3.8.2 Questions:

Q3-2. What does the amplitude of a signal measure? What does the frequency of a signal measure? What does the phase of a signal measure? Amplitude: it measures the proportion of the energy that a specific area can carry it, and it always include (peak amplitude) which represent the highest intensity that carried by the area. Frequency: it used to measure “the number of periods in 1 second”. Phase: it is used to “describe the position of the waveform relative to time 0, and it measured in degrees of radians”. [1]

Q3-6. Distinguish between a low-pass channel and a band-pass channel. Low-pass channel: “a channel with a bandwidth that starts from zero”. Band-pass channel: “a channel with a bandwidth that doesn’t

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What does the Nyquist theorem have to do with communications?

The Nyquist theorem will define “the theoretical maximum bit rate” for the noiseless channel through the Nyquist bit rate formula as following:

BitRate=2×bandwidth×log_2 L[3]

Q3-8. What does the Shannon capacity have to do with communications?

The Shannon capacity has to determine the theoretical highest data rate for a noisy channel through the following formula:

Capacity=bandwidth×log_2 (1+SNR)[4]

3.8.3 Problems:

P3-7. What is the bit rate for each of the following signals?

a. A signal in which 1 bit lasts 0.001 s

Basically, bit rate is donated as r_b and we can found it by using the following formula: r_b=n/T Whereas n measured in bits, and T measured in second. [5]

So, in such a case: r_b=1/0.001=1000bps b. A signal in which 1 bit lasts 2 ms

First, we need to convert 2 ms to second.

2 ms=2×〖10〗^(-3)=0.002 s r_b=1/0.002=500bps c. A signal in which 10 bits last 20

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10 Mbps?

10 Mbps = 10,000,000 bps , 2 ms = 0.002 s volume of bits=10,000,000×0.002=20,000 bits

c. 100 Mbps?

100 Mbps = 100,000,000 bps , 2 ms = 0.002 s volume of bits=100,000,000×0.002=200,000 bits

References:

[1] Forouzan, B. (2013). Introduction. In Data communications and networking (5th ed., pp. 57-60). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

[2] Forouzan, B. (2013). Introduction. In Data communications and networking (5th ed., pp. 71-75). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

[3] Forouzan, B. (2013). Introduction. In Data communications and networking (5th ed., p. 81). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

[4] Forouzan, B. (2013). Introduction. In Data communications and networking (5th ed., p. 82bit). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

[5] Analog and Digital Conversion/Resolution and Bitrate. (n.d.). Retrieved February 14, 2015, from http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Analog_and_Digital_Conversion/Resolution_and_Bitrate

[6] Forouzan, B. (2013). Network Models. In Data communications and networking (5th ed., p. 86). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

[7] Forouzan, B. (2013). Network Models. In Data communications and networking (5th ed., p. 88). New York, NY: