# Nt1310 Unit 7

Submitted By
Words 587
Pages 3
Exercises

3.8.2 Questions:
Q3-2. What does the amplitude of a signal measure? What does the frequency of a signal measure? What does the phase of a signal measure? Amplitude: it measures the proportion of the energy that a specific area can carry it, and it always include (peak amplitude) which represent the highest intensity that carried by the area. Frequency: it used to measure “the number of periods in 1 second”. Phase: it is used to “describe the position of the waveform relative to time 0, and it measured in degrees of radians”. [1]

Q3-6. Distinguish between a low-pass channel and a band-pass channel. Low-pass channel: “a channel with a bandwidth that starts from zero”. Band-pass channel: “a channel with a bandwidth that doesn’t …show more content…
What does the Nyquist theorem have to do with communications?
The Nyquist theorem will define “the theoretical maximum bit rate” for the noiseless channel through the Nyquist bit rate formula as following:
BitRate=2×bandwidth×log_2 L[3]

Q3-8. What does the Shannon capacity have to do with communications?
The Shannon capacity has to determine the theoretical highest data rate for a noisy channel through the following formula:
Capacity=bandwidth×log_2 (1+SNR)[4]

3.8.3 Problems:
P3-7. What is the bit rate for each of the following signals?
a. A signal in which 1 bit lasts 0.001 s
Basically, bit rate is donated as r_b and we can found it by using the following formula: r_b=n/T Whereas n measured in bits, and T measured in second. [5]
So, in such a case: r_b=1/0.001=1000bps b. A signal in which 1 bit lasts 2 ms
First, we need to convert 2 ms to second.
2 ms=2×〖10〗^(-3)=0.002 s r_b=1/0.002=500bps c. A signal in which 10 bits last 20 …show more content…
10 Mbps?
10 Mbps = 10,000,000 bps , 2 ms = 0.002 s volume of bits=10,000,000×0.002=20,000 bits
c. 100 Mbps?
100 Mbps = 100,000,000 bps , 2 ms = 0.002 s volume of bits=100,000,000×0.002=200,000 bits

References:
[1] Forouzan, B. (2013). Introduction. In Data communications and networking (5th ed., pp. 57-60). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
[2] Forouzan, B. (2013). Introduction. In Data communications and networking (5th ed., pp. 71-75). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
[3] Forouzan, B. (2013). Introduction. In Data communications and networking (5th ed., p. 81). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
[4] Forouzan, B. (2013). Introduction. In Data communications and networking (5th ed., p. 82bit). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
[5] Analog and Digital Conversion/Resolution and Bitrate. (n.d.). Retrieved February 14, 2015, from http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Analog_and_Digital_Conversion/Resolution_and_Bitrate
[6] Forouzan, B. (2013). Network Models. In Data communications and networking (5th ed., p. 86). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
[7] Forouzan, B. (2013). Network Models. In Data communications and networking (5th ed., p. 88). New York, NY:

### Similar Documents

#### Nt1310 Unit 7

...Describe some of the health, safety & environmental risks that have been linked to CCS and explain how these risks can be quantified and communicated in an understandable way to the public. There are some risks associated with CCS that can impact health, safety, and environmental factors. If a leakage were to result, it would be hazardous to not only people but also the surrounding wildlife and ecosystems. The elevated CO2 concentrations in confined areas would play an adverse role in having drinkable water because the groundwater chemistry would change once the CO2 dissolves, therefore these alterations could impact the health of humans and whichever ecosystems it is in contact with. For example, the shallower underground environment could be killed or weakened by elevated CO2 concentrations. Insects and burrowing animals would be negatively affected, and it would also inhibit root respiration by displacing the soil oxygen needed for proper function in plants (Keith & Stephens, n.d., para. 12&13). However, the likelihood of these hazardous leakages happening is anticipated to be relatively small using insight from storage facilities. The performance of natural gas storage in North America anticipates the average leakage rate is less than 0.01% of the actual gas being stored. This can be communicated in an understandable way to the public by reinforcing the knowledge of how small the likelihood of these events happening are. It looks more substantial when compared to...

