipline of geography? A) eclectic B) holistic C) unscientific D)
A, B, and C E)
A and B only Answer:
E

7)
Which of the following compose the fundamental duality in the field of geography? A) physical versus human/cultural B) physical versus economic C) economic versus political D) political versus environmental Answer:
A

8)
Relative to the fundamental themes of geography proposed by the Association of American Geographers, communication and diffusion refer to A) location. B) place. C) human-Earth relationships. D) movement. E) regions. Answer:
D

9)
Relative to the fundamental themes of geography proposed by the Association of American Geographers, latitude and longitude refer to A) location. B) place. C) human-Earth relationships. D) movement. E) regions. Answer:
A

10)
Relative to the fundamental themes of geography proposed by the Association of American Geographers, resource exploitation and hazard perception refer to A) location. B) place. C) human-Earth relationships. D) movement. E) regions. Answer:
C

11)
Relative to the fundamental themes of geography, the Taj Mahal in India and Ayers Rock in Australia are best described within which of the five themes? A) location B) place C) human-Earth relationships D) movement E) regions Answer:
B

12)
Relative to the fundamental themes of geography, your home address is best described within which of the five themes? A) location B) place C) human-Earth relationships D) movement E) regions Answer:
A

13)
The wind-blown soot, hydrocarbons, and sulfur compounds from the oil-well fires that burned in Kuwait during 1991 fall within which of the five themes? A) location B) place C) human-Earth relationships D) movement E) regions Answer:
C

14)
The inductive method of reasoning used by Earth scientists to discern patterns in nature involves reasoning from A) the complex to the simple. B) the simple to the complex. C) the specific to the general. D) the general to the specific. Answer:
C

15)
Which of the following is the most strongly supported by experimental and observational evidence? A) speculation B) hypothesis C) educated guess D) theory Answer:
D

16)
The scientific method is described by which of the following? A) the application of common sense B) a relation to procedures developed by Sir Isaac Newton C) the development of hypotheses for testing and prediction D)
All of these are correct. E)
None of these is correct. Answer:
D

17)
Which of the following is true of scientific theories? A)
They are based on several hypotheses. B)
They are broad in scope because they unify several known facts about the world. C)
They are based on natural laws (such as those pertaining to gravity, relativity, atomic theory, etc.). D) all of the above E)
A and B only Answer:
D

18)
Which of the following is an example of a system? A) a leaf B) a river drainage basin C) a midlatitude cyclonic storm D)
All of these are examples of systems. E)
None of these are examples of systems. Answer:
D

19)
A non-rechargeable battery can best be described as a/an ________ energy system and a/an ________ material system. A) closed; closed B) closed; open C) open; open D) open; closed Answer:
D

20)
Which of the following is incorrect? A)
Earth represents a vast integrated system. B)
Earth represents an open system in terms of energy. C)
Earth represents a closed system in terms of matter. D)
New resources and matter are being added to Earth's systems all the time. Answer:
D

21)
What type of feedback maintains stability in a system, i.e., what type of feedback keeps a system functioning properly? A) positive B) negative C) neutral Answer:
B

22)
If a system responds to a change in input by moving further away from its equilibrium condition, what type of feedback has occurred? A) positive B) negative C) neutral D)
Not enough information is given to indicate what type of feedback has occurred. Answer:
A

23)
Which of the following is correctly matched? A) equilibrium  balance of inputs and outputs B) steady state equilibrium  small fluctuations about an average condition C) dynamic equilibrium  small fluctuations about an average condition that changes gradually over time D)
All of these are correctly matched. Answer:
D

24)
Which of the following best describes the condition of steady-state equilibrium? A)
System inputs always exactly balance outputs so the system never changes. B)
System inputs and outputs fluctuate around a stable average so the system does not move far from its average condition. C)
System inputs produce large, random fluctuations in output, forcing the system into a new state of equilibrium. D)
Systems slowly adjust to long-term changes in input and output. Answer:
B

25)
If increased levels of carbon dioxide lead to further increases in temperature by promoting the release of even more carbon dioxide from the oceans, this means that ________ feedback has occurred and that the planet is ________. A) positive; in equilibrium B) positive; out of equilibrium C) negative; in equilibrium D) negative; out of equilibrium Answer:
B

26)
The carbon dioxide that is being added to the atmosphere by the burning of fossil fuels is an example of an ________ variable to the atmosphere and an ________ variable from the lithosphere. A) input; input B) input; output C) output; output D) output; input Answer:
B

27)
The increase in meltponds in Arctic regions is an example of A) positive feedback, because the melt ponds absorb more solar energy than the ice did. B) positive feedback, as the melt ice freezes it increases the area of ice. C) negative feedback, because the ponds reflect more sunlight than ice and therefore absorb less energy. D) negative feedback, as the ice melts the water freezes, increasing the amount of ice. Answer:
A

28)
Which of the following is true of models? A)
They are abstract representations of the world. B)
They are idealized representations of the world. C)
They are simplified representations of the world. D)
They are abstract and idealized, but not simplified representations of the world. E)
All of the above are true. Answer:
E

