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Celtic Culture

Who are the ancient Celts? The celts are an ancient european culture, first coming to the present day U.K. in the 3rd-5th century.(source #1 / 1) In this essay I will attempt to familiarize you with this ancient culture and their folk beliefs, customs and traditions. The Celts. When people think of them today we tend to associate them with Ireland, and Scotland, but in reality they were a people of vast territory; controlling much of the northern Alps (Source #1 / 1). Why do people tend to associate the Celts with the British Isles? Simply because the current day Island of Britain and the surrounding British isles never came under total control. Prior to Roman expansion into their territory the culture reigned mightily, acquiring the regions of Britain from an earlier people reports (source #1 / 1). Even after the successful invasion of Britain the islands surrounding including Ireland and Scotland remained largely unconquered and a safe haven for Celtic culture. They were fighters, according to (source #2 / 2), the celtic people served as mercenaries for the Egyptian Queen Cleopatra. Because of this fighting spirit, the six Celtic languages survived (source #2). This allowed their culture to thrive. It is important to note there are two ethnically diverse and distinctly different groups of people who comprise the “Ancient Celts”. They are the “Gauls (from areas including France) and the Celtiberians (based in Iberia).” (Source #2 / 2). These people all spoke different language, and controlled an area so big it is hard to say that all were able to communicate with each other in the same language (source #2 / 2). These people may not have had a common language, but their ability as warriors was a well known attribute common amongst them all. Known as the “Galli” by the romans and Their people in my opinion were not unlike the Spartans. They were bread to fight, and their physiques reflected this. It is noted in (Source #2 / 3) “that the Celts detested being overweight and had penalties against this.”. Ephorus is quoted in (Source #2) “that they endeavored not to grow fat or pot-bellied, and any young man who exceeds the standard of the girdle is punished”.

If the previously mentioned quote is true, it can be assumed that these people had a governing system, as well as laws that governed them. The Celtic peoples practiced a religion called Druidism. Modern day Druidism is free of dogma and a fixed set of beliefs or practices, while also being free of any sacred texts; but share a number of common beliefs that define the nature of druidism (source #4). Modern druids are said to include among their ranks Monotheistic Druids, Polytheistic Druids, and Polytheistic Druids (source #4). It’s hard to imagine completely opposing theological beliefs but the Druid way is one of tolerance and beliefs. Nature is also a cornerstone for these peoples religion. This is supported by the first stanza in a poem written by Lucan (A.D. 39-65) found in (source #2).
“There stood a Grove
Which from the earliest time no hand of man
Had dared to violate; hidden from the sun…”
The second stanza of this poem also suggests that the Celts practiced human sacrifice.
“No sylvan nymphs
Here found a homes, nor Pan, but savage rites
And barbarous worship, altars horrible
On massive stones upreared; sacred with blood
Of men was every tree…”
While Druids love nature and it is undoubtedly a common theme amongst those who consider themselves Druids, the belief of an afterlife. This precept allowed the Celts to become better warriors believing there was a second life in death (source #2).
Druidism also has many other unique customs and beliefs as well as social and occupational divisions amongst the practitioners. These divisions were classified as the Bards, they were “the keepers of tradition, of memory of the tribe - they were the custodians of sacredness of the world.” The Ovates were the native healers of the Celts. These people specialized in divination, conversing with the ancestors, and prophesizing the future. Finally the Druids and Druidesses formed the common class in Celtic society (Source #3).

So we’ve touched on several cultural beliefs and practices that make the Celts a unique culture. They were incredibly skilled warriors that were governed by societal expectation and code of conduct, as well as being of an identifiable religious grouping. This leads me to the question I asked myself after researching this cultural group; are there any Celts left? According to (source #3) the answer is, yes! Those who identify themselves as being of Gaelic heritage are strong in number. Especially in the Ireland, Scotland, Wales and other regions of the British Isles. It is noted that to to 100,000 people speak Gaelic as a first language and nearly 500,000 speak Gaelic as a second language in Ireland (Source #1). In fact thanks to Irish monks of the 7th century, ancient Celtic literary works have survived. The most famous of these being The Book of Dun Cow. This book records myths, legends, customs and events from the 7th and 8th centuries (source #1). Also from these works we are given insight into their religious rituals. The ritual of “bull sleep” this was first recorded by the romans. In this ritual, “a chosen person was fed bull flesh and chanted to sleep by four Druids. When he awoke, he would prophecy who the next king would be.” (source #1). Unfortunately it appears there is no Druidic creation story that has survived the ancient times. It is also suggested in (source #3) that Celts had a baptism ceremony similar to the one found in Christianity. Although many researchers claim that baptism the idea of baptism was forged by Christian scribes recordings at the time.
Celts also had seasonal days of celebration, this is also a theme still present amongst practicing Druids of modern times. These Seasonal holiday known as the Samhain, Imbolc, Beltaine and Lughnasad. These holidays correspond with the seasonal changes of the year. i.e. the end of the warm season up until the time of the harvest also denoting the coming/ ending of the summer and winter solstices.

From these books it is known that Celts were agrarian farmers. They typically live in small settlements, considered by themselves to be independent tribes. There system of government was not unlike the medieval England, they existed as feudal societies protected by warlords. The Celts had no formal written code, however their are a set of Celtic Virtues that were respected amongst the people. Honor, loyalty hospitality, honesty, justice and courage these are the virtues that governed the lives of the Celts (source #3 / 2). Celts were skilled craftsmen of gold and precious stones and their artwork can be seen in the famous Celtic knot work and jewelry. Many of their jewelry and decorations depicted ancient symbols such as the tree life which is a representation of the connection between life on earth, and cosmic life after death. In this symbol all portions of the tree are interconnected from the roots to the branches. This is an example of the Celtic belief of life after death (Source #4 / 3).
The connections of modern day Druids and people of the ancient Celtic culture and from of Druidry. However the belief that one must find a spiritual path that helps a person live there life while providing inspiration, and encouragement through the trials and tribulations that occur during a lifetime. This philosophy allowed the celts to be diverse and tolerant of others.

I hope this essay has shed some light on one of the oldest cultures known to modern times, and allowed you to make some of your own connections to your personal culture and those around you. It is important to study those who came before us even if they are not connected to our personal sphere, this allows us to learn about our friends, family, and peers in this ever globalizing world. Without the study of Culture and Folklore we would have no perspective on where different peoples beliefs, ideas, or morals came from.

Works Cited
Source #1 shoreline.edu, Who were the Ancient Celts, 6/20/2015
<www.shoreline.edu/faculty/rody/archives/celts/outline2.html>

Source #2
Live Science, Owen Jarus. History of the Celts. 2015. 6/20/15
<www.livescience.com/44666-history-of-the-celts.html>

Source #3
B.A. Robinson, Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance, Celtic Druidism: Beliefs, practices & celebrations. 3/27/2007. 6/19/2015
<www.religioustolerance.org/druid2.html>

Source #4
Druid beliefs, Philip-Comm, Granta. Druid Beliefs. 2006. 6/19/15
<www.druidry.org/druid-way/druid-beliefs/html>

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