Words: 788 - Pages: 4

#### Nt1310 Unit 7

... During route discovery process in AODV protocol, the malicious flooding attacker floods the route request packets through the victim node symbolizing as setting up a path. Following the path establishment, the attacker floods data packets through the victim node for paralyzing the node. As the packet size of these data packets is much larger than the route request packet, the victim nodes get congested easily. The attackers consume the battery power of the victim node, thus separating them from the network. Hence, the malicious flooding attack leads to denial of service (DoS) attack on the victim node. Thus, there is worsening in the act of processing the valid packets at the victim node. As the malicious flooding attack congests the victim node as well as the entire network, it is very harmful to the mobile ad hoc network. Also it is very difficult to avoid this attack when it is caused by the multiple attackers. The flooding and packet dropping attacks preventing the network service availability result in ineffective secure routing. A malicious node can manipulate routing messages and also cause packet drops selectively which may result in network dysfunctioning. The general form of security violation is the DDoS attack where the attackers floods huge incoming packets over the victim nodes. Generally in wireless networks, attackers introduce the false packets effortlessly imitating another sender which is termed as spoofing attack. Whatever is the type of attack that has happened...

Words: 595 - Pages: 3

#### Nt1310 Unit 7

...while classless routing protocols do send the subnet mask together with their updates. Guess of a router with two interface having ip 172.32.162.65/30 and 192.168.15.129/30 In classfull routing. router sets up the route of network 172.32.0.0/16, 192.168.15.0/24 (All subnet location will be pointed by the route in one direction and results in destination which is un-reachable for many subnets) In classless routing, router sets up the route of network 172.32.162.64/30, 192.168.15.128/30 3) Discuss some of the benefits and disadvantages of using group policy in an organization. Group Policy Advantages Users may allocate group policy in domains , websites , and also organizational units . Group policy settings reflect every persons and computers in domain , website , and organizational unit . Nobody in network has got rights to change Group policy configurations . By default , solely the administrator possesses total privilege to alter , therefore it is very secure . Policy configurations may be removed and the alterations could be further rewritten . Disadvantages Can be cumbersome . It may be difficult to determine which sets of policies relate to which device . Configuration errors can cause group policy to be ineffective or even not work at all . What might work on one network might not exactly work on another . 4) Policy that is available in Windows 2012 Server Microsoft Virtual Desktop Infrastructure ( VDI ) This enables you to deliver desktops and also...

Words: 754 - Pages: 4

#### Nt1310 Unit 7

...Marvin Austrie Unit 8Assignment Purdue University IT279 Certified Information Systems Security Professional 2 Professor Laurent Boucard 6/13/18 1) What is a common implementation for the IPSec protocol? The best and commonly used implementation for the IPSec is VPN that uses the Cisco routers to protect the system against risk vulnerabilities. There are four major basic steps applied in utilizing IPSec VPN protocol that ensures the system is same and free from external attacks. The four steps include the encryption of data transmission, validation of data integrity, authentication of data source, as well as ensuring data integrity (International Council of E-Commerce Consultants, 2010). 2). which command should you use?...

Words: 921 - Pages: 4

#### Nt1310 Unit 7

...1.3 TCP/IP is the basic communication language. TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol. It is a standard that defines how to establish and maintain a network conversation via which application programs can exchange data. It allows network connection and make sure that the network is connected. IP stands for Internet Protocol. IP is a numerical label assigned to each device such as computer, printer participating in computer network that use the internet protocol for communication. IP connects to the internet and make sure that internet is connected. TCP/IP is a two layer program. When information is sent over the internet the higher layer TCP manages the assembling of a file into smaller packets that are transmitted. These packets speed up the transmission as parts can be sent to different routes and then at the reassembled destination. When the packets are sent, the lower layer IP handles the address. Every packets have its IP address. All the sent packets containing IP address showing where the packets is supposed to go. A packet might go through a number of computer routers before coming to its destination. Application layer protocol allows the operating system or the application to interact with the user when the user is transferring the files, read messages or performing network based tasks. Communication process happens in the TCP/IP in the following methods: 1. The creation of data application layer of the source device. 2. Segmentation and encapsulation of data as...