29)
The three inorganic Earth realms are the A) hydrosphere, lithosphere, and atmosphere. B) thermosphere, lithosphere, heterosphere. C) atmosphere, geoid, homosphere. D) stratosphere, magnetosphere, and troposphere. Answer:
A

30)
Living systems are considered A) biotic. B) inorganic. C) part of the lithosphere. D) abiotic. Answer:
A

31)
Which of the following is true of the biosphere? A)
Life processes generally are not shaped by the abiotic spheres. B)
Life processes generally are shaped by the abiotic spheres. C)
It is unique and therefore segregated from the other spheres. D)
It only occurs in the hydrosphere. Answer:
B

32)
The realization that the earth was a sphere A) did not occur in Europe until the first voyages of Columbus. B) had to wait until the modern era (1800s). C) was first made by Pythagoras, 580-500 BC. D) was made by Isaac Newton. Answer:
C

33)
A value for Earth's circumference was first calculated by A)
Columbus.
B)
Pythagoras.
C) modern satellite measurements. D) a librarian at Alexandria named Eratosthenes. Answer:
D

34)
Which of the following statements about Earth is correct? A)
It is elongated. B)
The earth is the second largest planet in the solar system. C)
The equatorial circumference is 57 km (42 mi.) greater than the polar circumference. D)
The earth is perfectly spherical. Answer:
C

35)
The oblateness of the earth occurs at the A) poles. B) equator. C) subtropics. D) prime meridian. Answer:
A

36)
The earth's circumference is greatest when measured around the A) poles. B) equator. C) subtropics. D) prime meridian. Answer:
B

37)
The science that specifically attempts to determine Earth's shape and size by surveys and mathematical means is called A) geography. B) geology. C) cartography. D) astronomy. E) geodesy. Answer:
E

38)
The individual who first determined the circumference of the earth did so using all but which of the following? A) geometry B) a water well C) the shadow of an obelisk D) camels E)
All of these were used. Answer:
E

39)
Which of the following is easily determined using the position of the Sun or stars? A) longitude B) latitude C) altitude Answer:
B

40)
An angular distance measured north or south of the equator from the center of Earth is termed A) longitude. B) latitude. C) zenith. D)
Greenwich distance. Answer:
B

41)
If an observer determines that the North Star (Polaris) is located 30° above the horizon, then the observer is located at ________. A)
70 degrees north latitude B)
60 degrees north latitude C)
30 degrees north latitude D)
60 degrees north longitude E)
30 degrees north longitude Answer:
B

42)
An angular distance measured east or west of a prime meridian from the center of Earth is termed A) longitude. B) latitude. C) zenith. D)
Greenwich distance. Answer:
A

43)
How far north you live from the equator is measured as your ________, whereas an imaginary line marking all those places at that same distance north of the equator is called a ________. A) longitude; meridian B) meridian; longitude C) latitude; parallel D) parallel; latitude E) location; place Answer:
C

44)
The basis for defining the length of a day is the fact that A)
Earth rotates east to west. B)
Earth moves through 365.25 days a year in its orbit about the Sun. C)
Earth rotates on its axis in 24 hours, i.e., it rotates 15 degrees of longitude per hour. D)
Earth does not rotate; rather, it revolves. Answer:
C

45)
The meridian opposite of Earth's prime meridian (0 degrees longitude) is called A)
Coordinated Universal Time. B)
Greenwich Mean Time. C) the equator. D) the International Date Line. Answer:
D

46)
Latitude is A) the angular distance measured north or south of the equator. B) the angular distance measured east or west of a prime meridian. C) the basis for establishing meridians. D) portrayed on a globe as lines that cross the equator at right angles. Answer:
A

47)
The most extreme northern and southern parallels to experience perpendicular rays of the Sun at local noon are located at A) the equator. B)
23.5 degrees north and south. C)
45 degrees north and south. D)
66.5 degrees north and south. Answer:
B

48)
Areas located above ________ latitude experience 24 hours of daylight for six months of the year and 24 hours of night for six months of the year. A)
10 degrees B)
23.5 degrees C)
66.5 degrees D)
80 degrees Answer:
C

49)
Longitude is A) an angular distance measured north or south of the equator. B) an angular distance measured east or west of a prime meridian. C) the basis for establishing parallels. D) determined by Sun altitude above the horizon. Answer:
B

50)
If you were standing at 20 degrees north latitude, you would be within which latitudinal geographic zone? A) tropical B) midlatitude C) equatorial D) subarctic E) subtropical Answer:
A

51)
A line connecting all points along the same longitudinal angle is called a A) meridian. B) parallel. C) prime latitudinal angle. D) great circle. Answer:
A

52)
(place your city here) approximate location is best described as A) (place your latitude and longitude here as presented in lecture) B)
105 degrees north latitude by 41 degrees west longitude. C) north and east of Greenwich, London, England. D) south and east of Greenwich, London, England. Answer:
A

