Free Essay

Nursing's Public Image

In: Other Topics

Submitted By hmorri5
Words 1551
Pages 7
Nursing’s Public Image
How does the public view nursing? From its earliest beginnings, the profession of nursing has revolved around human needs. One of the greatest strengths of nursing is the extensive range of opportunities and options that it has to offer. There are many different levels of practice, specialties, and there are always opportunities to advance in the nursing profession. With nurses playing a major role in designing the new healthcare system in the United States, now there is an even greater need for a positive public image of nursing. However, nursing's contributions to healthcare may be transparent or even ignored by the public and the media. The media has an immense effect on the perceptions of society. Therefore, any misrepresentation of the nursing profession by the media may negatively affect nursing's public image. As nurses, we have a responsibility to the entire nursing profession to protect our image, and take action to ensure that the public is not mislead by the media.
Over time, there have been many images of nurses purported by the media. Nurses play roles in movies, television series, plays, books, and in reality they may be seen on the news or in newspapers. Some suggest that these media portrayals are solely to blame for the public's misconceptions or stereotypes regarding nursing. In actuality, the public image of nursing has evolved as the nursing profession has evolved, even before media influence was a factor. In the late 1800's through early 1900's, nursing was viewed as more of a religious calling than a profession. Then, from 1920-1949, nursing was regarded as a skilled discipline (Kelly, 2010). One study, done by Kalisch and Kalisch in 1982, examined film images of nurses from silent films to the 1980s. They found the image of nursing in these films to be most positive during the World War II era. During that time nurses were positively portrayed as intelligent and dedicated (Schluter, 2012). Since this time, society has formed multiple new stereotypes about nursing.
The metaphor "stereotype" was coined by a journalist in 1922, as a selection process that is used to organize and simplify society's perceptions of different groups of people (Kelly, 2010). The media also damages the image of nursing by exploiting the stereotypes. The common media stereotypes of nurses range from the benign to the noxious. The most common stereotypes purported by the media include the "ministering angel", the innocent, overly compassionate angelic figure that hovers and tends to the needs of a battered soldier. Then there is the stereotypical "dumb nurse" who follows the physician around aimlessly, catering to their every whim without question. The "naughty nurse" who tends to her patients' needs in a tight, short dress with exposed cleavage. Perhaps the most offensive of the stereotypes is the "battle-axe", who sadistically tortures her pathetic, whimpering patients. All of these stereotypes serve as obstacles for nursing's public image (The Media's Effect, n.d.).
The media also misrepresents nurses by neglecting to show them in the full extent of their role, or not showing them involved at all. Television shows like "House" or "Grey's Anatomy" generally portray physicians as the key clinicians in the hospital setting. Nurses are only seen in background fetching things. These portrayals reinforce the misconception that nurses are not critical thinkers and that we are dependent on physicians. This shows nursing not as a profession unto itself, but that nurses serve as just medical aids. If a viewer does not know a lot about nursing as a professional career and they are watching these shows in which most nurses are portrayed as being in the way, they may lose respect for nurses. This lack of respect may lead viewers to overlook nursing as a future profession (Mee, 2010). The television producers of these medical dramas need a better understanding of a nurse's function and their importance as essential members of the healthcare team (Cabaniss, 2011).
Conversely, the media is not solely to blame for the public's misconceptions about nursing. Nurses also must share some of the blame. "Failure to educate the public about the role of nursing by not being visible in the media is a long-standing problem for nursing" (Schluter, 2012). Nursing itself stems from humble beginnings, so nurses may not feel comfortable being in the limelight or seeking public recognition for their great works. However, if nurses do not break away from this meek attitude and actively seek out opportunities for news and media coverage regarding nursing, then nurses themselves become responsible for the absence of nursing in the media. Each nurse should be challenged to stand up be recognized by contacting media outlets directly. Nurses also shape their own public image through how they interact with patients, how they dress, and the language they use (Kelly, 2010). This leads to the viewpoint that the responsibility for producing the correct images of nursing to society rests with nurses themselves. It is also vital for nurse educators to speak on this topic and educate nurses on the importance of the public's image of nursing and its effects (Cabaniss, 2011).
There are numerous cultural and legal/ethical factors that are related to nursing's public image. In a diverse, multicultural society such as ours, nurses care for patients of many different cultures, ethnicities, and religious backgrounds. If the public views nursing as a career for young, Caucasian females, then how can nursing diversify itself? People of different cultures and ethnicities may not be encouraged to pursue nursing as a career choice, or even trust a profession that is seemingly made up of only one ethnicity. It is important that we realize that if media dictates our image to the public, the outcome will be nursing becoming less diverse. A diverse workforce means that different people from different backgrounds will have differing ideas and viewpoints which will lead to positive outcomes and problem-solving. Therefore, employers should be aware of the perceived stereotypes and focus on recruitment and retention of a diverse group of nurses.
Also important to address is the legal/ethical issues regarding nursing's public image. For example, if the media dictates society's expectations of what a nurse should look like, this may lead to discrimination in the workplace. Due to the "white female nurse" image often depicted by the media, employers may unknowingly discriminate against nurses of different ethnicities or even male nurses. Some male nurses have even had to seek legal action against employers in order to work in Obstetrics. The stereotype that all male nurses are gay can also cause serious legal issues in terms of sexual harassment/discrimination. It’s important for society to see the major role males play in nursing today. Nursing as a female-dominated profession is always struggling for power and a voice. Bringing more men into the profession may give nursing more power and control and the validation nursing needs to influence change.
This issue can seriously affect the role of nurses. If nurses are constantly exposed to negative images portrayed in the media, or a lack of recognition from the media, it will negatively affect their work morale. Then they may begin to undervalue their work, including their patients. If these feelings of discouragement affect the quality of care they give, patients could be at risk. Nurses must try to ignore these negative stereotypes and misconceptions and always act ethically in the care of their patients. Media portrayals may also severely impact the future of nursing as a whole. If the nursing profession is constantly being undermined, humiliated, and/or ignored by the media, then viewers will be even less encouraged to pursue nursing as a career; making it more difficult to recruit new nurses and retain experienced nurses. This will only add to the nursing shortage in a time when the need for nurses is so critical in our healthcare system (Kelly, 2010).
In conclusion, the issue of nursing's public image is one that will not only affect nurses, but the future of the entire profession of nursing. Though the media is an easy scapegoat to blame for society's misconceptions about nursing, as nurses we are responsible for our own public image. Nursing as a profession, and nurses in general tend to not publicize what we know, what we do, or how important our roles are to society. Changing a culture comes from within. So, in order to protect and develop the public image of nursing, transformation has to start with the nurses.

