Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids in Health and Disease

In: Science

Submitted By DoctorKint
Words 1267
Pages 6
Name: Andrew Michael Kint
Course: MBChB
Module: Biochemistry
Lecturer: Professor Sheehama
Slot: school of medicine

Declaration 1. I know that plagiarism is wrong. Plagiarism is to use another person’s work and present it as one’s own. 2. Each significant contribution to, and quotation in this report that I have taken from the work (s) of other people has been attributed, and has been cited and referenced. 3. This report is my own. 4. I have not allowed, and will not allow anyone to copy my work with the intention of passing it off as his/her own work.

Signature date

Question: Discuss what are the nucleotides and nucleic acids in human health and disease

Almost all living cells contain two very important substances, deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA and ribonucleic acid or RNA. These molecules carry instructions for making proteins. The help specify the amino acid sequence and thus which proteins will be made. When nucleotides join together they form the functional units of the structure of DNA and RNA where DNA contains one less hydroxyl group than RNA. Nucleotides serve as a source of energy therefore playing an important role in metabolism, for example mitochondria produce ATP or Adenosine triphosphate. They also serve as co-factors in enzymatic reactions and participate in cell signalling for example as Camp messengers. A single nucleotide is made up of three smaller molecules, a phosphate group which helps to form the sugar phosphate backbone via phosphodiester bonds which is between the three carbon sugar of one atom and the four carbon sugar of another, a pentose sugar, deoxyribose or ribose, and a nitrogenous base thymine, adenine, guanine and cytosine or uracil in RNA. These bases can be purines which are double ringed structures or…...

Similar Documents

Health Promotion and Prevention

... NINTH EDITION Burton’s MICROBIOLOGY FOR THE HEALTH SCIENCES Paul G. Engelkirk, PhD, MT(ASCP), SM(AAM) Biomedical Educational Services (Biomed Ed) Belton, Texas Adjunct Faculty, Biology Department Temple College, Temple, TX Janet Duben-Engelkirk, EdD, MT(ASCP) Biomedical Educational Services (Biomed Ed) Belton, Texas Adjunct Faculty, Biotechnology Department Temple College, Temple, TX Acquisitions Editor: David B. Troy Product Manager: John Larkin Managing Editor: Laura S. Horowitz, Hearthside Publishing Services Marketing Manager: Allison Powell Designer: Steve Druding Compositor: Maryland Composition/Absolute Service Inc. Ninth Edition Copyright © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, a Wolters Kluwer business © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, © 2004 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, © 2000 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, © 1996 Lippincott-Raven, © 1992, 1988, 1983, 1979 JB Lippincott Co. 351 West Camden Street Baltimore, MD 21201 Printed in the People’s Republic of China All rights reserved. This book is protected by copyright. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, including as photocopies or scanned-in or other electronic copies, or utilized by any information storage and retrieval system without written permission from the copyright owner, except for brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. Materials appearing in this book prepared by individuals as part of their official duties as U.S.......

Words: 118758 - Pages: 476

Nucleic Acid Measurements

...Lecture 8 Nucleic Acid-Based Measurements Text Chapter 13 Wednesday, July 24, 2013 Total community DNA • Extract DNA from soil – – – – remove cells from soil separate cells from soil lyse cells separate DNA from cells – purify DNA • Extract DNA from soil – Extract DNA from cells in presence of soil • Bead-beating • chemical or enzymatic treatment – Sodium dodecyl sulfate or lysozyme Wednesday, July 24, 2013 DNA purification • Cesium chloride gradient centrifugation • Kits Low density DNA High density Wednesday, July 24, 2013 Visualizing nucleic acidsBlotting • Southern blotting – DNA • Northern blotting – RNA Wednesday, July 24, 2013 Agarose gel electrophoresis - Stain gel with ethidium bromide + Wednesday, July 24, 2013 DNA purification Agarose gel verification Wednesday, July 24, 2013 Gene Probes • Phylogenetic probes – 16S rRNA • Functional gene probes – dsr (bisulfite reductase) sulfate reduction – nirS (nitrate reductase) nitrate reduction Wednesday, July 24, 2013 16S rRNA gene probes • Oligonucleotide primers for PCR Target region cDNA 16S rDNA clone library • Oligonucleotide probes complementary to 16S rRNA molecule – no need for PCR because many copies in cells Wednesday, July 24, 2013 cDNA RNA ribosome Secondary Structure: 16S rRNA Different locations on the 16S rRNA molecule offer identity at different phylogenetic levels •Domain EU338 •Phylum •Class •Family •Group......

