Nutr 3330

In: Science

Submitted By havoc81
Words 1247
Pages 5
Vitamin Definition:
1) Organic compound
2) Natural component of food
3) Essential for normal physiological function
4) Specific deficiency syndrome
5) Not synthesized by the host in amounts adequate to meet normal physiological needs

Water Soluble Vitamins:
- Ex. Vitamin B & C
- Dissolve in water (hydrophillics)
- Cannot be stored, daily supply necessary
- Move directly into blood; travel freely
- Easily taken up & released by body tissues
- Excess amounts excreted in urine

Fat Soluble Vitamins:
- Ex. Vitamin A, D, E, K
- Cannot dissolve in water (hydrophobic)
- Dissolve in fat (dietary and body)
- Need dietary fat to be absorbed
- Enter blood via lymph; need transport proteins
- Can be stored (liver & body fat); daily supplies not as important
- More concern about excess intake

Bioavailability: the rate and extent to which a nutrient is absorbed and used; depends on amount in food and amount usable by body

Minerals:
- Inorganic
- Retain chemical identity
- Absorption issues: bioavailability (minerals bind to other compounds)
- Toxicity issues
- Classification:
o Macrominerals: >5 grams; ex. Calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, sulfur, sodium, chloride
o Trace minerals: --(vitamin B6)   NAD/NADP
o Redox reactions:
 Oxidation:
• Acts as a hydrogen acceptor
• NAD (P) becomes NAD (P)H
• Oxidation of numerous fuel molecules (ex. Pyruvate, TCA intermediates, glycolysis intermediates, pentose phosphate pathway)
 Reduction:
• Acts as a hydrogen donor
• NAD(P)H becomes NAD(P)
• Reductive biosynthesis of fatty acids and steroids
o NADPH generated from pentose phosphate pathway
 Note: PPP also generates ribose for nucleic acid synthesis
- Deficiency:
o Pellagra:
 4 D’s : Diarrhea, Dermatitus, Dementia, Death
 Isoniazoid – competes with pyridoxal phosphate
 Hartnup’s disease – defect in absorption process for…...

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