References

Cabaniss, R. (2011). Educating nurses to impact change in nursing's image. Teaching & Learning In Nursing, 6(3), 112-118. doi:10.1016/j.teln.2011.01.003
Kelly, J. (2010). [Review of the book Saving Lives: Why the Media’s Portrayal of Nurses Puts us All at Risk]. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 19(17/18), 2668. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2010.03325.x
Mee, C. (2010). Nursing’s image in the media: just in jest. Elsevier. Retrieved from: https://evolve.elsevier.com/cs/Satellite/Article/Nursings+Image+in+the+Media+Just+In+Jest?cid=700000000611524&Audience=Faculty
Schluter, V. (2012). Nursing’s Image in the Media [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://mymoodle.ololcollege.edu/moodle/course/view.php?id=906
The Media's Effect. (n.d.). The Truth About Nursing. Retrieved from http://www.truthaboutnursing.org/

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Development of the Us Court System

...Image of the Nursing Profession The first impression one has on a subject or issue can change the rest of his life. That is the case that happened to me prompting me to pursue a career in nursing which I do not regret. So it happened that at the age of nine years, we had a neighbor who had recurrent asthma attacks and not having a means of transport they could come to our place and request our father to drive them to the nearest medical center. I used to go since the car had ample space. Throughout the visits I came to admire the role of the nurses, how they could take the sick neighbor who was struggling to breathe and assure us that she will be well in a while. And so I decided that when I grow up I want to impact a change onto the lives of people by playing a similar role. It feels great when one handles a patient and see him/her recovering. The first image that I had of a nurse changed my whole life. I perceived a nurse to be a person who had the power to give people the hope of life. Someone who could avert the situation when it seemed a person was at the blink of death. Over the years, this image has not changed. Though I have been introduced to more concepts that I didn’t know when I was making the choice I feel that the first image was correct. Nurses play a great role in the society and I am glad for the change I have impacted as I do my practice. Many people are influenced different and they have different perceptions towards nursing as a profession and the...