Words: 1309 - Pages: 6

Disease Trends and the Delivery of Health Care

...number of older adults increases demands on the public health system and on medical and social services. Chronic diseases, which affect older adults disproportionately, contribute to disability, diminish quality of life, and increased health- and long-term--care costs. Increased life expectancy reflects, in part, the success of public health interventions, but public health programs must now respond to the challenges created by this achievement, including the growing burden of chronic illnesses, injuries, and disabilities and increasing concerns about future caregiving and health-care costs. This report presents data from the U.S. Bureau of the Census, the World Health Organization, and the United Nations on U.S. and global trends in aging, including demographic and epidemiologic transitions, increasing medical and social costs related to aging, and the implications for public health. The world also has experienced an epidemiologic transition in the leading causes of death, from infectious disease and acute illness to chronic disease and degenerative illness. Developed countries in North America, Europe, and the Western Pacific already have undergone this epidemiologic transition, and other countries are at different stages of progression. In 2001, the leading causes of death in developed countries, which had low child and delayed adult mortality, were primarily cardiovascular diseases and cancer, followed by respiratory diseases and injuries. The leading causes of death in......

Words: 2933 - Pages: 12

Nucleic Acid 208.5.1

...process by which both strands are replicated starts with the strands being separated and unwound by DNA Helicase. DNA polymerases, an enzymes which catalyze the synthesis of new complementary strands will add nucleotides to the 3’ end of the growing nucleotide strand. An RNA primer is needed to start the synthesis of a new strand to make the first 3’ end the enzyme needs. After that, the RNA is taken out and replace with DNA. The synthesis of both complementary strands start in the 5’ to 3’ direction. The leading strand will then grow continuously in the direction of the replication fork. On the leading strand, RNA primase comes in and add RNA primer. ! ! (thinkwell biochemistry 6.4.2) Newly synthesized DNA The lagging strand will point away from the opening of the fork. RNA primase will constantly add RNA primer as the strand opens up On the leading strand, DNA polymerase III will work to add all the DNA nucleotide . On the lagging strand, DNA polymerase III will also be the main replication enzyme adding all the nucleotide, but instead of working continually toward the replication fork, it will be working away from the replication fork and will add the base pair needed at that time. DNA polymerase I will remove RNA primer and replaces it with DNA nucleotide. The lagging DNA strand is synthesized backwards in small discontinuous pieces of the DNA called Okazaki fragments in the opposite 3” to 5’ direction with the help of the enzyme action of DNA Ligase. DNA......

Words: 1110 - Pages: 5

Introduction to Health and Disease

...Disease in the News Introduction to Health and Disease - HCS/245 October 28, 2013 This article is about Anthrax. It basically tells you about the disease. It starts out by explaining what Anthrax actually is, Pathogenesis, Clinical Manifestations, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment, and Future Challenges. The article when it was written gave a through explanation to anyone who really didn’t know what Anthrax is all about. Sad to some people Anthrax is not a Heavy Metal from the 80’s. Anthrax is an often serious and fatal bacterial infection that occurs when Bacillus anthracis endospores enter the body through abrasions in the skin or by inhalation or ingestion. ("Anthrax", 2013). Anthrax can be found in soil in the natural sense and routinely affects wild-life around the world. Although it is rare, people can get ill with anthrax if they come in contact with infected or tarnished animals and its products. Severe illness can happen in both humans and animals if they get in contact with anthrax. The bacteria is not contagious, which means you still can’t get anthrax like the common cold or flu. As far as treatment goes the article does talk about how to treat the disease. There are several alternatives, including antibiotics and antitoxin, which doctors have for treating patients with anthrax. Unfortunately, the more serious case of anthrax, patients will need to be hospitalized. A more aggressive treatment may be required, such as a steady amount fluid drainage......