53)
Longitude is conveniently determined at sea using A) chronometers. B) pendulum clocksas in olden days. C) magnetic compasses. D) sextants and Sun angles. Answer:
A

54)
Which of the following is not true of meridians? A)
They cross parallels at right angles. B)
They are lines which run in an east-west direction. C)
All meridians are the same length. D)
They are used to measure east-west angular distances. Answer:
B

55)
The letters AM stand for A) after midnight. B) after morning. C) ante majolica. D) ante meridiem. E) after meridian. Answer:
D

56)
The letters PM stand for A) prior majolica. B) previous morning. C) post meridiem. D) possible meridian. Answer:
C

57)
The letters AM and PM refer to the time at which A) the Sun's rays first appear above the eastern horizon at dawn. B) the Sun's rays first disappear below the western horizon at dusk. C) the Sun is directly overhead at noon. D) the Sun crosses the equator moving north on the first day of Spring. Answer:
C

58)
Which of the following is true of the length (as measured in kilometers) of a degree of latitude? A)
It is constant at all latitudes. B)
It is longer near the equator than near the poles. C)
It is shorter near the equator than near the poles. D)
It is shorter near the prime meridian than near the international dateline. Answer:
A

59)
If City A is located west of City B, the time at City A is ________ than that at City B because the earth rotates from ________ when viewed from above the North Pole. A) earlier; west to east (i.e., counterclockwise.) B) earlier; east to west (i.e., clockwise.) C) later; west to east (i.e., counterclockwise.) D) later; east to west (i.e., clockwise.) Answer:
A

60)
If a clock on a ship indicates that it is 2:00 PM in its home port, while another clock on the ship indicates that it is 12:00 noon at the ship's present location, what is the difference in longitude between the ship's position and its home port? A)
The ship is 2 degrees east of its home port. B)
The ship is 2 degrees west of its home port. C)
The ship is 30 degrees east of its home port. D)
The ship is 30 degrees west of its home port. E)
The ship is 45 degrees west of its home port. Answer:
D

61)
If you began a trip at 60 degrees west, 20 degrees north and traveled 120 degrees farther west and 50 degrees south, your new position would be A) the International Dateline at 70 degrees north latitude. B) the International Dateline at 30 degrees south latitude. C) the Greenwich meridian at 70 degrees north latitude. D) the Greenwich meridian at 30 degrees south latitude. E)
30 degrees north, 120 degrees west. Answer:
B

62)
If it is 10:00 PM on July 3rd at 30 degrees west, what date and time is it at 15 degrees east? A)
July 3rd; 11:00 PM B)
July 3rd; 9:00 PM C)
July 3rd; 6:00 PM D)
July 4th; 1:00 AM E)
July 4th; 2:00 AM Answer:
D

63)
Standard time zones A) have yet to be generally established. B) are 15 degrees wide because Earth rotates through that distance in one hour. C) are only used in the developed countries. D) are spaced at 5 degree intervals of longitude in North America. Answer:
B

64)
If it is 10:00 AM in Miami, Florida (Eastern time zone), what time is it in Los Angeles, California located 3 time zones to the west in the Pacific Time zone? A)
7:00 AM B)
8:00 AM C)
1:00 PM D)
2:00 PM Answer:
A

65)
Which of the following is true of the prime meridian just prior to the year 1884? A)
Most countries were already using the Greenwich meridian for their land maps. B)
All countries were already using the Greenwich meridian for their marine maps. C)
The United States used a combination of the Washington meridian for land maps and the Greenwich meridian for marine maps. D)
There was no such thing as a prime meridian before 1884. Answer:
C

66)
UTC refers to A) the International Date Line. B)
Universal Time Conference. C)
Coordinated Universal Time. D) a system of local time using phases of the Moon. Answer:
C

67)
Time is now precisely measured with primary standard clocks that are based on A) very precise pendulum motion. B) the pulsed vibrations of quartz crystals. C) the vibration of cesium atoms. D) the pulse rate of pulsar stars. Answer:
C

68)
The practice of setting time ahead or behind during the year, out of coordination with the Sun, is termed A)
Coordinated Universal Time. B)
Daylight Saving Time. C)
Standard Time. D)
Greenwich Mean Time. Answer:
B

69)
The earliest known maps date to ________ and were made by ________. A)
45,000 BC; Neanderthals B)
2,300 BC; the Babylonians C)
500 BC; the Greeks D)
700 AD; the Catholic Church E)
1100 AD; Mongol warriors Answer:
B

70)
The part of geography that embodies map making is known as A) theodesy. B) geodesy. C) cartography. D) calligraphy. Answer:
C

71)
A great circle is A) any parallel of latitude. B) the shortest distance between two places on the surface of the earth. C) a circle of circumference whose center coincides with the center of Earth. D) a correct magnetic compass direction on a flat map. Answer:
C

72)
Earth's equator is an example of A) a small circle. B) a great circle. C) a prime meridian. D) a line of equal longitude. Answer:
B

