Nucleotides

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Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are the sugars, starches and fibers found in fruits, grains, vegetables and milk products. They are called carbohydrates because, at the chemical level, they contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Carbohydrates provide fuel for the central nervous system and energy for working muscles. Carbohydrates are classified as simple or complex. Simple carbohydrates contain just one or two sugars, such as fructose (fruits) and galactose (milk products). These single sugars are called monosaccharides. Carbs with two sugars — such as sucrose (table sugar), lactose (dairy) and maltose are called disaccharides. Complex carbohydrates, which are also called polysaccharides have three or more sugars. They are often referred to as starchy foods and include beans, lentils, potatoes, corn, whole-grain breads and cereals.
Lipids
Lipids are molecules that contain hydrocarbons and make up the building blocks of the structure and function of living cells. Examples of lipids include fats, oils, waxes, certain vitamins, hormones and most of the non-protein membrane of cells. Lipids are not soluble in water. They are non-polar and hydrophobic. Lipids contains a functional group including neutral fats, waxes, phospholipids, and glycolipids. The fatty acids with no carbon-carbon double bonds are called saturated. The ones that have two or more double bonds are called polyunsaturated.
Proteins
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules. They are made up of hundreds or thousands of smaller units called amino acids, which are attached to one another in long chains. There are 20 different types of amino acids that can be combined to make a protein. Eight amino acids are essential for humans, as the body cannot produce them by themselves, and they have to be supplied externally. These are: isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine,…...

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...phosphodiesterase bonds. Together they form what is called a nucleotide. Nucleotides are arranged in two long strands, these strands form something known as a double helix. By doing so it allows for more DNA to be in a smaller place and more organised, than what it would be if it were all straight. DNA can be looked at through smaller components that codes for single amino acids. These components, called codons are made up of a sequence of three nucleotides. These are typically called nucleotide triplets and together they form a unit. Within this unit contains information for the genetic code. Each individual codon codes for an amino acid to help build up proteins. There is said to be 20 different amino acids and 64 different codons. There are approximately over 250 amino acids in the world, and only 20 of these are used and required for human growth, and 22 amino acids used for others to produce proteins. Those additional two amino acids are known as selenocysteine and pyrrolysine. According to the Biomedical Research Institute and ICREA in Barcelona these two amino acids require an alternative mechanism, and due to this the tRNA’s are used to decode specific stop codons. As this can be quite a complicated situation, they have come close to the conclusion that the 20 amino acids used are as far as code can go with its “original machinery”. We then have the 64 different codons. As stated before there are 3 nucleotide/ nitrogenous bases within each codon, and there are 4......

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