Words: 623 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Nursing

...King-Conceptual System and Theory of Goal Attainment Sharon Bilbrough Wesley College Theory and Evidence Based Practice NR507 Dr. Denise Morris November 11, 2014 Abstract Many people decide to pursue a career in nursing because they want to be instrumental in helping patients get healthy. In order to accomplish this, it is necessary to set health goals with the patient, and then take steps to achieve these goals. Imogene King’s Theory of Goal Attainment focuses on this process to aid nurses in the nurse-patient relationship, helping their patients meet the goals they set for their health. As a recognized global leader, Imogene King truly made a positive difference for the nursing profession and had a significant impact on nursing’s scientific base. She used three interacting systems in her Theory of Goal Attainment; the personal system, the interpersonal system, and the social system. According to King, the goal of the nurse is to help patients maintain health so they can function in their individual roles. The nurse’s function is to interpret information in the nursing process, to plan, implement, and evaluate nursing care. She was one of the first nurse theorists to link academic theory to evidence based nursing practice. Imogene King-Conceptual System and Theory of Goal Attainment Theorist Imogene M. King developed the theory of goal attainment, and was born January 30, 1923, in West Point, Iowa. During her early high school years, she decided to......

Words: 2592 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

The Media and Hollywood in Particular, Represent One Avenue in Which the General Public Becomes Familiar with the Role of Nurses. How Do the Media Positively or Negatively Influence the Public’s Image of Nursing? What

... represent one avenue in which the general public becomes familiar with the role of nurses. How do the media positively or negatively influence the public’s image of nursing? What other avenues may better educate the general public on the role and scope of nursing as well as the changing health care system? The media is known to have immense influences on the public perception from body images to what kind of car people should buy. And the nursing image is not immune to these influences. What Hollywood transmits to the public about nurse’s works much like an advertising industry. Television has represented nurses in varying degrees and not all of them are flattering. We have been portrayed as handmaidens, angels to naughty nurses, crusty battle-axes, incompetent nurses, or drug addicted nurses. Television shows such as House, Nurse Jackie, Hawthorne, Gray’s Anatomy, and Scrubs frequently draw on nursing stereotypes that have the potential to damage the professional nursing image. Just as people are influenced by commercial or political ads, they will be influenced by these shows as well. These images of nursing on medical shows can affect roles in recruitment and retention for the profession. In a survey of student perceptions of nursing image on television, one student noted, “the public could be influenced by nursing on television and draw attention to the consequences of negative depictions of nursing because the public can develop a false view of the profession...

Words: 1184 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

You Have Been Asked to Investigate a New Procedure That Physicians Would Like Nurses to Adopt in the Hospital. Discuss the Process You Would Apply to Determine Whether the Procedure Falls Within the Rn Scope of Practice

...Program of ANA http://www.Nursesbooks.org/ American Nurses Association 8515 Georgia Avenue, Suite 400 Silver Spring, MD 20910-3492 1-800-274-4ANA http://www.NursingWorld.org Design: Typesetting: Printing: Editorial services: © 2010 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Contents Contributors Overview of Content Foundational Documents of Professional Nursing Audience for This Publication Scope of Nursing Practice Definition of Nursing Professional Nursing’s Scope and Standards of Practice Description of Scope of Nursing Practice Development and Function of Nursing Standards The Function of Competencies in Standards The Nursing Process Tenets Characteristic of Nursing Practice Healthy Work Environments for Nursing Practice Model of Professional Practice Regulation Standards of Professional Nursing...

