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Norman Borlaug

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The Sated Hunger
Throughout the history of mankind, starvation has been one of the most exigent problems that humans have encountered. Exponential growth of population along with financial crisis generated a chronic food shortage all around the globe. Despite these adversities, Norman Borlaug, the father of the Green Revolution, saved billions of lives by introducing an exceptionally vital genetically modified organism (GMO). Not only had this eminent GMO diminished suffering from privation, its influences have been shown through social and political advancements. Hence, Norman E. Borlaug, who fully utilized his understanding of genetics which unlocked the secret of how life works, is the most influential scientist in the course of history.
In the middle of the 20th century, the whole world was undergoing catastrophic circumstances due to World War II and inflation. Eventually, these calamities led to acute famine. Numerous countries attempted to ameliorate their situations by husbandry; however, the lands were not arable on account of poor soil quality, inefficient strategies, and ineffectual grains. Although the situation seemed incorrigible, Norman Borlaug firmly believed that there was a way to engender a high yielding grain: invent a genetically modified grain by uncovering a secret of genome. In the 1940s, he started conducting research in Mexico with thousands of different crops to breed the highest yielding crop. Through Backcrossing, a crossing of hybrid which was used in his research, Norman Borlaug invented a semi-dwarf, high-yield, and disease resistant rice called the IR8. The magic rice, IR8, has countless advantages. Dwarf rice produced thick stems which was a vital agronomic quality for grain. The dwarf rice's short and strong stalks could support larger seed heads which engendered immense food production. Also, the IR8's high-yielding and disease resistant traits allowed Mexico to harvest voluminous crops in any condition. Moreover, the agricultural technique was remarkably simple to implement. Exporting the IR8 and sustaining its citizens led to a massive economic growth and improved quality of life that the country had never experienced before. The IR8 ignited the world's greatest revolution: the Green Revolution.
Undoubtedly, Green Revolution is indisputably one of the greatest turning points of the history of humankind. The Green Revolution, which occurred the 1940s and the late 1970s, was initiated by the IR8 in Mexico and spread all around the globe, especially in developing countries. The purpose was to feed the hungry public by aiding countries to become self-sufficient with new innovative agricultural technologies and the IR8. Norman Borlaug led the Green Revolution, which is credited with saving billion people from starvation. The revolution involved the developments of high-yielding grains, expansion of irrigation infrastructure, new revolutionary agriculture techniques, and synthetic fertilizer. The Green Revolution was triggered when Norman Borlaug's IR8 experienced great success in Mexico. In 1950, Mexico became a self-sufficient country; Mexico exported over half of its food and the food production increased ten times by 1970. These transcendent achievements became the focus of attentions. Anon, countries such as the Philippines, India, and Pakistan adopted Borlaug's techniques and began using the IR8. Especially in Philippines, by switching to the IR8, annual rice production increased from 3.7 to 7.7 tons in two decades. Correspondingly, India saw annual wheat production expand from 10 million tons in the 1960s to 73 million in 2006. Also, in Pakistan, wheat yields rose from 4.6 million tons in 1965 to 8.4 million in 1970. During the revolution, rice, wheat, and maize production rose steadily and the world's population boosted from two billion to 4.5 billion. As the Green Revolution transformed agriculture around the earth, world's grain production increased by over 250%. It is evident that countries all over the globe have enormously benefited from the Green Revolution. As a result of the creation of the IR8, Norman Borlaug's Green Revolution solved one of the world's greatest looming problems: world hunger.
It is unquestionable that Green Revolution has saved billions of lives. However, nourishing numerous people precipitated overpopulation. It is proven through history that when the nations become overpopulated, it creates a social hierarchy. The social hierarchy severely aggravated citizen’s life style, which was shown during Industrial Revolution. Case in point, in eighty years of the Industrial Revolution, the human population nearly tripled. Since there were myriad people, factory owners set up low wages because there were superfluous labor forces. Overpopulation not only led to underemployment, employees had overwhelming amounts of work. Additionally, workers worked below the level of subsistence; they worked with substandard payments and their working environments were extremely polluted and perilous. Overpopulation severely exacerbated people's lives. In contrast, underpopulation improved the community’s living standard. As in, during the Dark Age of Europe, two-third of its population died due to the Bubonic Plague. Abruptly, there were not enough work forces in the towns. Feudalism was naturally terminated as an effect of underpopulation and owners now had to pay higher wages in order to preserve and acquire labor forces. Workers were treated substantially; underpopulation ameliorated their qualities of living. Superfluous food caused overpopulation due to the invention of IR8; Norman Borlaug, who indirectly precipitated overpopulation by the IR8, unwittingly brought a bittersweet panacea to society. Despite having countries undergone social hindrances through Green Revolution, innumerable countries experienced abundant positive political and economical impacts. For instance, Norman Borlaug completed the seemingly impossible task of convincing political leaders of both India and Pakistan, bitterly divided, to embrace a new technology of agriculture. Their relationships enhanced greatly by collaborating toward the same goal. Moreover, in developing countries, due to replacing former crops with the IR8, farmers’ food productions were nearly doubled and saw tangible improvements: malnutrition abated, child mortality dropped, and more children could go to school. Norman Borlaug’s GMO, IR8, galvanized the Green Revolution; the Green Revolution precipitated overpopulation and brought crucial positive impacts to community. The validity of Norman Borlaug’s influence stands firm in its effectiveness.
Although there are countless scientists who contributed their lives to understand the secret of how life works, Norman Borlaug, the founder of the IR8, is the most influential scientist who saved more lives than any other individual. Norman Borlaug, who fully utilized his understanding of genetics, led the invention of genetically modified rice, IR8, which instigated the Green Revolution. The Green Revolution, which fed the starving world, precipitated overpopulation and brought significant changes to society. This domino effect had momentous economic, social, and political impacts; his influences were not limited to science alone, but to the realms of people's everyday life. Therefore, Norman E. Borlaug, who surpassed the expectations of the world in every aspect by unlocking the secret of genome, is the most influential scientific inventor.

"WebCite Query Result." Web log post. WebCite Query Result. NBC News, 13 Sept. 2009. Web. 27 Feb. 2013
Conko, Greg. "The Man Who Fed the World." Web log post. OpenMarketorg RSS. N.p., 13 Sept. 2009. Web. 27 Feb. 2013.
"Alleviating Third World Hunger, Promoting Agricultural Development - Carter Center Agriculture Program/Sasakawa Global 2000." Web log post. Alleviating Third World Hunger, Promoting Agricultural Development - Carter Center Agriculture Program/Sasakawa Global 2000. The Carter Center, n.d. Web. 27 Feb. 2013.
"UN Food Agency Pays Tribute to ‘father’ of Green Revolution." Web log post. UN News Center. UN, 14 Sept. 2009. Web. 27 Feb. 2013.
"Award Ceremony Speech." Web log post. The Nobel Peace Prize 1970. The Nobel Foundation, n.d. Web. 27 Feb. 2013
Adams, Roland. "Biographical Background on 2005 Dartmouth Honorary Degree RecipientsNORMAN E. BORLAUG(Doctor of Science)." Web log post.Biographical Background on 2005 Dartmouth Honorary Degree RecipientsNORMAN E. BORLAUG(Doctor of Science). Dartmouth, 28 Apr. 2005. Web. 27 Feb. 2013.
"DR. NORMAN E. BORLAUG'S CURRICULUM VITAE." Web log post. DR. NORMAN E. BORLAUG'S CURRICULUM VITAE. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Feb. 2013.
"Norman Borlaug." Web log post. GPO, n.d. Web. 27 Feb. 2013.

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