73)
A map scale of 1:24,000 means that A) one inch on the map equals 24,000 inches on the ground. B) one centimeter on the map equals 24,000 centimeters on the ground. C) one foot on the map equals 24,000 feet on the earth. D) all of the above E) none of the above Answer:
D

74)
Any orderly system of parallels and meridians drawn on a flat surface is called a A) diagram. B) cone. C) map projection. D) globe. Answer:
C

75)
A scale given as "one centimeter to one kilometer" is an example of a A) representative fraction. B) graphic scale. C) written scale. D)
All of these are correct. Answer:
C

76)
Which of the following is an example of an intermediate map scale? A)
1:3,168,000
B)
1:63,360
C)
1 cm = 0.25 km (1 in. = 2000 ft) D)
1:125,000
Answer:
D

77)
Which type of map scale would be appropriate to use if the map were to be enlarged by Xeroxing? A) written B) graphic C) representative fraction Answer:
B

78)
The larger the scale of a map, the ________ the area covered by the map and the ________ detail it provides. A) larger; more B) larger; less C) smaller; more D) smaller; less Answer:
C

79)
Objects appear ________ on large scale maps. A) large B) small C)
It is impossible to compare the relative size of the same features on maps of different scales. Answer:
A

80)
Which of the following describes the property of equal area on a map? A) equivalence B) conformality C) proximity D) equidistance Answer:
A

81)
Which of the following describes the property of true shape on a map? A) equivalence B) conformality C) proximity D) equidistance Answer:
B

82)
Which of the following possesses all the earth properties of area, shape, direction, proximity, and distance, correctly? A)
Mercator projection B)
Alber's equal-area conic projection C)
Robinson projection D) a world globe Answer:
D

83)
Of the principal map projection classes, which cannot be generated using a physical-perspective approach, i.e., an approach based on the projection of the shadow of a wire-skeleton globe onto a geometric surface? A) cylindrical B) oval C) conic D) planar Answer:
B

84)
On which one of the following projections do great circle routes appear as straight lines? A)
Mercator projection B)
Goode's homolosine projection C) any conic projection D) a gnomonic projection Answer:
D

85)
On the Mercator projection, areas at high latitudes appear ________. A) larger than areas of the same size located nearer to the equator B) smaller than areas of the same size located nearer to the equator C) the same size as areas of the same size located nearer to the equator Answer:
A

86)
In plotting true magnetic compass readings (i.e., rhumb lines) between two points, which map projection is generally used? A)
Robinson projection B)
Mercator projection C)
Goode's homolosine projection D) any conic projection Answer:
B

87)
The change in the proportional size of features at high latitudes on a Mercator map occurs because A) meridians are stretched apart at high latitudes. B) there are no tangent lines anywhere on the map. C) shearing is used to create the map. D) a conic projection is used to create the map. Answer:
A

88)
If you were preparing a map showing the distribution of world climates, which type of map projection would you want to use to allow accurate comparison of areas and regions? A) equal area B) a gnomonic projection C) true shape D) a Mercator projection Answer:
A

89)
Which of the following is a cylindrical map projection? A)
Robinson projection B)
Mercator projection C)
Goode's homolosine projection D) sinusoidal equal-area projection Answer:
B

90)
Which of the following is not a class of map projection? A) cylindrical B) planar C) conical D) geometrical Answer:
D

91)
An isoline denoting all points at the same elevation is called A) an isobar. B) an isotherm. C) an isohyet. D) a contour line. Answer:
D

92)
Global Positioning System (GPS) units A) recently found the correct height of Mount Everest to be 8850 m (29,035 feet.) B) show your location accurate to 100 m. C) are used in Precision Agriculture. D) are used by surveyors and the military. E) are used for all of these. Answer:
E

93)
Which of the following is the most popular and widely used map prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey? A) a topographic map B) a Robinson projection C) a resources map D) portolan chart Answer:
A

94)
Remote sensing is A) a subjective determination of temperature. B) the monitoring of a distant object without physical contact. C) an earthbound technique not used in modern satellites. D) based on the principle that surfaces must be physically handled and directly measured for study. Answer:
B

95)
The use of aerial photographs to improve the accuracy of surface maps is called A) the electromagnetic spectrum. B) photogrammetry. C)
GIS.
D) calligraphy. Answer:
B

96)
Satellite images are based on A) standard photographic film which is recovered after the satellite is returned to the earth. B) digital data that is stored electronically and then transmitted to Earth by radio waves. C) holographic images created using laser-generated interference patterns. D) all of the above Answer:
B

97)
A satellite imaging system that beams electromagnetic energy at the surface and then records the energy that is reflected is classified as a/an ________ system. A) active B) passive C) photographic D) holographic Answer:
A

98)
Which of the following is an example of an active remote sensing device? A) film B) infrared sensor C) video camera D) radar Answer:
D

99)
Which of the following is a capability of a geographic information system (GIS)? A) data storage B) data manipulation and analysis C) map production with overlays of different information layers D)
GIS systems can do all of the above. E) data storage, manipulation, and analysis only Answer:
D