Words: 15841 - Pages: 64

Premium Essay

Proccess

...Program of ANA http://www.Nursesbooks.org/ American Nurses Association 8515 Georgia Avenue, Suite 400 Silver Spring, MD 20910-3492 1-800-274-4ANA http://www.NursingWorld.org Design: Typesetting: Printing: Editorial services: © 2010 American Nurses Association. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Contents Contributors Overview of Content Foundational Documents of Professional Nursing Audience for This Publication Scope of Nursing Practice Definition of Nursing Professional Nursing’s Scope and Standards of Practice Description of Scope of Nursing Practice Development and Function of Nursing Standards The Function of Competencies in Standards The Nursing Process Tenets Characteristic of Nursing Practice Healthy Work Environments for Nursing Practice Model of Professional Practice Regulation Standards of Professional Nursing...

Words: 15841 - Pages: 64

Premium Essay

Windshield Survey

...Image and Voice of Nursing Mary Wilcox Thomas Edison State College Leadership and Management in Nursing NUR428 Mary Wombwell November 27, 2011 Historical image of nursing Florence Nightingale is known to many as the historical image of nursing. She came to prominence for her pioneering work in nursing during the Crimean War where she tended to wounded soldiers rounding at night holding a small lamp. Nightingale was a strong-willed advocate for the field of nursing. Her advocacy was for the” improvement of care and conditions” (MacQueen, 2007, p. 31) for patients making significant achievements during her career. In the western world for centuries, nursing as an “organized institution” (Buresh & Gordon, 2006, p. 179) was provided through Christian religious institutions. In religious sects, nurses were socialized to sacrifice every shred of their identity being “obedient members of an anonymous mass” (Gordon, 2006, p. 2). Religious nurses were taught not to claim credit for their work and accomplishments. Instead, they were educated to view themselves as divine instruments who willingly assigned credit to “God, the Bishop, the Abbot, or the Mother Superior” (Gordon, 2006, p. 3) for their accomplishments. Often, nurses were not viewed by their sex, not allowed to marry, and were sheltered in or near the hospitals in dormitories. In the 19th century, religious and social reformers such as Florence Nightingale adapted the religious template to help women who needed to...

Words: 2718 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Future of Nursing

...Future of Nursing Health care reform and technology are contributing factors affecting the future of nursing. The need to continue education for higher degree is becoming evident; nurses can no longer use the former mind- set traditional way to perform practice. Nurses need to be more flexible and be willing to incorporate new treatment options into their care. Nurses will continue to be guided by the use of nursing theories to promote quality care. Nurses need to become proactive in their education and in developing their leadership skills to remain competitive in their changing roles (Suhr, 2008). Evidence-Based Practice Historically, evidence based-practice (EBP) was used back to Florence Nightingale’s era and reinforced to current nursing practice. Nurses used to practice based on traditions and experiences by selecting nursing interventions to influence outcomes. Little scientific evidence supported clinical decision and expected outcomes during that time. EBP began to apply quality improvement studies to develop critical pathways and care in the early efforts to study interventions outcome (Mcdonald, 2001). “Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) combines information about the results of well-designed research, clinical expertise, patient concerns and patient preferences. EBP serves as the foundation in the form of a set of values, sources and criteria upon which to gain access to, select and critique knowledge for nursing practice” (Waite & Killian, 2010).......

Words: 1417 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Support

...Running head: NURSING 1 What is Nursing? Shakira Rideout Keyano College NURSING 2 What is Nursing? In this paper I will identify the fundamental concepts of nursing. In addition, I will recognize how nursing is based on the principles of Primary Health Care (PHC). Further, how the history of nursing has formed nursing today and what it means to be a professional in nursing by incorporating the code of ethics. Fundamentals of Nursing Nursing is a profession that centers on the caring for individuals, as a client, as a family, as a group and as a community so they can achieve, maintain or recover optimal health and quality of life (Burger & Goddard, 2010). I believe that the nursing role is to educate clients by the protection and promotion of general health which is congruent to The American Nurses Association (2007) which defines nursing as; the protection, promotion and optimization of health, prevention of illness, lessening of suffering through diagnoses and treatment and advocating client care for individuals, families, groups and communities (American Nurses Association, 2007). The nursing profession utilizes a system that increases client knowledge about factors that can contribute to overall health and the resources that can increase wellbeing; this is called the Nursing Process. This process is a technique used to assess and diagnose needs, plan and implement interventions, and evaluate the......

