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Ntermediate Academic Reading & Writing

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ENG100
INTERMEDIATE ACADEMIC READING & WRITING

CHAPTER 1
PRE-WRITING

PREPARED BY:

ZARINAH ABU BAKAR NAME OF SCHOOL
FACULTY OF LANGUAGES AND GENERAL STUDIES

CHAPTER 1: PRE-WRITING

LEARNING OUTCOMES
TOPIC

At the end of this chapter, students will be able to:  Use a variety of pre-writing activities to generate ideas, focus a topic, and formulate a method of developing an essay  select and narrow an essay topic

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CHAPTER 1: PRE-WRITING

TOPIC OUTLINES
TOPIC

Introduction 1.1 Pre-writing 1.1.1 Steps in process writing 1.1.2 Analysing the topic/question- directive words 1.1.3 Selecting and narrowing an essay topic 1.2 Pre-writing strategies 1.2.1 Brainstorming methods 1.3 Reading and note taking strategies 1.3.1 Note taking skills

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CHAPTER 1: PRE-WRITING

INTRODUCTION
TOPIC

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CHAPTER 1: PRE-WRITING

1.1.1 STEPS IN PROCESS WRITING

The Writing Process

TOPIC

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CHAPTER 1: PRE-WRITING

1.1.2 CHOOSING A QUESTION
TOPIC

If you have a choice of essay questions consider the following factors when deciding which essay to do: which topics interest you most?

which topics have good resource materials available? which topics are most relevant to you personally or professionally? which topics might be easiest for you to write about?
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CHAPTER 1: PRE-WRITING

1.1.2 Analysing the topic/question- directive words
TOPIC

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CHAPTER 1: PRE-WRITING

1.1.2 Analysing the topic/question- directive words
TOPIC

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CHAPTER 1: PRE-WRITING

1.1.3 Selecting and narrowing an essay topic
TOPIC

• Choose a topic that isn’t too narrow (limited, brief). A narrow topic will not have enough ideas to write about. • Choose a topic that isn’t too broad (general). School is too general. There are thousands of things you could say about it. • A student could narrow this topic by choosing one aspect of schools to discuss.  High schools in my country  University entrance exams

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CHAPTER 1: PRE-WRITING

1.1.3 Selecting and narrowing an essay topic
TOPIC

You can narrow your topic by considering a particular approach to the subject, or a sub-topic within it. You might ask yourself key questions, such as the following:

 Am I writing of one war or of war in general?

War

 Which war do I wish to write about? WWI? WWII? The Gulf War? "War" taken more metaphorically, between the sexes, siblings, or members of different races?

 Am I concentrating on the history of the war itself, or its causes or outcome?  What specific events or examples will illustrate my points?  In deriving a workable topic from your subject, be careful not to narrow it too far; your topic must provide scope to develop a sustained presentation and argument.
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CHAPTER 1: PRE-WRITING

1.1.3 Selecting and narrowing an essay topic
TOPIC

General subject: MEDIA
Specific topic:
HOW COMMERCIALS MANIPULATE THEIR AUDIENCE Narrowed topic: COMMERCIALS

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CHAPTER 1: PRE-WRITING

1.1.3 Selecting and narrowing an essay topic Activity Rearrange the topics from broad to narrow
TOPIC

Teachers

EDUCATION

Education

TEACHERS

Math teacher

Math teacher
HIGH SCHOOL MATH TEACHER
My high school math teacher was excellent

My high school math teacher was excellent

High school math teacher

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CHAPTER 1: PRE-WRITING

1.1.3 Selecting and narrowing an essay topic Activity Rearrange the topics from broad to narrow
TOPIC

Financial institution

Financial institution

Bank

Bank Working in a bank
Dealing with customers
I’ve learned how to handle unpleasant bank customers

Dealing with customers

Working in a bank

I’ve learned how to handle unpleasant bank customers.

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CHAPTER 1: PRE-WRITING

1.1.3 Selecting and narrowing an essay topic INDIVIDUAL EXERCISE
TOPIC

Choose a general topic and narrow it to a more manageable one. Start with a broad topic of your own choosing, or use one of the following: 1. Animals 2. Holidays 3. Transportation

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CHAPTER 1: PRE-WRITING

1.2 Pre-writing strategies
TOPIC

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CHAPTER 1: PRE-WRITING

1.2 Pre-writing strategies
TOPIC

When you brainstorm, write down every idea that comes to you.

Brainstorming is a way of gathering ideas about a topic.

Now imagine thousands of ideas “raining” down onto your paper !

Think of a storm : thousands of drops of rain, all coming down together

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CHAPTER 1: PRE-WRITING

1.2 Pre-writing strategies

Making a list

TOPIC

What should I study at university?

 Write single words, or sentences that are connected to your topic.
Look at this list a student made when brainstorming ideas about her topic.
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CHAPTER 1: PRE-WRITING

1.2 Pre-writing strategies

Freewriting

TOPIC

Freewriting
 When free write, you write whatever comes into your head about your topic, without stopping.  Most free writing exercises are short-just five or ten minutes  Freewriting helps you practice fluency (writing quickly and easily).  You do not need to worry about accuracy ( having correct grammar and spelling).  Don’t check your dictionary when you free write.  Don’t stop if you make a mistake.

