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Notes for Ap World Chapter 2

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AP World History - Stearns
Chapter 2 – Classical Civilization: China

I. Introduction – longest-lived civilization in history A. Isolated 1. Couldn’t learn from other cultures 2. Rare invasions 3. Distinctive identity 4. Relatively little internal chaos w/ decline of Shang dynasty a. Greatest links to classical society B. Intellectual theory 1. Harmony of nature – yin and yang – balance 2. Seek Dao – the way a. Avoid excess b. Appreciate balance of opposites c. Humans part of world, not on outside – like Mediterranean
Thesis: China emerged with an unusually well-integrated system in which government, philosophy, economic incentives, the family, and the individual were intended to blend into a harmonious whole.

II. Patterns in Classical China A. Pattern of rule 1. Dynasty, family of kings – create strong politics, economy 2. Dynasty grew weak, taxes declined 3. Social divisions increased 4. Invasion or internal rebellion 5. Another dynasty emerged – general, invader, peasant rebel B. Zhou Dynasty – 1029-258 BCE 1. Started decline in 700 BCE 2. Ruled w/ local princes – alliance system a. Successful in agricultural communities – ie manor system Europe b. Princes received land for troops/tax 3. Eventually local leaders ignored central gov’t 4. Contributions a. Extended territory to “Middle Kingdom” – wheat north, rice south 1. Transportation/communication difficult – hard to govern b. Mandate of Heaven – Sons of Heaven – emperors live affluent life c. Greater cultural unity 1. Banned human sacrifice 2. Standardized language – Mandarin – most people speaking same d. Confucius – wrote on political ethics 5. 402-201 BCE Era of the Warring States C. Qin Dynasty – China’s namesake 1. Xin Shi Huangdi – first...

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