Words: 965 - Pages: 4

#### Nt1310 Unit 7

...1. Which area(s) are above the expected levels of performance? The two primary data sources that Woodland Middle School used for analysis were the Criterion Reference Competency Test (CRCT) and the Georgia Grade 8 Writing Assessment (MGWA). The writing assessment for grade eight consists of an evaluation of each student response to an assigned prompt. Students are assigned a topic from a prompt bank representing two genres: expository and persuasive. The CRCT is designed to measure how well students acquire the skills and knowledge described in the state mandated content standards in reading, English/Language arts, mathematics, science and social studies. This information is used to diagnose individual student strengths and weaknesses as related to the instruction of the state standards. With the changes in the curriculum and evaluation system, the CRCT and MGWA will be replaced with the Georgia Milestones End Grade assessment in 2015. It is the overall goal of Woodland Middle School to increase the percentage of students who meet and students who exceed standards on both of these state assessments. On the GHSWT in 2011-2012, 97% of Carver School of Technology students passed the exam following the main administration and retakes. The percentage of students meeting and exceeding the standards was higher than the state and district average. Also, in 2011, 2012 and 2013, the students taking the EOCT in Economics met or exceeded the performance targets for Black and Economically...

Words: 557 - Pages: 3

#### Nt1310 Unit 7

Words: 698 - Pages: 3

#### Nt1310 Unit 7

...Because the 802.11 standard relies on an independent secure channel to generate and distribute the pre-shared keys (pre-shared keys refers to WEP static keys) to each station and does not specify key distribution services, most 802.11 WLAN deployments rely on manual key generation and distribution. This means that the pre-shared key remains the same unless the network administrator generates a new key and manually updates it on each access point and mobile station. Optionally, the keys could be distributed via email or fax to each user, who needs then to manually configure the new key, since the keys themselves are usually meaningless sequences of characters and digits, errors could occur when humans manually enter the key information. Administrators therefore tend to deploy easy to remember keys and thus easy to crack as well. Once the new key is updated at the access point, no user is able to connect to the WLAN until the key at the mobile station is updated to match the new key deployed at the access point. Obvious problems result from the static nature of the keys and the manual process of key management as changing the keys on each station can be extremely time consuming, error prone and cumbersome, especially because of the mobility of WLAN's users. If a mobile station is lost due to theft or accident, or if a mobile user needs to be revoked access to the WLAN, the processes of updating new keys must then be repeated for each wireless station. If a key is static it simplifies...

Words: 550 - Pages: 3

#### Nt1310 Unit 7

...Question 7. The highest temperatures within the day are usually recorded at around 2 o clock in the afternoon. Can you explain why this happens? Hot air rises, the land heats up and the air comes up, ground holds heat, heating up through conduction. If you touch a hot sidewalk in the summertime that sidewalk will retain the heat late into the night, the most absorbed heat occurs by 2 P.M after the sun has shone the highest transferring heat. Question 8. Trends since 2004 the overall average temperature has increased from 54.8 to 58.8. Although the temperature may be higher one year such as 2006 57.3 to 2008 55.8 overall the temperatures are still higher than the start temperature in 2004. July temperature has increased significantly since 2004, each year has seen fluctuations ranging from 2 degrees to over 8 degrees in 2010, heat...

Words: 1715 - Pages: 7

#### Nt1310 Unit 7

...1.3 Explain the role of the TCP/IP protocol and how it links to application layer protocols. TCP/IP, Transmission Control protocol/Internet Protocol, is a set of rules that are responsible for the transportation of data ensuring that the data reaches its final destination. It also is responsible for the connection management over the internet. It allows for two or more computers to be able to communicate with each other across the WWW or on a private network, communication occurs through a high speed link, which usually is provided. TCP/IP is also uses the internet to send, receive and open data packets when sent to the correct address. As a result of this TCP/IP therefore allows for the connection of people onto the internet. TCP, also known as Transmission Control Protocol, is a set of rules that govern how a network governs and establishes and maintains a conversation in which applications exchange data. It allows for a network connection to be established and ensures the network is online. IP, also known as Internet Protocol is a tag consisting of multiple numbers that is assigned to devices that use the IP for communication IP, also known as Internet protocol, is a set of rules that govern the transmission of data over the internet. Therefore IP allows for the establishment of the internet because data can be passed to and from multiple people in various different places. In order for this to happen an IP address must be present, this is a unique and randomised tag consisting...