Words: 980 - Pages: 4

Effects of Disease on the Health Care Industry: Cardiovascular Disease

...Effects of Disease on the Health Care Industry: Cardiovascular disease HCS/245 Patricia Talbert Due: 03/16/2015 University of Phoenix Material Effects of Disease on the Health Care Industry: Cardiovascular Health Complete the table below for 2 diseases that you have chosen that affects cardiovascular health. In each box, you are required to list 3-5 bulleted statements regarding the heading of that box. Cite your sources using APA format. This section is due in Week Three. |Chosen Cardiovascular Disease |Treatment Modalities |Cultural Beliefs/Practices |Epidemiological Statistics |Available Consumer Resources |Impact on Society | |or Disorder | |Affecting this Disease | |(ex. financing, information, support) | | |Coronary Artery Disease |Quitting smoking and avoiding |Heart disease is a man's disease. |Cardiovascular diseases cause |The CDC addresses heart disease. Great |According to the Centers for Disease | | |secondhand smoke. |(MYTH) |nearly one-third of all deaths |source for researching information. |Control and Prevention, heart disease | | | | ...

Words: 817 - Pages: 4

Grt! Nucleic Acids

...Nucleic  Acids   Competency  208.5.1   Melissa  Kelleher,  RN   The  Structure  of  DNA   •  DNA  is  composed  of  units  called  nucleoCdes,   (Wolfe,  2000).   •  NucleoCdes  are  composed  of  a  phosphate   group,  a  deoxyribose  sugar,  and  a  nitrogenous   base,  (Wolfe,  2000).   –  Purines  –  nitrogenous  bases  that  composed  of   two  rings,  (Wolfe,  2000).   –  Pyrimadines  –  nitrogenous  bases  composed  of   one  ring,  (Wolfe,  2000).   The  Structure  of  DNA   •  DNA  is  a  double  helix  structure  of  nucleoCdes  wound   together  in  an  anCparallel  direcCon,  (Wolfe,  2000).   –  Hydrogen  bonds  form  between  the  nitrogenous  bases,   (Wolfe,  2000).   –  Base  pairs  only  bond  in  specific  pairs,  (Wolfe,  2000).   •  Adenine  bonds  only  with  thymine,  (Wolfe,  2000).   •  Guanine  bonds  only  with  cytosine,  (Wolfe,  2000).   •  Deoxyribose  sugars  line  up  in  one  direcCon,  considered   the  51  to  31  direcCon,  in  one  strand  of  DNA,  and  in  the   opposing  direcCon,  considered  the  31  to  51 ......

Words: 937 - Pages: 4

Hca 240 (Health and Diseases) Entire Class

...HCA 240 (Health and Diseases) Entire Class IF You Want To Purchase A+ Work Then Click The Link Below , Instant Download http://acehomework.com/HCA-240-Health-and-Diseases-Complete-Class-A-Work-734789.htm If You Face Any Problem E- Mail Us At JohnMate1122@gmail.com Our Products >> HCA 240 (Health and Diseases) Complete Class - A+ Work HCA 240 (Health and Diseases) Complete Class - A+ Work Week 1 Introduction to Human Health and Disease Top 10 Causes of Death Across Populations Resource: The Healthy People 2020 website Visit the Healthy People 2020 website (http://www.healthypeople.gov/). Select a race or ethnicity in the Closer Look: Health Disparities box. Click the Get Your Results button. Choose a health risk and explore resources and interventions for it. Write a 200- to 250-word paper. Consider the factors contributing to the health risk you selected: Environmental factors Changing demographics Describe health consequences when nutrition requirements are not met in Part B. Week 2 Immunity, Infectious Diseases, and Cancer Individual Cancer Patient Information For this assignment, choose from the following options: Option 1: Families With Children Option 2: Teenagers and Young Adults Option 3: Middle-Aged Adults Option 4: Older Adults Read the instructions in Appendix B located on the student website and select one option to complete the assignment. Individual Infectious......