100)
Which of the following is a capability of a geographic information system (GIS)? A) data storage B) data manipulation and analysis C) map production with overlays of different information layers D) all of the above E)
A and B only. Answer:
D

101)
GIS is being used to A) monitor flood hazard areas. B) plan urban development. C) analyze crime trends. D) help fight wildfires. E)
All of these are uses of GIS. Answer:
E

102)
Which of the following is an advantage of a geographic information system? A) production of specialized maps suited to the needs of specific users B) rapid production of maps based on continuously updated information C) analysis of spatial information D) creation of data overlays showing the spatial relationships between two or more variables E)
All of these are advantages. Answer:
E

103)
Geography is a discipline defined by a specific body of content and subject matter rather than by an approach. Answer:
True
[pic]
False

104)
The essential approach in geographic studies is spatial analysis. Answer:
[pic]
True
False

105)
Areas that display a degree of unity are called regions. Answer:
[pic]
True
False

106)
Systems methodologies are not applicable to geographic analysis. Answer:
True
[pic]
False

107)
Photosynthesis in a plant leaf is an example of an open-system operation. Answer:
[pic]
True
False

108)
Positive feedback tends to amplify or encourage response in system operations. Answer:
[pic]
True
False

109)
Negative feedback tends to lead a system to self-regulation. Answer:
[pic]
True
False

110)
A model is essentially a simplification of natural systems. Answer:
[pic]
True
False

111)
Longitude measures distances east or west of a prime meridian on Earth's surface. Answer:
[pic]
True
False

112)
Latitude is the angular distance measured north or south of the equator from the center of Earth and it describes a parallel line on the surface. Answer:
[pic]
True
False

113)
Longitude is the name of an angle, and "meridian" is the name of an imaginary line on Earth's surface. Answer:
[pic]
True
False

114)
Latitude is easily determined using celestial objects whereas longitude is not easily calculated in such a manner and requires time-keeping devices. Answer:
[pic]
True
False

115)
Coordinated Universal Time is the present name for world standard time. Answer:
[pic]
True
False

116)
The prime meridian and the 180th meridian are opposite halves of the same great circle. Answer:
[pic]
True
False

117)
All parallels are 360 degrees in length. Answer:
[pic]
True
False

118)
The day officially changes on Earth at the prime meridian. Answer:
True
[pic]
False

119)
If it is July 3rd in Tokyo (139 degrees E), it is July 4th in Los Angeles (118 degrees W). Answer:
True
[pic]
False

120)
Geographers consider maps to be "tools." Answer:
[pic]
True
False

121)
A map scale of 1:24,000 is considered a small scale as compared to a scale of 1:20,900,000, which is considered a large scale. Answer:
True
[pic]
False

122)
A written scale appears on maps as a bar graph. Answer:
True
[pic]
False

123)
A twelve-inch diameter globe has a smaller scale than a 33-inch globe. Answer:
[pic]
True
False

124)
The globe is the only map that accurately portrays all spatial relationships characteristic of Earth's surface. Answer:
[pic]
True
False

125)
Cylindrical map projections, such as the Mercator, have a rectangular grid, i.e., parallels and meridians cross at right angles. Answer:
[pic]
True
False

126)
In order for shape to be preserved on a map, the parallels and meridians must intersect at right angles. Answer:
[pic]
True
False

127)
A gnomonic light source is located at the surface of a globe. Answer:
True
[pic]
False

128)
Maps that are intended to show spatial distributions should be based on projections that minimize area distortion, rather than shape distortion. Answer:
[pic]
True
False

129)
A circular surface area, when drawn on a map designed to preserve area, might appear as an oval. Answer:
[pic]
True
False

130)
A Landsat or weather satellite image is an example of passive remote sensing. Answer:
[pic]
True
False

131)
Pure science frequently involves the making of value judgments about the moral or political correctness of a fact, idea, or theory. Answer:
True
[pic]
False

132)
Because scientific ideas are tested, they can be corrected when they are wrong. Answer:
[pic]
True
False

133)
Scientific theories are capable of generating testable predictions. Answer:
[pic]
True
False

134)
List the five principal themes of modern geographic education. Answer: location; place; region; human-Earth relationship; movement

135)
A ________ is any ordered, interrelated set of objects and attributes as distinct from their surrounding environment. A ________ represents an idealized part of the real world greatly simplified. Answer: system; model

136)
Earth's nonliving systems are called ________ and include the ________, ________, and ________. Earth's living system is called the ________, and is also sometimes referred to as the ________. Answer: abiotic; atmosphere; hydrosphere; lithosphere; biosphere; ecosphere

137)
________ is an entity that assumes a physical shape and occupies space, whereas ________ is a capacity to do work. Answer:
Matter; energy

138)
A ________ is any circle of Earth's circumference whose center coincides with the center of Earth. All other circles on Earth constitute ________. Answer: great circle; small circles

139)
The four classes of map projections are called: ________, ________, ________, ________. Answer: planar; cylindrical; conic; oval

