Free Essay

Nrs 427v Benchmark Assignment

In: People

Submitted By princeny1
Words 1416
Pages 6
Benchmark Assignment: Epidemiology
Chickenpox
Class: NRS-427V Concepts in Community and Public Health May 11, 2015 (O500)
Name: Gulshan Kaur
Date: May 25, 2015

What is epidemiology? Epidemiology is the study of a disease that is in a large population. There are many diseases that exist today and existed in the past that health professionals have interfered with and had these diseases come to a halt. Epidemiology isn't fully about the study of the disease itself, but it mostly comes in relation with the processes of the disease. Also not only is it about processes but it also about the cure and the curing of patients of the disease. People that inherent the epidemiological approach, they study the frequency of occurrence of the disease in the population. The epidemiologist has a belief that studying the interactions of the disease it will be possible to change and manipulate some of the determinants involved and reduce the amount of times the disease occurs in the population.
One the diseases that provide epidemiologists the opportunity to study the disease and provide intervention is chicken pox. Also known as varicella, chicken pox is a highly contagious disease caused by the initial infection with varicella zoster virus. The disease leaves patients with a characteristic skin rash that forms small, itchy blisters, which scab over. This disease usually starts at the face and then quickly develops to the chest and back and then spreads to the rest of the body. Chickenpox is usually seen in younger children in middle school and younger. This disease is not as severe in children as it is in adults. There are many symptoms of this disease. Many symptoms include fever, feeling tired, and also headaches. These symptoms usually last five to ten days. There are many complications and these complications occasionally include pneumonia, inflammation of the brain, or bacterial infections of the skin. These bacterial skin infections can also infect others that come near or in the presence of the infected. Symptoms usually begin ten to twenty one days after exposure to the virus (Chickenpox, 2015).
The spreading of chickenpox is mainly airborne. It spreads easily through the coughs and sneezes of an infected person. One to two days before the rash, it can still be spread until all the lesions have crusted over. If the patient has blisters it is even easier if another person makes contact with the blisters. If people are not immune to the disease, those with shingles can spread chickenpox to the people that are not immune from the contact of blisters. Chickenpox can be easily diagnosed through the present symptoms the patient may have but sometimes due to unusual circumstances, the patient can only be diagnosed by testing the blister fluid or scabs. Another way to find out if the patient has chicken pox is to test for antibodies to determine if the patient is immune or not. Chickenpox usually only happens once in a patient's life and there are no further reports of the patient being diagnosed with varicella (Chickenpox, 2015).
There are many determinants of health that are affecting people's lives that are diagnosed with chickenpox. The disease usually occurs in late winter and early spring months. The disease can also be transmitted from direct contact with the open sores. This excludes clothing, bedding and other such objects. This objects usually do not spread the disease. Patients that are diagnosed with the disease can transfer the disease from two days before the appearance of the spots until the end of the blister stage. This means that once the patient is diagnosed, the patient can still transmit the disease without knowing the patient even has chickenpox. Children in school that are diagnosed with the disease are required to stay at home until the skin has completely cleared. This is a great prevention but it is not necessary to prevent transmission. Between 75-90% of chickenpox occurs in children under 10 years. Ever since the vaccine for varicella was introduced, the incidence of the disease and hospitalizations due to chickenpox has declined by 90% (Epidemiology, 2015).
The best way to study the basis of chickenpox is using the epidemiological triangle. The epidemiological triangle is a model that epidemiologists have developed for studying health problems. It can help nurses and health professionals easily understand infectious diseases and how they spread. The triangle has three corners and these three corners are defined as the agent, the host, and environment. The agent is the microbe that causes the disease, it is also known as the “what” of the triangle. The host is the organism that becomes the vessel for the disease also known as the “who” of the triangle. The environment are the external factors that cause or allow disease transmission also known as the “where” of the triangle .
Chickenpox is a great fit for the epidemiological triangle because it is a very common communicable disease and has been studied for years by scientists. Chickenpox can be identified through the realization of the agent, host, and the environment. Chickenpox is caused by the initial infection with varicella zoster. The agent that causes the disease is known as varicella zoster. The host can be any living organism that travels. Travel as in walking or interacting with others. Animals can also be a host and also spread the disease to humans. This includes wild and farm animals and also pets that are owned by humans. The environment is not a strong influence but when a person with chickenpox sneezes the disease is in the environment and is transmitted through the air. This makes the disease airborne and even easier to transmit. Through the epidemiological triangle chickenpox is understood a lot easier. This triangle is featured in many lobbies of hospitals or even waiting areas in hospitals (Williams, 2015).
The role of a nurse during this type of outbreak is to follow the steps to proper diagnosis and treatment. The first step to proper diagnosis is to confirm the outbreak. Physicians and public health professionals have to make direct links for cases and obtain specimens for laboratory testing. Laboratory testing is also used to confirm the end of the outbreak. The second step is to begin case findings. Case findings should include the history of the patient, the age of the patient, disease history, and underlying medical conditions. Through this the nurse can formally get to know the patient on a medical and personal level. That way the nurse can further his or her diagnosis. The third step would be to implement outbreak control. As in containing the patient for further notice. Especially a patient with chickenpox, the patient must stay vigilant, as the patient can pass the disease through physical or airborne contact. This includes isolation and exclusion. The fourth step would be data analysis. Data analysis allows the nurse to understand why the outbreak occurred and allows the nurse to provide guidance for control and prevention. To prevent future outbreaks of chickenpox the best way is vaccination. The vaccination is called varicella vaccination. The final step is to never let this disease happen again and create interventions for the disease to never happen again (Strategies, 2015).
A support group that is helping to fight against chickenpox and other related diseases is the The National Shingles Foundation. The NSF is the world's only nonprofit organization solely dedicated to the fight against the varicella-zoster virus and VZV related infections through research and education. The National Shingles Foundation is not licensed to practice medicine and therefore cannot make diagnosis, or prescribe medication. But they do educate the public and organize committees where the public can learn about varicella and the symptoms and step by step treatment processes (VZV Foundation, 2015).