Words: 1550 - Pages: 7

Nucleic Acids

...CHAPTER 9: NUCLEIC ACIDS 9.1 Levels of Structure in Nucleic Acids  Primary (1o) Structure – order of bases in the polynucleotide sequence  Secondary (2o) Structure – 3D conformation of backbone  Tertiary (3o) Structure – supercoiling of the molecule  Quaternary (4o) Structure – interaction between DNA & proteins  Two principle types of nucleic acids - DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) - RNA (ribonucleic acid) How do DNA and RNA differ?  Ribosomes: polypeptide-generating machinery of the cell  Tobacco mosaic virus: nucleic acid strand winds through a cylinder of coat-protein subunits 9.2 The Covalent Structure of Polynucleotides  Nucleotides: monomers of nucleic acids 1. Nitrogenous base 2. Sugar 3. Phosphoric acid residue  Order of nucleic acids of DNA contains the information necessary to produce the correct amino acid sequence in the cell’s proteins What are the structures and components of the nucleotides?  Nucleic acid bases (nucleobases): one or two-ring nitrogenous aromatic compound - Pyrimidines – single-ring aromatic compounds  Cytosine – DNA & RNA  Thymine – substitute for Uracil in DNA (sometimes in RNA)  Uracil – RNA only - Purines – double-ring aromatic compounds  Adenine – DNA & RNA  Guanine – DNA & RNA  Methylation can modify bases  Nucleoside - base + sugar covalently bonded - lacks phosphate group - base forms a glycosidic linkage with sugar  Ribonucleoside: β-D-ribose  Deoxyribonucleoside: β-D-deoxyribose  The......

Words: 2444 - Pages: 10

Hca 240 (Health and Diseases) Complete Class

...HCA 240 (HEALTH AND DISEASES) COMPLETE CLASS To purchase this, Click here http://www.activitymode.com/product/hca-240-health-and-diseases-complete-class/ Contact us at: SUPPORT@ACTIVITYMODE.COM HCA 240 (HEALTH AND DISEASES) COMPLETE CLASS Week 1 Introduction to Human Health and Disease Top 10 Causes of Death Across Populations Resource: The Healthy People 2020 website Visit the Healthy People 2020 website (http://www.healthypeople.gov/). Select a race or ethnicity in the Closer Look: Health Disparities box. Click the Get Your Results button. Choose a health risk and explore resources and interventions for it. Write a 200- to 250-word paper. Consider the factors contributing to the health risk you selected:  Environmental factors  Changing demographics  Describe health consequences when nutrition requirements are not met in Part B. Week 2 Immunity, Infectious Diseases, and Cancer Individual Cancer Patient Information For this assignment, choose from the following options:  Option 1: Families With Children  Option 2: Teenagers and Young Adults  Option 3: Middle-Aged Adults  Option 4: Older Adults Read the instructions in Appendix B located on the student website and select one option to complete the assignment. Individual Infectious Disease Choose one of the following diseases for your paper:  Tuberculosis  HIV/AIDS  Influenza (bird flu, swine flu, or general viral strain)  Chickenpox or shingles  Methicillin-resistant......

Words: 1520 - Pages: 7

Nucleic Acid

...Nucleic acid Task 2: Each person on the earth has its own unique genetic information, when stretched out we see that it’s is organised and tightly packed whilst also allowing it access to appropriate genes. The genetic information is stored in the DNA which is a chemical structure which has two backbone which form a spiral around each other so that it is held in place also it has 4 bases which are adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine(1). There are also bridges across the bases which are hydrogen bonds which hold the base pairings together. The sequences of the 4 bases are the genetic information for making any substance in the body, the variability within these codes which makes who we are and different to another person is the variation of the coding of the bases (1). Task 3: The DNA stores all of the information for protein synthesis and the RNA carries out the instructions which are encoded in the DNA most of the body activities are carried out by proteins, and for the protein to be correct the sequence of the amino acid has to be therefore right. There are three kinds of RNA molecules which carry out different functions in the process of protein synthesis. One type is messenger RNA which carries the genetic information from the DNA in the form of 3 base code which the codes for an amino acid. The second is transfer RNA which is essential when deciphering the code from the mRNA so an amino acid has it won different tRNA which binds to it and takes it to the mRNA......

Words: 524 - Pages: 3

Nucleotides

...Lipids are not soluble in water. They are non-polar and hydrophobic. Lipids contains a functional group including neutral fats, waxes, phospholipids, and glycolipids. The fatty acids with no carbon-carbon double bonds are called saturated. The ones that have two or more double bonds are called polyunsaturated.  Proteins Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules. They are made up of hundreds or thousands of smaller units called amino acids, which are attached to one another in long chains. There are 20 different types of amino acids that can be combined to make a protein. Eight amino acids are essential for humans, as the body cannot produce them by themselves, and they have to be supplied externally. These are: isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine. Nucleic Acid Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or large biomolecules, essential for all known forms of life. Nucleic acids, which include DNA and RNA, are made from monomers known as nucleotides. Each nucleotide has three components: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. If the sugar is deoxyribose, the polymer is DNA. If the sugar is ribose, the polymer is RNA. When sugar and a nitrogenous base get combined they form a nucleotide. Nucleotides are also known as phosphate nucleotides....