140)
At least three methods of expressing scale on maps are: ________, ________, ________. Answer: written; graphic; representative fraction

141)
Geography is a ________ science, and the part of geography that involves map making is ________. Answer: spatial; cartography

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...And Then There Were None Agatha Christie ← Plot Overview → Eight people, all strangers to each other, are invited to Indian Island, off the English coast. Vera Claythorne, a former governess, thinks she has been hired as a secretary; Philip Lombard, an adventurer, and William Blore, an ex-detective, think they have been hired to look out for trouble over the weekend; Dr. Armstrong thinks he has been hired to look after the wife of the island’s owner. Emily Brent, General Macarthur, Tony Marston, and Judge Wargrave think they are going to visit old friends. When they arrive on the island, the guests are greeted by Mr. and Mrs. Rogers, the butler and housekeeper, who report that the host, someone they call Mr. Owen, will not arrive until the next day. That evening, as all the guests gather in the drawing room after an excellent dinner, they hear a recorded voice accusing each of them of a specific murder committed in the past and never uncovered. They compare notes and realize that none of them, including the servants, knows “Mr. Owen,” which suggests that they were brought here according to someone’s strange plan. As they discuss what to do, Tony Marston chokes on poisoned whiskey and dies. Frightened, the party retreats to bed, where almost everyone is plagued by guilt and memories of their crimes. Vera Claythorne notices the similarity between the death of Marston and the first verse of a nursery rhyme, “Ten Little Indians,” that hangs in each bedroom. The next......

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...And Then There Were None by AGATHA CHRISTIE CHAPTER 1 IN THE CORNER of a first-class smoking carriage, Mr. Justice Wargrave, lately retired from the bench, puffed at a cigar and ran an interested eye through the political news in the Times. He laid the paper down and glanced out of the window. They were running now through Somerset. He glanced at his watch-another two hours to go. He went over in his mind all that had appeared in the papers about Indian Island. There had been its original purchase by an American millionaire who was crazy about yachting-and an account of the luxurious modern house he had built on this little island off the Devon coast. The unfortunate fact that the new third wife of the American millionaire was a bad sailor had led to the subsequent putting up of the house and island for sale. Various glowing advertisements of it had appeared in the papers. Then came the first bald statement that it had been bought-by a Mr. Owen. After that the rurnours of the gossip writers had started. Indian Island had really been bought by Miss Gabrielle Turl, the Hollywood film star! She wanted to spend some months there free from all publicity! Busy Bee had hinted delicately that it was to be an abode for Royalty??! Mr. Merryweather had had it whispered to him that it had been bought for a honeymoon-Young Lord L-- had surrendered to Cupid at last! Jonas knew for a fact that it had been purchased by the Admiralty with a view to carrying out some very hush hush......

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...KEEP THIS BOOKLET FOR YOUR RECORDS Assistance Application Information Booklet Welcome to the State of Michigan Department of Human Services (DHS) We have programs to help you and/or your household (everyone living in your home) with food, medical care, child care, cash and emergencies. We can also tell you about other programs and resources that may help meet your needs. We look forward to helping you and your household. If you need help with reading, writing, hearing, etc., please tell us. If you need an interpreter, we will provide one or you may bring your own. Steps to Assistance - Apply online for assistance programs at www.michigan.gov/mibridges. You may bring, mail or fax your assistance application to the DHS office in your area. You can find the address and phone number to the office in your area in your phone book under the state government section, or online at www.michigan.gov/dhs-countyoffices. 2 - Read this booklet and keep it. It tells you about our programs and has important information. When you sign the assistance application, you agree to the rules in this booklet. 3 - Answer the questions on the assistance application. We need your answers to decide what help you may receive. You can apply for all or some of our programs. 4 - For some programs we may need to ask for more information (proof). We will let you know what we need. 5 - We will send you a letter in the mail telling you if you are approved or denied. Keep this letter. It has important......

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...Carl robins works as a recruiter at a new campus for ABC, Inc. However, even though his only worked there for six months his faces serious problems and has found himself in quite a predicament. After hiring fifteen new trainees for his operational supervisor, and scheduling an orientation for new hires to take place in mid-June. After assuring his supervisor Monica Carrolls that the work she ask would be done by the time she wanted, he stated noticing everything was going wrong and time was running out. Soon he realized that the paper work his supervisor asked for was not completed and files were missing. The missing files consisted of several missing applications that weren’t completed on the new trainee’s transcripts. Also he found out none of them had been sent to the clinic for a mandatory drug screen. At this point his frustration was through the roof but, the bad news did not end there only continued. Soon he found out, after reviewing the scheduling log for the training room he notice that there was yet another problem. The training room where he is to hold the orientation for the new trainees is booked up and reserved for the entire month. Alternatives Fighting procrastination is an...

