Premium Essay

Normative Model V. Force Field

In: Business and Management

Submitted By thereseabennett
Words 505
Pages 3
MEMO 14 October 2012

TO: Dr. Babcock, John
SUBJECT: Normative Model v. Force Field

1. Normative model is a model that will evaluate any alternative solutions to the question, “What is going on?” then suggests what is to be done according to a standard (Normative Model, 2012). There are limits to the amount of information a person can manage and there are shortcuts that can be used to simplify decision making. In this model, solutions that are chosen and meet the minimum requirements are good enough (Models of Decision-Making, 2012). The advantages of this method are looking at the alternative solutions, and a simplified decision making process. The concerns of the method are the “good enough” choices, and minimum requirements. The valid data generated from this model would include the chosen solutions for making a change within a company. The impact of readiness to change is affected by asking the question what is going on then finding a solution to it. The implementation concerns are the minimum requirements may not be what the company is looking for.
2. Force field analysis is a decision-making technique that analyzes forces for and against change to help communicate reasoning behind decisions (Force Field Analysis, 2012). This analysis is meant to look at all the factors included in the change process and evaluate the pros and cons. Then the company can create strategies to decrease the impact of contrasting forces and strengthen the supportive forces (Force Field Analysis, 2008). The advantages of this method are that it looks at both the pros and cons, is strengthens the supportive forces, and decreases the impact of contrasting forces. The concerns of this method are all the cons may not get a decrease of impact, and a lack of commitment to the change. The valid data generated from this model are the pros and cons of the…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Organisational Development

...ASSIGNMENT:1 QUESTION :What are the main foundations of Organization Development? What are the stages of OD as suggested by Kurt Lewin and subsequently modified by Lippitt, Watson &Westley? ANSWER: 1) FOUNDATION OF OD (a) The field of OD rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. These beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. (b) Values have always been an integral part of OD package. OD values and assumption developed from research and theory, by behavioral scientist and from the experiences and observations of practicing managers. OD values tend to be humanistic, optimistic and democratic. (d) The knowledge base of OD is extensive and is constantly being upgraded. The most important concept on which OD is constructed is as follows: i) Model & theories of planned change : Organization development is directed at bringing about planned change to increase an organization's effectiveness, generally initiated and implemented by managers, often with the help of an OD practitioner either from inside or outside of the organization. Organizations can use planned change to solve problems, to learn from experience, to reframe shared perceptions, to adapt to external environmental changes, to improve performance, and to influence future changes. The theories describe the different stages through which planned change may be effected in organizations and explain the process of applying OD methods......

Words: 1147 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Ten Principles of Economics

...ECONOMICS • The forces and trends that affect how the economy as a whole works. • The standard of living depends on a country’s production. • Prices rise when the government prints too much money. • Society faces a short-run tradeoff between inflation and unemployment. Copyright © 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning Principle #1: People Face Tradeoffs. “There is no such thing as a free lunch!” Copyright © 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning Principle #1: People Face Tradeoffs. To get one thing, we usually have to give up another thing. • • • • Guns v. Roads Food v. clothing Leisure time v. work Efficiency v. equity Making decisions requires trading off one goal against another. Copyright © 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning Principle #1: People Face Tradeoffs. • West Seti’s DPR Contract to National Firms Vs Chinese Firms • Apple 5 Vs Nokia Lumia 800 • Bhutanese refugees to settle in US Vs Bhutan • To Study MBA in TU Vs KU • MBA Vs ME • Purchase bike/Scoter Vs Kirtipur Yatayat • Appache Vs Pulsar (Old Vs new) Copyright © 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning Principle #1: People Face Tradeoffs • Efficiency v. Equity • Efficiency means society gets the most that it can from its scarce resources. • Equity means the benefits of those resources are distributed fairly among the members of society. When government increases tax rate on profit and redistributes this income to poor- What would be the effect on economy? Efficiency v.......