Words: 1369 - Pages: 6

#### Itt Nt1310 Unit 7

...NT1310 Unit 7 Assignment 1: Crosstalk a disturbance caused by the electric or magnetic fields of one telecommunication signal affecting a signal in an adjacent circuit Waveguides an electromagnetic feed line used in microwave communications, broadcasting, and radar installations FTTH is the installation and use of optical fiber from a central point directly to individual buildings such as residences, apartment buildings and businesses Simplex a communications mode in which only one signal is transmitted, and it always goes in the same direction Half-Duplex data can be transmitted in both directions on a signal carrier, but not at the same time. Full-Duplex data can be transmitted in both directions on a signal carrier, at the same time. 1. Photodiode a semiconductor diode that, when exposed to light, generates a potential difference or changes its electrical resistance Amplitude Modulation the transmission of data by varying the amplitude of the individual pulses in a regularly timed sequence of electrical or electromagnetic pulses. Analog Transmission a base carrier's alternating current frequency is modified in some way, such as by amplifying the strength of the signal or varying the frequency, in order to add information to the signal Digital Transmission the physical transfer of data over a point-to-point or point-to-multipoint communication channel. Sample Rate the number of samples of a sound that are taken per second to represent the event digitally...

Words: 955 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

#### Nt1310 Unit 7 Exercise

...Crosstalk- unwanted transfer of signals between communication channels. Waveguides- a metal tube or other device confining and conveying microwaves. FTTH- Fiber to the home (FTTH) is the delivery of a communications signal over optical fiber from the operator's switching equipment all the way to a home or business, thereby replacing existing copper infrastructure such as telephone wires and coaxial cable. Simplex- Simplex refers to one-way communications where one party is the transmitter and the other is the receiver. An example of simplex communications is a simple radio, which you can receive data from stations but can't transmit data. Half-Duplex- Half-duplex data transmission means that data can be transmitted in both directions on a signal carrier, but not at the same time. Full-Duplex- Full-duplex communication between two components means that both can transmit and receive information between each other simultaneously. Telephones are full-duplex systems so both parties on the phone can talk and listen at the same time. Photodiode- a semiconductor diode that, when exposed to light, generates a potential difference or changes its electrical resistance. Amplitude Modulation- the modulation of a wave by varying its amplitude, used chiefly as a means of radio broadcasting, in which an audio signal is combined with a carrier wave. Analog Transmission- Analog (or analogue) transmission is a transmission method of conveying voice, data, image, signal or video...

Words: 771 - Pages: 4

#### Nt1310 Unit 7 Assignment

...Throughout sixth and seventh grade, I have worked hard to maintain averages in all my classes which allowed me to earn High Honors throughout both years. It is always my goal to earn straight A’s, and I always do. I’ve received straight A+’s sometimes as well. I always try my best in school and do the best work that I can on everything, even in the classes that I don’t love or find particularly interesting. I always do the homework and projects that are assigned and hand them in on time even if it means putting schoolwork over something else that I would rather be doing, like hanging out with my friends. I study hard for every test and quiz so that I can get a good grade to raise my average. I always work hard in school because I know that it will help me later in life and I want to put my best foot forward. One of my favorite things that I do is participate in the Peer Tutoring program. I was chosen and trained to be a Peer Tutor in sixth grade and in seventh grade, my friend asked me to help her in math. I helped her raise her average from nearly failing to a B+ and still help her to maintain the high average. I enjoy doing this because I like helping my friend and I like knowing that something good is coming out of what I am doing. I am a member of Tri-M. Not only do I work hard at my schoolwork, but I also try to practice my violin often to maintain a high average in orchestra. I was also a member of the cross country team in sixth grade and the soccer team in seventh...

Words: 655 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

#### Nt1310 Unit 7 Defintions

...Unit 7.Exercise 1. Fiber Optics--Definitions Cross Talk- Fiber-optic cabling is immune to crosstalk because optical fiber does not conduct electricity and uses light signals in a glass fiber, rather than electrical signals along a metallic conductor, to transmit data. So it cannot produce a magnetic field and thus is immune to EMI. Waveguides- A structure that guides electro-magnetic waves along their length. The core fiber in an optical fiber cable is an optical waveguide FTTH- Fiber to the Home Simplex- A link that can carry a signal in only one direction Half-Duplex- A system in which signals may be sent in two directions, but not at the same time. In a half-duplex system, one end of the link must finish transmitting before the other end may begin. Full Duplex- A system in which signals may be transmitted in two directions at the same time Photodiode- A component that converts light energy into electrical energy. The photo-diode is used as the receiving end of a fiber optic leak Amplitude Modulation- A method of signal transmission in which the amplitude of the carrier is varied in accordance with the signal. Analog Transmission- effected by noise and attenuation more than digital transmission Digital Transmission- the FCC changed the signal from analog to digital on 12 Jun 2009 Sample Rate- When an analog signal is digitized, any information between the samples is lost, so instead of a smooth transition over time, the digital information jumps from one voltage...

Words: 930 - Pages: 4