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CHAPTER 1: PRE-WRITING

1.2 Pre-writing strategies

Freewriting 1. Start with the main topic of your essay. Write that word or words at the top of your paper. 2. Write as much as you can in connected sentences (not lists) about your topic. Write as quickly as you can without stopping to think about grammar or organization. My Favorite Book

TOPIC

My favorite book… I don’t know where to start. I read so many books that are interesting that it’s hard to choose just one. I guess I could start by talking about the kinds of books I really like. I like biographies and autobiographies the best. I really enjoy reading about another person’s life. One of my favorite books is called Roots by Alex Haley. How the author was able to trace his family history all the way back to Africa was amazing! Another book I really enjoyed was Carl Sandburg’s biography of Abraham Lincoln. What an incredible president! There are also some very interesting books about leaders like Napoleon, Churchill, and Stalin. Well, I guess that gives me a few ideas about where I can start on my topic.
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CHAPTER 1: PRE-WRITING

1.2 Pre-writing strategies

Mind Map

TOPIC

Mapping
To make a map, use a whole sheet of paper, and write your topic in the middle, with a circle around it. Then put the next idea in a circle above or below your topic and connect the circles with lines. These lines show that the two ideas are related

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CHAPTER 1: PRE-WRITING

1.2 Pre-writing strategies

Uses of Mind Maps

TOPIC

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CHAPTER 1: PRE-WRITING

Functions of mind map
TOPIC

Mind map is a powerful graphic technique for you to …

1. 2. 3. 4.

generate inspired ideas organize your thoughts summarize information improve memory recall of concepts 5. master in creativity and problem solving

Speaking Speaking Outline Outline

Listening Listening Notes Notes

Mind Map Mind Map
Reading Reading Comprehension Comprehension Writing Writing Clustering Clustering

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CHAPTER 1: PRE-WRITING

1.3 Reading and note taking strategies Note taking skills
TOPIC

Effective note-taking requires:
• Recognizing the main ideas • Identifying what information is relevant to your task • Having a system of note taking that works for you • Reducing the information to note and diagram format • Paraphrase the information in your own words • Recording the source of the information

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CHAPTER 1: PRE-WRITING

1.3 Reading and note taking strategies
TOPIC

1.Be selective and systematic

Before you start to take notes, skim the text. Then highlight or mark the main points and any relevant information you may need to take notes from. Finally keeping in mind your purpose for reading.Read the relevant sections of the text carefully and take separate notes as you read.

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CHAPTER 1: PRE-WRITING

1.3 Reading and note taking strategies
TOPIC

Ask yourself: will this text give me the information I require and where might it be located in the text?

Read the title and the abstract or preface (if there is one)

Read the introduction or first paragraph 2.Identify the purpose and function of a text
Your aim is to identify potentially useful information by getting an initial overview of the text (chapter, article, pages…) that you have selected to read.

Skim the text to read topic headings and notice how the text is organized Read graphic material and predict its purpose in the text
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CHAPTER 1: PRE-WRITING

1.3 Reading and note taking strategies
TOPIC

3.Identify how information is organized
Most texts use a range of organizing principles to develop ideas.
• • • • • • • • Past ideas to present ideas The steps or stages of a process or event Most important point to least important point Well known ideas to complex ideas General ideas to specific ideas The largest parts to the smallest parts of something Problems and solutions Causes and results

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CHAPTER 1: PRE-WRITING

1.3 Reading and note taking strategies

4. Include your thoughts
•When taking notes for an assignments it is also helpful to record your thoughts at the time. Record your thoughts in a separate column or margin and in a different color to the notes you took from the text. 1. What ideas did you have about your assignment when you read that information. 2. How do you think you could use this information in your assignment?

The recall Column

TOPIC

Main body of notes

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CHAPTER 1: PRE-WRITING

Summary
TOPIC

Steps in process writing 1.Pre-writing
2.Organizing 3.Drafting 4.Revising

Brainstorming techniques
1.Mind mapping 2.Free-writing 3.listing

Reading and note taking strategies
• Be selective and systematic • Identify the purpose and function of a text • Identify how information is organized • Include your thoughts
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CHAPTER 1: PRE-WRITING

NEXT SESSION PREVIEW
TOPIC

Unit 2: Writing a paragraph  2.1 The three parts of a paragraph  2.2 The topic sentence definition rules for writing topic sentence position of topic sentence

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CHAPTER 1: PRE-WRITING

LIST OF REFERENCES
TOPIC

Strauch.A.O(2005)Writers at work: The short composition.Cambridge.New York Zemach.D.E & Rumisek L.A(2003)College Writing: From Paragraph To Essay. Macmillan. Oxford Mort.P & Jones.G(n.d)Note-Taking Skills. The http://.lc.unsw.edu.au learning Centre from

Adapted from; www.eslflow.com/academicwritng.html

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