References

Chickenpox. (n.d.). Retrieved May 25, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chickenpox

Chickenpox. (n.d.). Retrieved May 25, 2015, from http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/chickenpox/risk-factors.html

Epidemiology: Some basic concepts and definitions. (n.d.). Retrieved May 25, 2015, from http://www.fao.org/wairdocs/ilri/x5436e/x5436e04.htm

Strategies for the Control and Investigation of Varicella Outbreaks Manual, 2008. (2011, November 16). Retrieved May 25, 2015, from http://www.cdc.gov/chickenpox/outbreaks/manual.html

VZV Foundation - A Decade Of Leadership In The Fight Against VZV Infections. (n.d.). Retrieved May 25, 2015, from http://www.vzvfoundation.org/

Williams, K. (n.d.). Student Reproducible. Retrieved May 25, 2015, from http://www.cdc.gov/bam/teachers/documents/epi_1_triangle.pdf

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Benchmarkassignmentepidemiologypaperhepititsb

...Benchmark Assignment: Epidemiology Paper Grand Canyon University Concepts in Community and Public Health NRS-427V-0501 Benchmark Assignment: Epidemiology Paper Hepatitis B The definition for Hepatitis changes with whom you ask. To some it means a horrible painful way to die while others are able to look at it as a disease. The word Hepatitis means liver inflamation. The liver is a large, glandular, reddish-brown organ located in the upper right side of the abdomen. It consists of 5 lobes and secretes bile into the gallbladder and into the small intestine and aids in the digestion of lipids. Hepatitis is often caused by a virus. Hepatitis A, B, and C are the most common types in the United States but there is also a type D, E, and there was thought to be an F but after a thorough investigation they failed to prove its existence. Hepatitis B (HBV) is a liver disease that is contagious. It is believed that approximately 1.2 to 1.4 million people in the United States have chronic Hepatitis many of which are not officially diagnosed. There are two stages or categories of Hepatitis B, chronic and acute. Chronic Hepatitis B is anyone who has had the virus for longer than 6 months ("Hepatitis B," 2010) and at this point it is considered a lifelong illness. The beginning or acute phase of Hepatitis B is the first 6 months of being exposed to the virus. During this first 6 months some people are able to fight the infection off and get rid of it....

Words: 1444 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Epidemiology of Influenza

...Benchmark Assignment: Epidemiology of Influenza Jaime Mercado Grand Canyon University Concepts in Community and Public Health NRS-427V-O504 Misty Stone August 14, 2015 Benchmark Assignment: Epidemiology of Influenza At the start of every winter season, hospitals rapidly begin preparation for the “Flu Season,” a time where vaccines are pushed heavily and every running/stuffy nose complete with fever is closely monitored to see if it will result in something more devious that the common cold; something called Influenza. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), defines this affliction as a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses; causing mild to severe illness; where serious outcomes of flu infection can result in hospitalization or death.  (2015, para. 1). Now this virus is different than that of the cold; while some symptoms are similar, such as, sore throat, dry or productive cough, runny or stuffy nose, itchy eyes, and malaise, the big differences are fever or feeling feverish/chills, body aches, and the severity and onset of the symptoms. With influenza, symptoms have a rapid onset and can make you feel quite ill for a few days to weeks, while cold symptoms can make you feel bad for a few days. Influenza can also result in serious health problems such as pneumonia and bronchitis and can result in a hospitalization stay, mainly when concerning the very young, elderly or immuno-compromised individual....

Words: 1442 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Hep C

...Benchmark Assignment: The Epidemiology of Hepatitis B Andrea Elena Medina Grand Canyon University: NRS-427V Concepts in Community and Public Health Thursday, December 08, 2015 Benchmark Assignment: The Epidemiology of Hepatitis B A major global health issue impacting the international health community is Hepatitis B. Hepatitis B is viral condition that injures the liver due to the attempt to eliminate the virus, leading to progressive liver disease and cirrhosis (Hepatitis B (HBV, Hep B), 2014). The incidence of cirrhosis developing in people with chronic HBV is 8-20% (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, 2013; European Association for the Study of the Liver, 2012); the annual incidence of HBV-related liver cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, is 2-5% of people with cirrhosis (EASL, 2012). A person infected with Hepatitis B can transmit the virus to another person who hasn’t been affected by Hepatitis B in several ways. People can become infected with the virus when they come into contact with contaminated blood, semen and when other body fluids mix with the uninfected person’s body fluids. Examples of transmission occur from sexual contact, blood transfusion before the year 1992, sharing of needles or syringes, and from mother to baby at birth. Hepatitis B can be an acute, or short-term, illness for some people but for others, it can often lead to a lifelong chronic infection....

Words: 1759 - Pages: 8