Free Essay


In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By SoulessRen
Words 558
Pages 3
Michael Cooper

Each layer of the TCP/IP has a particular function to perform every layer is completely different from the other layers next to it. The process of communication takes place, when data moves from layer 4 to 3 then to 2 then to 1 and the information sent arrives at the second computer to move from 1 to 2 to 3 and then finally to layer 4.

The Application layer forms a Message. This message goes through the Transport
Layer. The Transport layer adds the TCP or UDP header which comes with the source and destination port addresses. Any other information like the packet sequence number used for TCP will also be added to the header. The transport layer then generate the data which is referred to as a Segment if TCP is used, and is referred to as a Datagram if UDP is used.

This segment is then sent to the Network Layer. The Network layer adds a header with the source and destination IP address to form a packet. This is when the packet goes to the Data Link Layer. The Data Link layer then add a header which will contain the MAC address information to create a frame. After that the frame is sent it to the Physical Layer to transmit the bits.

When you have several computers, it can be use after you connect them to each other to create a local area network (LAN). This type of network began to appear in the early 1970s. They grew from point-to-point connections where a single wire connected two systems.

It made more sense for the people back in the day to connect multiple computers with the same cable, but doing so, an arbitration mechanism was needed to ensure just one computer transmit data. Actually, Ethernet originally was a concept that came out of a satellite communication system in which many devices shared the data.
Arbitration mechanism method is called medium access controls or as we know it MAC.

The term Wide Area Network (WAN) usually refers to a network which covers a large geographical area. The transmission rate are usually 2 Mbps, 34 Mbps, 45 Mbps, 155 Mbps, 625 Mbps or more. A lot of WANs have been build including public packet networks, large corporate networks, military networks, banking networks and airline networks. Some WANs are very extensive in a global sense. Organizations supports
WANs using the Internet Protocol (IP) are known as Network Service Providers (NSPs).

An IP network is a network is a network of computer using Internet Protocol for their communication protocol. All computer within an IP network must have an IP address that uniquely identifies that host by its self. An Internet Protocol-based network is a group of hosts that share a common physical connection and it uses the Internet
Protocol for communication. An IP network normally uses a dynamic routing protocol to find alternate routes whenever a computer becomes unavailable. This provides a strong link form the times it failed, but does not guarantee reliable delivery.


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