Words: 371 - Pages: 2

Nucleic Acids

...Stanford University STUDIES! Nucleic Acids, extremely complex molecules produced by living cells and viruses. Their name comes from their initial isolation from the nuclei of living cells. Certain nucleic acids, however, are found not in the cell nucleus but in cell cytoplasm. Nucleic acids have at least two functions: to pass on hereditary characteristics from one generation to the next, and to trigger the manufacture of specific proteins. How nucleic acids accomplish these functions is the object of some of the most intense and promising research currently under way. The nucleic acids are the fundamental substances of living things, believed by researchers to have first been formed about 3 billion years ago, when the most elementary forms of life began on earth. The origin of the so-called genetic code they carry has been accepted by researchers as being very close in time to the origin of life itself (see Evolution; Genetics). Biochemists have succeeded in deciphering the code, that is, determining how the sequence of nucleic acids dictates the structure of proteins. The two classes of nucleic acids are the deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) and the ribonucleic acids (RNA). The backbones of both DNA and RNA molecules are shaped like helical strands. Their molecular weights (see Molecule) are in the millions. To the backbones are connected a great number of smaller molecules (side groups) of four different types (see Amino Acids). The sequence of these molecules on the strand......

Words: 785 - Pages: 4

Biol 301 Human Health and Disease Final Exam Answers

...BIOL 301 Human Health and Disease Final Exam Answers Follow Below Link to Download Tutorial https://homeworklance.com/downloads/biol-301-human-health-and-disease-final-exam-answers/ For More Information Visit Our Website ( https://homeworklance.com/ ) Email us At: Support@homeworklance.com or lancehomework@gmail.com PLEASE follow the directions. Submit your answers (as a .doc, .docx, or .rtf) by using the table on the last page (e.g., 1.A, 2.B, 3.C, etc.) and returning only the TABLE by way of your Assignment Folder. Following the TABLE should be your ESSAY Question answers. 50 Multiple Choice Questions at 4 points each. 10 Essay Questions. Choose 2 to answer at 20 points each. 50 Multiple Choice Questions at 4 points each. 1. Dr. Sue Mi is interested in diseases of the retina. The field of study best suited to her interests is 2. physiology B. anatomy C. pathology D. bowling 2. There are numerous levels of organization in the body. The correct order from simplest to most complex is 3. organ, tissue, cell, organism, system B. cell, tissue, organ, system, organism 4. system, cell, organ, organism, tissue D. cell, system, tissue, organ, organism 3. The atomic number of sodium is 11. The sodium ion has a single positive charge (Na+). How many electrons does the sodium ion have? 4. 10 B. 11 5. 12 D. More information is required to answer this......

Words: 1933 - Pages: 8

Biol 301 Human Health and Disease Final Exam Answers

...BIOL 301 Human Health and Disease Final Exam Answers Follow Below Link to Download Tutorial https://homeworklance.com/downloads/biol-301-human-health-and-disease-final-exam-answers/ For More Information Visit Our Website ( https://homeworklance.com/ ) Email us At: Support@homeworklance.com or lancehomework@gmail.com PLEASE follow the directions. Submit your answers (as a .doc, .docx, or .rtf) by using the table on the last page (e.g., 1.A, 2.B, 3.C, etc.) and returning only the TABLE by way of your Assignment Folder. Following the TABLE should be your ESSAY Question answers. 50 Multiple Choice Questions at 4 points each. 10 Essay Questions. Choose 2 to answer at 20 points each. 50 Multiple Choice Questions at 4 points each. 1. Dr. Sue Mi is interested in diseases of the retina. The field of study best suited to her interests is 2. physiology B. anatomy C. pathology D. bowling 2. There are numerous levels of organization in the body. The correct order from simplest to most complex is 3. organ, tissue, cell, organism, system B. cell, tissue, organ, system, organism 4. system, cell, organ, organism, tissue D. cell, system, tissue, organ, organism 3. The atomic number of sodium is 11. The sodium ion has a single positive charge (Na+). How many electrons does the sodium ion have? 4. 10 B. 11 5. 12 D. More information is required to answer this......

Words: 1933 - Pages: 8