Words: 1902 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Health Care Economics Issue Presentation

...Nursing shortage is featured in every magazine, health articles, newspaper, television and other forms of communications. Nursing shortage creates serious concerns not only in the field of medicine but in the consumer’s eyes. Health is considered a basic need of mankind; therefore, everyone is affected in maintaining the health status. Nurses are a major workforce in the provision of health care. Where does this discussion lead? Is there a serious threat? What happens now? Is it global? All these questions pump adrenaline to everyone who is concern about their health status. Health care organizations, specifically hospitals have significantly felt the impact of nursing shortage. Nurses are an integral part of any health care organization; and are known to the health care community as front line workers. The following outline is to discuss a health care situation such as nursing shortage in hospital settings. This outline is to provide a comprehensive overview by analyzing and evaluating the effectiveness of procedures that are in place, and recommend improvement strategies based on economic theories and concepts that support best practices. Key Players Nursing shortage is a work in itself, there is no immediate solution to the problem; therefore, nurses as the key players must be involved in the decision making occurring at every health care organization. As nurses, the sole responsibility lies upon them to establish a safe working environment, ensuring patients and......

Words: 4300 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

Katharine Kolcaba

...Katharine Kolcaba's Theory of Comfort Kelly Ferreira Summer, 2004. In the early part of the 20th century, comfort was the central goal of nursing and medicine. Comfort was the nurse's first consideration. A "good nurse" made patients comfortable. In the early 1900's, textbooks emphasized the role of a health care provider in assuring emotional and physical comfort and in adjusting the patient's environment. For example, in 1926, Harmer advocated that nursing care be concerned with providing an atmosphere of comfort. In the 1980's, a modern inquiry of comfort began. Comfort activities were observed. Meanings of comfort were explored. Comfort was conceptualized as multidimensional (emotional, physical, spiritual). Nurses provided comfort through environmental interventions. It was in this decade that Kolcaba began to develop a theory of comfort when she was a graduate student at Case Western Reserve in Cleveland, Ohio. She is currently a nursing professor at the University of Akron in Ohio. Kolcaba's (1992) theory was based on the work of earlier nurse theorists, including Orlando (1961), Benner, Henderson, Nightingale, Watson (1979), and Henderson and Paterson. Other non-nursing influences on Kolcaba's work included Murray (1938). The theory was developed using induction (from practice and experience), deduction (through logic), and from retroaction concepts (concepts from other theories). The basis of Kolcaba's theory is a......

Words: 4183 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Nurse

...Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring Caring Moment - “The moment (focal point in space and time) when the nurse and another person come together in such a way that an occasion for human caring is created” In Jean Watson's theory of caring she has tried to make “explicit nursing's values, knowledge, and practices of human caring that are geared toward subjective inner healing processes and the life world of the experiencing person, requiring unique caring-healing arts and a framework called "carative factors," which complemented conventional medicine, but stood in stark contrast to "curative factors." At the same time, this emerging philosophy and theory of human caring sought to balance the cure orientation of medicine, giving nursing its unique disciplinary, scientific, and professional standing with itself and its public.” (Watson, 1999) Concepts: • Carative factors (evolving toward "Clinical Caritas Processes") • Transpersonal Caring Relationship • Caring Moment/Caring Occasion Jean Watson’s 10 carative factors that can be used as a guideline to help nursing interventions. These carative factors provide a framework that aids the nurse to pay attention to the caring processes. 1. Embrace altruistic values and practice loving kindness with self and others. 2. Instill faith and hope and honor others. 3. Be sensitive to self and others by nurturing individual beliefs and practices. 4. Develop helping – trusting- caring relationships. 5. Promote and......

Words: 2064 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Safe Staffing

...acuity of the unit in which patient care is being provided, should determine the acceptable nurse-to-patient ratio. According to the American Nurses Association (ANA), factors that influence the nurse staffing needs include: patient complexity, acuity, or stability; number of admissions, discharges, and transfers; professional nursing and other staff skill level and expertise; physical space and layout of the nursing unit; availability of or proximity to technological support or other resources ("Optimal Nurse Staffing," 2015). Currently, New York is one of only fourteen states that addresses the nurse staffing issue in hospitals. New York State requires organizations such as NYP to disclose their nurse-to-patient staffing ratios to the public; however the state does not require a minimum nurse-to-patient ratio to be maintained at all times. As of July 2003, California is the only state that mandates minimum nurse-to-patient ratios within all their hospital organizations. The nurse-to-patient ratio in California is 1 to 5 on medical-surgical units. Ultimately, NYP will benefit by providing better staffing ratios because research has shown that lower nurse-to-patient ratios...

Words: 3851 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Professional Journal in Nursing

...[pic] Profesional journals are peer-reviewed, checked for factuality, consistency, citing relevant work, and drawing appropriate conclusions supported by the data. The concept of profesional journal as a means of developing reflective practice has become a popular topic in classrooms, professional journals, conferences, and continuing education programs (Boud & Walker, 1998). Many other names for profesional journal appear in nursing literature, including log, journaling, narrative pedagogy, dialogue journals, reflective practice, and reflective writing. Whatever people says, reflective profesional journal requires writing, a great deal of it. However, journals are an integral part of the teaching/learning in many nursing programs as well as in allied health programs and education in general. The purpose of this essay is to review the literature related to profesional journal and reflective practice and how it can be beneficial in the teaching/learning process. Reflective practice is a means of self-examination that involves looking back over what has happened in practice in an effort to improve performance or to encourage professional growth (Ruth-Sahd, 2003). Profesional journal is a method that is frequently used in nursing education as an active learning technique to enhance reflective practice. Why is reflective practice so important? The literature cites numerous reasons for ......

Words: 3686 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Theory Critiquing

...ROPER-LOGAN-TIERNEY TUESDAY, JUNE 26, 2012 THEORY GROUP A PRESENTS One draw of the field of nursing is the ability for nurses to individualize their care plans for their patients. In order to ensure that unique patients are able to get healthy, they need nursing care plans as unique as they are. This means assessment and evaluation of each patient before and during care. Nancy Roper's desire to become a nurse started in childhood, and as a result of her experiences and education, she, along with two of her colleagues, developed the Roper-Logan-Tierney Model of Nursing to assess patients' level of independence and provide the best individualized care for them. COMPONENTS/CONCEPTS OF THE MODEL Living is a complex process which we undertake using a number of activities that ensure our survival. The current model seeks to define 'what living means, and categorizes these discoveries into Activities of Daily Living (ADL).  According to Roper, in a given circumstance, people are able to perform daily activities of living independently but when disease or hindrances occur, the nurse can use these activities of living to be able to assess the patient and identify interventions that can support independence in areas that may prove difficult or impossible for the individual on their own. The model assesses the individual's relative independence and potential for independence in ADLs,(considering their lifespan, development, and the five key factors on a continuum ranging......

Words: 4036 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Excel

...Effective Delegation: Understanding Responsibility, Authority, and Accountability Christine Mueller, PhD, RN, FAAN, and Amy Vogelsmeier, PhD, RN The obligation to provide safe, quality care creates challenges and concerns when registered nurses (RNs) delegate duties to unlicensed assistive personnel. These challenges and concerns are magnified in today’s health care environment of shrinking resources; patients with complex, chronic conditions; health care settings with high patient acuity rates; and the use of sophisticated technology. To make safe, effective delegation decisions, RNs must understand the responsibility, authority, and accountability related to delegation. Delegation decisions must be based on the fundamental principle of public protection. This article describes effective delegation by presenting the factors affecting delegation, explaining when and what an RN can delegate, and describing the delegation process. Learning Objectives ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ Identify three factors that affect delegation. Discuss what registered nurses can and cannot delegate. Explain the steps of the delegation process. N ursing’s Social Policy Statement (American Nurses Association [ANA], 2010), the Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements (ANA, 2001), and individual state nurse practice acts (NPAs) underscore the responsibility, authority, and accountability of registered nurses (RNs) for their nursing practice. The RN’s obligation to......

Words: 5394 - Pages: 22