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...Memory Systems Exam PSYCH 640 October 6, 2014 Gaston Weisz   Student Name: Class: Cognitive Psychology 640 [Memory Systems Test] Achieved Score: Possible High Score: 100 MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. What type of memory stores information for about 30 seconds? A. Working Memory B. Long Term Memory C. Short Term Memory D. None of the Above E. All of the Above 2. What is the estimated amount of neurons in the human brain? F. 1 Trillion G. 450 Billion H. 100 billion I. 895 million J. 1,000 trillion 3. What is the correct explanation for encoding memory? A. Encoding in psychology is taking information into the mind and coding it with brain code and storing the information for later retrieval B. Encoding memory is when memory is recalled to working memory for use and access, then returned to long term memory when the information is no longer required C. Encoding in psychology is the transformation, as well as the transfer of information into a memory system that requires selective attention which is the focusing of awareness on a particular set of stimuli or events. D. Encoding memory is when your brain applies “1’s and 0’s” to information that is collected and placed in long term memory or discarded depending on if the memory is rehearsed or discarded • True or False questions: True False 1. Can a false memory seem real and be perceived as a genuine memory? True False 2. Is long term memory controlled by the hippocampus......

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...with a reality that isn’t changeable. This world; which is contingent; is imperfect in an aesthetic moral way. This goes after reality, because it’s awesome and unique. This phase refers back to Plato, where’s the concept, that the world is “real” and more “factual”; plus, the fantasy world we live in, as of our embodied frame of mind. Our universe has many correct forms. With relations to this, it’s hard to explain correctly; so how they’re not both in common, be kin in any other way. How can you tell from the “really real”, and the “want to be real”? You can examine the perception, which will show the lines of metaphysics realness, and not the outcome of regular skills. With skills, we find objects and forces, that are perceptional, and none perceptional; that we can keep intake. We find a universe that’s always changing. Idols are conceived, breathed, and ended. The solar system is after an agenda course as everything in it. In life, we’re models of constellations, and goes after our fate. You know everything is different because it’s in a current. Within our sense skills, this is the knowledge of oue universe. B. Is The Physical World Real, More or Less Than The Spiritual or Psychological The physical universe is more realer than either, because the physical is concerned on seeing and observing things. With the spirit you doesn’t see it, it’s what embeds the soul, and believing by faith. The psychological is within your mentality, because it causes you to imagine......

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...distribution. The timeframe for this strategy is the end of the week to the vice president. With such a short time to complete this complex tasking would require a formal communication channel, in which to explain the direction to the team with the requirement and with the tasking deadline. Therefore, the final presentation is due Thursday, for the meeting with the vice president on Friday. The presentation to the vice president will occur on Friday will dictate a formal communication channel. Scenario number two, is a role of a travel agency manager, in which first thing in the morning, the username and password to company application system does not allow anyone to access the application. This immediately caused a work stoppage, to where none of the travel agents could perform assigned responsibilities, affecting existing, and new customers. An informal communication channel, of a telephone call to the IT Department, determined the cause to the username and password problem. Because there was no formal communication put in place by the travel agency, this dictates an informal communication channel. The IT Department determined the...

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...None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these things can ever work anymore, ever again. None of these......

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...can we look at? 1. Purpose: to predict what’s going to happen in the future 2. Look at recent performance, outlook, changes in the company, changes in the market(s) the company is in, and other indicators. b. Working on Bank of America, what was challenging about, for example, finding Weighted Cost of Capital? 1. It was difficult to find because of the many different markets and submarkets that each have their own cost of capital. 2. The percent of each of these that BoA has was difficult to find. III. Homework Problems a. 9-5 1. Part A: Find Total Debt i. Assets – Equity (Common Stock + Retained Earnings) – Accts. Payable = Total Debt Side note: Equity also includes preferred stock, but this company has none ii. $1,200,000 – $720,000 – $375,000 = $105,000 2. Part B: AFN = (A*/S0) ΔS – (L*/S0) ΔS -MS1 (RR) i. A* = Assets = $1,200,000 ii....

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...Title Name SCI 207: Dependence of man on the environment Instructor Date Title Abstract In these experiments that we have conducted, we used oil, vinegar, laundry soap, and soil to simulate contaminated groundwater. We then constructed a variety of filters to attempt to clean the ground water and make it drinkable. We also tested various bottled and tap water for certain chemicals. Introduction Many areas have water containing impurities from natural or artificial sources. These impurities may cause health problems, damage equipment or plumbing, or make the water undesirable due to taste, odor, appearance, or staining. Those impurities which cause health problems should be attended to immediately; other problems caused by water impurities can be corrected if they are a nuisance. Before beginning any treatment plan, have water tested by an independent laboratory to determine the specific impurities and level of contamination. This will help you select the most effective and economical treatment method. (Ross, Parrott, Woods, 2009) The reason why we conducted this experiment is to test the filtration to remove oil, vinegar, and laundry detergent has on soil before it reaches groundwater. These chemicals go to our local water supply, but first it goes through the soil. Materials and Methods The materials and methods section should provide a brief description of the specialized materials used in your experiment......

