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Nt1430 Linux Networking (Unit 1 Linux Server Installation and Configuration)

In: Computers and Technology

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1. What are multiuser systems and why are they successful?
Multiuser operating systems allow the multiple users to access the resources of single systems at a time or at different time. It allows many users to take advantage of the computer's resources simultaneously. Some permit 100's to 1000 users to take advantage of the computer's resources simultaneously. They are successful because of the powerful, efficient, stable and secure operating systems like LINUX. It has a capability of providing each user the same data ensuring total privacy from each user even while accessed by 100's of users simultaneously. 2. What is the Free Software Foundation/GNU? Linux? Which parts of the GNU/Linux operating system did each provide? Who else has helped build and refine this operating system?
The Free Software Foundation (www.fsf.org) is the principal organizational sponsor of the GNU Project. GNU developed many of the tools, including the C compilers that are part of the GNU/Linux Operating Systems. Linux is the name of an operating system kernel developed by Linus Torvalds and expanded and improved What are multiuser by thousands of people on the Internet. Torvalds’s kernel and GNU’s tools work together as the GNU/Linux Operating System. 3. In what language is Linux written? What does the language have to do with the success of Linux?
Linux is written in the C programming language and because it is written in the C language the language can be imbedded in all type of devices from TV’s, to PDA’s, cell phones, cable boxes for the reason of this language being so portable. 4. What is a shell? How does it work with the kernel? With the user?
Shell is a piece of software that provides an interface for users of an operating system. Shell provides access to the services of a kernel. Shell makes the user’s job faster and easier in many ways. 5. What is a filesystem?
A file system (or filesystem) is a means to organize data expected to be retained after a program terminates by providing procedures to store, retrieve and update data, as well as manage the available space on the device which contain it. A file system organizes data in an efficient manner and is tuned to the specific characteristics of the device. 6. What is an ISO image?
An ISO image is an archive file of an optical disc, a type of disk image composed of the data contents of every written sector of an optical disc, including the optical disc file system. 7. What are two reasons you should not use RAID to replace backup?
1) It is very possible that both disks are damaged at the same moment, for example by fire, overvoltage from a lightning strike etc.
2) RAID does not protect from user accidentally erasing information.

8. What is SHA2? How does it work to ensure that the ISO image file you downloaded is correct?
SHA2 is a CHECKSUM file.
A “checksum” (also known as hashes digest) is a form of redundancy check. This is a simple way to protect the integrity of data, by detecting errors (modifications) in data that are sent through space(telecommunications) or time (storage).

9. What is a live system? What advantages does it have over an installed system?

A live system is a complete bootable computer operating system which runs in the computer's memory, rather than loading from the hard disk drive. It allows users to experience and evaluate an operating system without installing it or making any changes to the existing operating system on the computer. Live CDs are unique because they can run on a computer lacking secondary storage, such as a hard disk drive, or with a corrupted hard disk drive or file system, allowing users to rescue data.

10. Which boot parameter would you use to begin an FTP installation?

askmethod or method

11. Describe the Anaconda installer.

Anaconda is the installer for Red Hat Linux and Fedora. It is written in Python and C, with a graphical interface using GTK+ 3 and PyGObject and a text interface using python-newt. A kickstart file can be used to automatically configure the installation, allowing users to run it without much supervision. Anaconda is used by RHEL, Fedora and a number of other projects, Anaconda offers a text-mode and GUI mode, so users can install on a wide range of systems.

12. Where on the disk should you put your /boot partition or the root (/) partition if you do not use a /boot partition?

Put /boot at the beginning of the drive (partition 1) so that there is no issue of Linux having to boot from a partition too far into the drive.

13. When should you specify an ext2 filesystem instead of ext4?

Use ext2 for partitions whose data does not change often, such as /boot.
The added overhead of the ext4 journal offers no benefit on these filesystems.

14. Describe Disk Druid.

Disk Druid is an interactive program for editing disk partitions. Users run it only within the Fedora installation system. Disk Druid enables you to configure Linux software RAID and LVM to provide more extensible and reliable data storage.

15. When does a Fedora/RHEL system start X by default?

When the system enters runlevel 5.

16. If you do not install grub on the master boot record of the hard disk, how can you boot Linux?

You will have to install it to the boot sector of the Linux /boot partition on your primary (first) hard drive.

17. Why would you place /var at the beginning of the disk?
The /var filesystem contains files that are modified frequently. The start of the disk is near the outer edge and data can usually be accessed faster from this location.

18. How does Anaconda set up a hard disk by default?

It creates two logical volumes (swap and root [/]) and one standard partition (/boot). With this setup, most of the space on the disk is assigned to the root partition.

19. List and describe in detail four advantages of Linux.

Applications – Linux is both free and commercial as well as a wide variety of tools: graphical, word processing, networking, security administration, Web server and many others.

Flexibility - Linux can be used for high performance server applications, desktop applications, and embedded systems. You can save disk space by only installing the components needed for a particular use. You can restrict the use of specific computers by installing for example only selected office applications instead of the whole suite.

Performance - Linux provides persistent high performance on workstations and on networks. It can handle unusually large numbers of users simultaneously, and can make old computers sufficiently responsive to be useful again.

Low cost: You don’t need to spend time and money to obtain licenses since Linux and much of its software come with the GNU General Public License. You can start to work immediately without worrying that your software may stop working anytime because the free trial version expires. Additionally, there are large repositories from which you can freely download high quality software for almost any task you can think of.

20. What is LVM? What advantages does LVM have over traditional partitions?

LVM is a tool for logical volume management which is used to allocating disks, striping, mirroring and resizing logical volumes. The main advantage is what its name suggests: Logical Volume Management. It allows you to manage logical volumes in a single partition, but more importantly, it allows you to shrink or expand them while the system is up and running. With traditional partitions you had to estimate how much space you needed for partitions (good luck guessing!) and if you got it wrong or didn't like it, you would have to back up everything, wipe the hard drive, reformat/partition it, load everything back on, and then hope you get it right this time.

21. While partitioning a hard drive, what is the minimum space required for the boot partition?

100 megabytes.

22. What is a swap partition? How much space is required for a swap partition?

The swap partition is where Linux temporarily stores programs and data when there isn’t enough RAM to hold all the processing. The minimum size of the swap partition depends on how much RAM the computer has. A 2GB partition for systems with up to 4GB RAM, 4GB partition for sy4-16GB RAM, and 8GB partition for anything above 16GB.

23. Write the two types of boot loaders.

LILO (LInux LOader) and GRUB.

24. The Kernel is the base operating system, and it interacts directly with the hardware, software services, applications programs, and user-created scripts.

25. The Bourne Again Shell (BASH) is the default shell in Linux, and it is the shell many users prefer.

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