Words: 2845 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Economics and Economic Theory

...F.Y.B.A. Paper – I Economic Theory (Micro Economics-I) SECTION – I Module 1 : Introduction Meaning, nature, scope, significance and limitations of micro economics. Ceteris Paribus – use and significance. Concept and types of equilibrium : stable, unstable, static and dynamic equilibrium – partial equilibrium and general equilibrium, positive economics and normative economics, managerial economics. Basic concepts – wealth, welfare and scarcity. Basic tools of economics analysis (equations and functions, graphs and diagrams, slope and intercepts) Module 2 : Consumers Behaviour and Demand Marishallian Approach : Equi-marginal utility, Law of demand – Determinants of demand. Elasticity of demand and its measurement. Price – Income – Cross and Promotional elasticity of demand. Consumer’s Surplus. Hicksian Approach : Indifference curves – properties of Indifference Curve, Consumer’s Equilibrium, Price effect, Income effect and substitution effect – Derivation of demand from Price Consumption Curve (PCC) – Giffen’s paradox. Samuelson Approach : Revealed Preference Theory. Module 3 : Production and Cost Analysis Concept of production function : short run and long run – Cobb – Douglass production function. isoquants – iso-cost line – producer’s equilibrium. Law of variable proportion and Law of returns to scale – Economies of scale – Economies of scope. Concepts of costs : Money and real cost, Opportunity cost, Social cost, Private cost – Derivation of short run and long run cost......

Words: 9971 - Pages: 40

Premium Essay


...Course: Organizations & Behavior Name:WANQIU LIN Tutor: Word accounts: Date: Content Introduction………………………………………………………………………………..3 Examine different approaches to management and leadership…………………….. Evaluate ways of using motivational theories in organization……………………….. Explain mechanisms for developing effective teamwork in organizations…………. Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………… References………………………………………………………………………………. Introduction Organizational behavior is a field study of human behavior in organization, is a multi-discipline study. It investigates the behavior of individual, group and organization itself. In this report I will use Apple and Google to talking about : 1. Different approaches of management and leadership in Apple Inc. and Google Inc. 2. Discuss the motivation theories and evaluate the using of motivational theories in organizations. 3. Explaining mechanisms for developing effective teamwork in organization. 1.Examine different approaches to management and leadership Management and Leadership Shackleton (1995, p. 2) suggests that 'leadership is the process in which an individual influence other group members towards the attainment of group or organizational goals'. Leadership is a process that including a group and attaining a goal. Google Inc.’s Management approach Google has a lots of Management approaches, the main approach is Scientific approach and Human behavior approach. In scientific...

Words: 2047 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay


...hypothesis; positive accounting theory INTRODUCTION Around 1970 there was a dramatic change in the approach to accounting research. Several reasons have been suggested for this change in methodological direction by those reviewing the development of accounting thought. To many, a major distinction is a change in direction away from attempts to prescribe a theory of accounting to developing theory from a description of extant practices. To advocates of the latter, previous attempts to develop a theory of accounting were futile as there could never be agreement over many of the inputs into a theory such as the postulates, principles but most specifically the assumptions. Although a very inaccurate description the two approaches are labelled normative (the prescriptive theories that dominated prior to 1970) and positive (the descriptive research that has dominated mainstream accounting research since 1970). With its emphasis on description, the most defining characteristic of mainstream research since 1970 is its commitment to empiricism. In their book on accounting theory, Henderson, Peirson and Brown (1992) refer to this research as neo-empirical research: a most apt nomenclature. As mentioned, the dominating characteristic was empiricism. It is “neo” (new) because, although earlier research had relied on empiricism in that it sought to establish “theory” from best practice, the emphasis after 1970 was on a more systematic use of empirical evidence. This was largely made......

Words: 10399 - Pages: 42

Premium Essay

Organisational Legitimacy, Capacity and Capacity Development

...capacity actually develops. In 2002, the chair of Govnet, the Network on Governance and Capacity Development of the OECD, asked the European Centre for Development Policy Management (ECDPM) in Maastricht, the Netherlands to undertake a study of how organisations and systems, mainly in developing countries, have succeeded in building their capacity and improving performance. The resulting study focuses on the endogenous process of capacity development - the process of change from the perspective of those undergoing the change. The study examines the factors that encourage it, how it differs from one context to another, and why efforts to develop capacity have been more successful in some contexts than in others. The study consists of about 20 field cases carried out according to a methodological framework with seven components, as follows: • • • Capabilities: How do the capabilities of a group, organisation or network feed into organisational capacity? Endogenous change and adaptation: How do processes of change take place within an organisation or system? Performance: What has the organisation or system accomplished or is it now able to deliver? The focus here is on assessing the effectiveness of the process of capacity development rather than on impact, which will be apparent only in the long term. The results of the study, interim reports and an elaborated methodology can be consulted at or For further information, please contact Ms Heather......

Words: 10927 - Pages: 44

Free Essay

Barberisthaler 2003

...Beliefs 4.2.2. Preferences 5. Application: The cross-section of average returns 5.1. Belief-based models 1054 1054 1055 1056 1056 1058 1061 1061 1063 1064 1065 1065 1069 1069 1074 1075 1078 1079 1082 1083 1084 1086 1087 1092 ° We are very grateful to Markus Brunnermeier, George Constantinides, Kent Daniel, Milt Harris, Ming Huang, Owen Lamont, Jay Ritter, Andrei Shleifer, Jeremy Stein and Tuomo Vuolteenaho for extensive comments. Handbook of the Economics of Finance, Edited by G.M. Constantinides, M. Harris and R. Stulz © 2003 Elsevier Science B.V All rights reserved . 1054 5.2. Belief-based models with institutional frictions 5.3. Preferences N. Barberis and R. Thaler 6. Application: Closed-end funds and comovement 6.1. Closed-end funds 6.2. Comovement 7. Application: Investor behavior 7.1. 7.2. 7.3. 7.4. 7.5. Insufficient diversification Naive diversification Excessive trading The selling decision The buying decision 8. Application: Corporate finance 8.1. Security issuance, capital structure and investment 8.2. Dividends 8.3. Models of managerial irrationality 9. Conclusion Appendix A References 1095 1097 1098 1098 1099 1101 1101 1103 1103 1104 1105 1106 1106 1109 1111 1113 1115 1116 Abstract Behavioral finance argues that some financial phenomena can plausibly be understood using models in which some agents are not fully rational. The field has two building blocks: limits to arbitrage, which argues that it can be difficult for rational......

Words: 9136 - Pages: 37

Free Essay


...between macroeconomics and microeconomics. We then look at the economizing problem from both an individual and societal perspective. For the individual we develop the budget line, for society the production possibilities model. In our discussion of production possibilities, the concepts of opportunity costs and increasing opportunity costs, unemployment, growth, and present vs. future possibilities are all demonstrated. Finally, in the Last Word, some of the problems, limitations, and pitfalls that hinder sound economic reasoning are examined. The Appendix to Chapter 1 provides an important introduction to graphical analysis. While this will be review material for most students, for some this may be new. Instructors are strongly urged to confirm that their students understand this section before proceeding. The software supplement can provide effective remedial help for those students who are not familiar with graphical analysis, or just need a refresher. WHAT’S NEW There is a new learning objective for this chapter: Explain the individual’s economizing problem and how trade-offs, opportunity costs, and attainable combinations can be illustrated with budget lines. The definition of Macroeconomics has been broadened to reflect all of the issues in the field. The “Consider This” discussion in the Individual’s Economizing Problem section has been updated to more recent figures. Finally, there are also minor changes in wording in the chapter and the data has......

Words: 7387 - Pages: 30

Premium Essay


...various IB theories can be combined into a model in which the individual theory is supported by other pertinent IB theories that can either constitute a specific theoretical model designed exclusively for, for example, the Malaysian case or constitute a generic model that can be employed on other national economies. In the context of this article, the IB model below is specifically designed to fit the Malaysian economy. To give an example of how such a model can be designed, several interrelated IB theories have been combined (Figure 1). Figure 1 IBS in a ‘Glocalised’ Economy Generic Perspectives Firm Specific Perspectives O RBV Porter’s Five, Porter’s Diamond, Institutional Theory VRIO Internationalisation L I TCT TCT If yes If yes Value Chain considerations Multinationalism and Performance (M-P relation) M Types of markets SMEs 1. 2. 3. 4. Market seeking Resource seeking Efficiency seeking Strategic asset seeking 1. 2. 3. Export 1. Licencing 2. Franchise 3. MNCs M P 1. Uppsala Model JV Acquisition Greenfield P 2. OLI   (Source: Own design July 2012)      4             Asia Research Centre, CBS, Copenhagen Discussion Papers 2014-45 The selection of IB theories and approaches in Figure 1 can be combined into one major model as illustrated in Figure 1 or into several interrelated smaller ones the size and composition of which depends on the specific context in which the model is to be applied. The overall context......

Words: 10292 - Pages: 42

Premium Essay


...managers and total OC in subordinates (r= .60, p < .01). Significant (p < .01) positive relationships were also found between total El and the three components of the OC construct: affective commitment (AC), continuance commitment (CC), and normative commitment (NC), r = .56, .33, and .45, respectively. Multiple regression analyses using the four dimensions of El as predictor variables and OC, AC, CC, and NC as dependent variables provided further evidence of a statistically iv significant relationship between manager El and subordinate commitment, producing R2 values of .377, .342, .135, and .218, respectively. The findings from this study confirm the importance of El in an organizational setting and add to the limited body of knowledge about the manager/subordinate EI/OC relationship. Future studies may benefit from an examination of the relationship in different organization settings, using probability versus non probability sampling, and including a larger target population. Additional studies that utilize the modified WLEIS (which captures the subordinate's perception of their manager's El) would add to the research that examines the manager/subordinate EI/OC relationship (captured solely from the subordinate's perspective). v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am grateful to my dissertation committee members, Dr. Jaime Klein and Dr. Penny Wilkins. Your expert advice was greatly appreciated. I am also grateful to my dissertation committee chair, Dr. Bob Miller. Thank you......

Words: 13124 - Pages: 53

Free Essay

Institutional Theory

...the formal structures can never conquer the non-rational dimensions of organizational behaviour. Individuals do not act purely based on their formal roles. Organizations do not act purely based on formal structures. Selznick notes that individuals bring other commitments to the organization that can restrict rational decision-making. Institutions exert a constraining influence over organizations, called isomorphism that forces organizations in the same population to resemble other organizations that face the same set of environmental conditions (Hawley, 1968). Then, the isomorphism was further discussed by DiMaggio and Powell (1983) where the analysis of institutions exert three types of isomorphic pressure on organizations: coercive, normative, and mimetic. Coercive isomorphism refers to pressure from entities who have resources on which an organization depends. Mimetic isomorphism refers to the imitation or copying of other successful organizations when an organization is uncertain about what to do. Normative isomorphism refers to following professional standards and practices established by education and training methods, professional networks, and movement of employees among firms. 1 Sociological research on organizations arose through the mid-1970s. This overview is intended the links between institutional theory and previous traditions of sociological work on organizational structure, and to provide some contextual understanding of the......

Words: 6106 - Pages: 25

Free Essay

Health and Social Care span psychology and the sociology of the life course have experienced a great and long take off with regard to theory building and conceptualization, methodological advances and empirical studies. Within sociology, but also partly in demography, economics and social policy studies, a cohort and life course perspective, event history analysis and microanalytic longitudinal data have become almost predominant (Mayer 1990, 2000; Riley et al. 1994). Baltes et al. (1999: 473) note, for instance, that life span psychology became more prominent due to, among other reasons, “... a concern with life span development in neighboring social science disciplines, especially sociology. Life course sociology took hold as a powerful intellectual force.” At the beginning of this development there were great expectations that the disciplines involved in this “life course turn” - especially life course sociology and life span psychology - would not only grow together in a parallel trajectory, but that there would be co-evolution in the direction of a truly interdisciplinary or even transdisciplinary paradigm on human development. Volumes such as the one edited by Kohli (1978), Sørensen, Weinert and Sherrod (1986) or the series on “Life-Span Development and Behavior” edited by Baltes, Featherman and Lerner(1979-1990) bear ample witness to this view. This expectation was also not in any way ill-founded. On the one hand, there were earlier developmentalist traditions where......