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...WEAKNESSES OF THE BIG BANG THEORY According to Marmet (2005) , the big bang theory believes that the universe originated from an extremely dense concentration of material. The original expansion of this material is called the big bang theory. Moskowits (2010) describes the big bang theory as an assertion that the universe began extremely hot and dense. Around 14 billion years ago, space itself expanded and cooled down eventually allowing atoms to form and clump together to build the stars and galaxies we see today. Taylor (2012) says According to the Big Bang theory, all matter and all space was originally part of an infinitesimally small point called the Singularity. The theory says nothing about where that singularity came from. It is assumed to have come about by a random quantum event. The theory was first proposed in the 1930s, based on Edwin Hubble's discovery that distant galaxies are receding. Hubble measured the distances to a large number of galaxies which was based on the observed brightness of certain stars within them, he went on to collate these distances with their electromagnetic spectra. As it turned out, more distant galaxies had the features in their spectral lines shifted to lower frequencies in a linear manner: that is, more distant galaxies exhibit greater redshifts. The only known mechanism for generating a spectral shift is the Doppler effect, which means that distant galaxies are receding from us. Another dominant idea connects the dots between......

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...Psychoanalytic Psychology 2004, Vol. 21, No. 3, 353–370 Copyright 2004 by the Educational Publishing Foundation 0736-9735/04/$12.00 DOI: 10.1037/0736-9735.21.3.353 THE UNEXPECTED LEGACY OF DIVORCE Report of a 25-Year Study Judith S. Wallerstein, PhD Judith Wallerstein Center for the Family in Transition and University of California, Berkeley Julia M. Lewis, PhD San Francisco State University This follow-up study of 131 children, who were 3–18 years old when their parents divorced in the early 1970s, marks the culmination of 25 years of research. The use of extensive clinical interviews allowed for exploration in great depth of their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors as they negotiated childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, and adulthood. At the 25-year follow-up, a comparison group of their peers from the same community was added. Described in rich clinical detail, the findings highlight the unexpected gulf between growing up in intact versus divorced families, and the difficulties children of divorce encounter in achieving love, sexual intimacy, and commitment to marriage and parenthood. These findings have significant implications for new clinical and educational interventions. The study we report here begins with the first no-fault divorce legislation in the nation and tracks a group of 131 California children whose parents divorced in the early 1970s. They were seen at regular intervals over the 25-year span that followed. When we first met......

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...Ms. Silver-Greenberg, in her article entitled “As Foreclosure Problems Persist, Fed Seeks More Fines”, noted three key points, 1) the Federal Reserve is interceding with regards to the foreclosure dilemma, 2) there are flaws in the foreclosure process and 3) consumer’s may quality to request an “Independent Foreclosure Review”. Ms. Silver-Greenberg states the Fed is interceding in the foreclosure dilemma. After an extensive investigation, extending over 2 years according to Silver-Greenberg, by the Federal Reserve resulted in a report entitled “ Interagency Review of Foreclosure Policies and Practices” (2011). The Fed’s have imposed a guideline for the mortgage institutions to follow and if they choose not to, there are talks of imposing stiff fines. The actions of these lenders have affected not only the borrowers, but also the mortgage industry, investors, and the economy itself. I feel that it is a shame lenders were able to get away with their procedural defects as long as they were. This resulted in more consumers being affected and as an end result exacerbated the decline in the economy. According to not only Ms. Silver-Greenberg, but also the report submitted by the Federal Reserve, (2011), there are flaws in the foreclosure process. These flaws are not only inappropriate signatures of bank officials, but also issues with organization of paperwork, customer service, lack of quality control, just to name a few. After reviewing this report, which until......

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...J Clin Epidemiol Vol. 50, No. 12, pp. 1311–1318, 1997 Copyright © 1997 Elsevier Science Inc. 0895-4356/97/$17.00 PII S0895-4356(97)00203-5 The Powerful Placebo Effect: Fact or Fiction? Gunver S. Kienle* and Helmut Kiene ¨ Institut fur Angewandte Erkenntnistheorie und Medizinische Methodologie, D-79112 Freiburg, Germany ABSTRACT. In 1955, Henry K. Beecher published the classic work entitled ‘‘The Powerful Placebo.’’ Since that time, 40 years ago, the placebo effect has been considered a scientific fact. Beecher was the first scientist to quantify the placebo effect. He claimed that in 15 trials with different diseases, 35% of 1082 patients were satisfactorily relieved by a placebo alone. This publication is still the most frequently cited placebo reference. Recently Beecher’s article was reanalyzed with surprising results: In contrast to his claim, no evidence was found of any placebo effect in any of the studies cited by him. There were many other factors that could account for the reported improvements in patients in these trials, but most likely there was no placebo effect whatsoever. False impressions of placebo effects can be produced in various ways. Spontaneous improvement, fluctuation of symptoms, regression to the mean, additional treatment, conditional switching of placebo treatment, scaling bias, irrelevant response variables, answers of politeness, experimental subordination, conditioned answers, neurotic or psychotic misjudgment, psychosomatic......

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