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Female genital mutilation is a horrendous injustice that occurs everyday in this world. Female genital mutilation is wrong for several reasons. It is wrong because women can experience physical health consequences, psychological health consequences and it is a form of gender discrimination. In societies that practice female genital mutilation women will never be considered equal they will always be considered below men. According to the World Health Organization, “Female genital mutilation constitutes all procedures which involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs whether for cultural or any other non-therapeutic reasons.”
Firstly, female genital mutilation causes serious health problems to women who have been mutilated. Women who have the most sever mutilation will suffer from health problems for their whole lives. The procedure is often carried out with crude tools used for mutilating the genitalia. Examples of these tools are scissors, scalpels, pieces of glass, or razor blades (World Health Organization). In addition, the mutilation usually occurs in an unsanitary room. These unsanitary conditions can lead to the spread of HIV and infections of the genitalia and surrounding areas. Anesthetics are rarely used and relatives must hold down the female screaming in pain while she is being mutilated. On account of this severe pain the female usual goes into shock, the massive blood loss does not help either. Female genital mutilation normally causes a hemorrhage in the genital area. The cutting of the clitoral artery causes the hemorrhage and massive blood loss. Moreover, women will feel pain while urinating and will remain fearful of urinating for a long time. Women will also suffer from persistent pelvic infections. These infections may spread to the surrounding areas and become deadly. This brings up the most severe side effect of female genital...

The practice of female genital mutilation, also known as female circumcision, occurs throughout the world, but it is most common in Africa. Female genital mutilation is a tradition and social custom to keep a young girl pure and a married woman faithful. In Africa it is practiced in the majority of the continent including Kenya, Nigeria, Mali, Upper Volta, Ivory Coast, Egypt, Mozambique and Sudan. It is a cross-cultural and cross-religious ritual, which is performed by Muslims, Coptic Christians, Protestants, Catholics and members of various indigenous groups.
Female genital mutilation is usually performed on girls before they reach puberty. It is a procedure where either part or the entire clitoris is surgically removed leaving a reduced or total lack of sexual feeling. This procedure is an attempt to reduce the sex drive of women, making them less likely to be sexually active before marriage or engage in extra-marital affairs. Although this procedure can be seen as a means to control a woman’s sexuality, the act of female circumcision determines the gender identity of women. A circumcised woman is a virgin, ready for marriage and to bear children for her husband, “Girls who are infibulated will probably not find husbands. In most cases they will become outcasts.”

Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a ritual of initiation that is performed on young girls to take them from childhood into womanhood. It is practiced predominantly in Islamic cultures of Africa and the Middle East. The practice is widespread throughout twenty-eight African countries and affects 130 million women (Mackie.1998: 1). Religion has been a means to justify female circumcision. The majority of circumcised women in the world are Muslim who practices FGM under a religious pretext. However, the Koran which is said to be the last message that God sent to humanity and is a primary source of Islamic law says nothing about women circumcision (Denniston, Hodges and Milos 1999:131,164).
Because of increasing mobility of immigration from these regions FGM has been exported to Europe, U.K., Australia and the United States. It has now become a world health problem (Hoskin 1989:1). Appendix 1 shows the countries in Europe where female mutilation is practised (Denniston 1999:243).
There are many different types of female genital mutilation. In some cases part or the entire clitoris is cut away. A more severe type of mutilation is called infibulation or pharonic circumcision. This involves the removal of the clitoris, labia minora, and part of the labia majora. Two sides of the vulva are sewn together and all that remains is a small hole for urine and menstrual blood to pass through. In some tribes in Africa women are resutured when their husbands travels and reopened on their return (Denniston1999: 163).
These practices should be abolished because not only does it cause great pain and suffering and physiological harm, Because it is a great injustice against the fundamental human rights of women. FGM is used to repress and control female sexuality. It is an essential feature of patriarchy (Lightfoot-Klein 1991:3)
This report will address the FWCW Platform for Action Human Rights of Women. The paper will address female geni...

Minorities are often considered to be in need of special protection. Discuss whether this special protection is beneficial to these groups, and the potential problems, which may arise from it.

In this essay I will be looking at minority groups, specifically focusing on racial minorities, religious minorities and linguistic minorities, which I will look at in detail. I will also look at whether the special protection which they receive as a result of belonging to a minority group is beneficial, and addressing any issues and problems which may arise from this protection.

The need for protecting the right of minorities is a relatively new phenomenon, as it had been considered until only recently, that such minority protection could be dealt with through the general regime of human rights.

In recent years, minority issues have become a regular feature on the international agenda. The defining of the term ‘minority’ has proved problematic. The simplest definition is: a group that makes up less than 50% of the population. However there has been debate over what constitutes a minority.

Article 27 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political rights is limited to states in which racial, religious or linguistic minorities are found. It is stated in article 27 that; ‘in those states in which ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities exist, persons belonging to such minorities shall not be denied the right, in community with the other members of their group, to enjoy culture, to profess and practice their own religion, or to use their own language.’

A state counting minority groups among its population is obliged to adopt the legal and administrative measures necessary to enable the objectives of Article 27 to be achieved. A states obligations to its minorities in terms of Article 27 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political rights are threefold; enjoyment of culture; profession and practice of religion; ...

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