Words: 9579 - Pages: 39

Premium Essay


...board with 10 executives replaced * Acquisition and Mergers Discussing more on the second-order change, a transformational change happened when the organization switched from entrepreneurial to become a wider and more professional management kind of structure when they begun to purchase local subsidiaries in foreign market in order for their sales agent (new position) to introduce their product outside of Switzerland. Another transformational change that happen involves the visionary changes that make the organization change in terms of involving in other fields of business through product d1versification through: i. Production of chocolate with the ingredients of Swiss General Chocolate Factory ; ii. Created new product like malted milk, powdered beverage and powdered bottled milk ; iii. Production of coffee products ; iv. Merged with Maggi seasoning and soup manufacturers ; v. Entered cosmetic arena thus becoming the major shareholder of L’Oreal ; vi. Involved in producing pharmaceutical and ophthalmic products. During the course change, the company applied some “mid-management change theory” without destroying employee’s loyalty, impression, motivation, self belongingness and positive behaviours. Lastly, acquisitions and mergers was also a big part of Nestlé’s second order type of change. This provided them accelerated growth (but other critics had viewed it as negative), increase in popularity and maintained......

Words: 2970 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

The European Union and Governance

...Which core explanatory factors characterize Realism in international relations? Anarchy and self-help and the national interest. 2. According to the theory of Liberal Intergovernmentalism, the governments of the EU Member States... ...enhance their autonomy vis-à-vis other domestic forces through the EU. 3. Who coined the term 'normative power Europe'? Ian Mayers. 4. The EU is nothing but a "repository" of second-order interests, according to: Adrian Hyde Price * What kind of actor is the EU? * How does it fit into international politics? * How do we perceive of its performance? * Assessments of the EU “depend quite substantially on one’s views on the nature of the international system” (Karem Smith) Theories of International Relations explain what drives international relations, who and what matters and why and classical distinction: 1. Realism: IR as anarchic self-help system; states as main actors; and main goal is the maximization of security and power. THE EU for Realists: * Is not a state and has no army. * Limited role in so-called “high politics” * Failure to act in international cirses * Not full actor or power * Repositor of the 2nd order normative and ethical concerns of its member states (Adrian Hyde Price) 2. Liberalism: States are nor a black box, domestic politics and institutions and is important for the bargaining processes and difference level of governance. The EU for Liberals: * The EU as......

Words: 9149 - Pages: 37

Premium Essay

Ir Theories

...democracy and free trade Economy and terrorism Conclusion v viii ix x 1 1 2 5 6 9 15 18 23 29 30 32 34 40 44 48 52 55 55 57 58 70 81 vi 4 Contents The English School Andrew Linklater From power to order: international society Order and justice in international relations The revolt against the West and the expansion of international society Progress in international relations Conclusion 84 89 93 98 103 108 110 5 Marxism Andrew Linklater Class, production and international relations in Marx’s writings Nationalism and imperialism The changing fortunes of Marxism in International Relations Marxism and international relations theory today Conclusion 112 120 124 132 135 137 137 140 146 159 161 162 167 171 181 187 188 189 193 194 6 Critical Theory Richard Devetak Origins of critical theory The politics of knowledge in International Relations theory Rethinking political community Conclusion 7 Postmodernism Richard Devetak Power and knowledge in International Relations Textual strategies of postmodernism Problematizing sovereign states Beyond the paradigm of sovereignty: rethinking the political Conclusion 8 Constructivism Christian Reus-Smit Rationalist theory The challenge of critical theory Constructivism Contents Constructivism and its discontents The contribution of constructivism Constructivism after 9/11 Conclusion 9 Feminism Jacqui True Empirical feminism Analytical feminism Normative feminism Conclusion 10 Green Politics Matthew......

Words: 132890 - Pages: 532