Premium Essay

Observational Research

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By allen
Words 388
Pages 2
Observational Research and its Components
Social Psychology
Dr. Deborah Harris-Sims
July 9, 2011

Observational Research and its Components

Social psychology has three well renowned scientific methods for research. These are observational, correlational, and experimental techniques. This paper will explain that the true goal of observational research is description. To understand behavior so that it can be predicted, controlled, or explained, a scientist must describe it accurately (Franzoi, 2009) which I will explain. Observational research is a social technique that involves direct observation of a subject in it natural setting. It involves the recording test results and not manipulating any of the variables, while being able to be broken down into three categories, naturalistic observation, participant observation, and archival research. Naturalistic observation involves the examination of a subject and its behavior in its natural environment. Participant observation involves the examination of a subject and its behavior in its natural environment as a member of the study group. Example, a test is conducted on underage drinking and the observer is a party guest where alcohol is being served. The third and final type of observational research is archival research. Archival research involves the examination of pre-existing records of a group, individual, or culture. It is mainly used to study the beliefs and norms of a specific culture. Naturalistic and participant observation methods offer many benefits if chosen, but they also have several flaws worth mentioning. The first flaw is the lack of a control. This means that no variables can be manipulated, so extra caution must be taken when concluding how events are correlated. The next issue is observer bias. This is when a scientist may have a predetermined notion about the test subject,...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Observational Research

...Observational research empowers a scientist to consistently receive empirical information from observing people in their natural circumstances without intentionally influencing the behavior and environment of study. The study has several observational styles where the scientist is not involved, can be notably present, but not involved, or becomes a participant for a firsthand view of the experience among the people studied. This hands-off research style requires the scientist to have discernment to remain oblivious, account for instances when their presence can affect the behavior and, as other studies, discipline to remain strictly not bias. The first component in this style of research is naturalistic observations, which is for the scientist to be present, but not involved in the study. This observation can be firsthand through one’s own eyes or even by way of media such as a recording of the activity exemplifying the behavior to be measured. As a side note, these styles are particularly interesting when investigating cross-cultural interactions. Observers would try to remain oblivious to the study and take notes about the study’s mannerisms and character directly related to the behavior they are currently observing. Note taking has to remain, as always, precise and, in time, leading to some conclusions testing a hypothesis. This study can be conducted consistently pending the behavior and specifics of the study group. The second approach is participant research......

Words: 662 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Observational Research Paper

...World View Strayer University Psychology 110 Professor Brian Kester Bridget Smalls April 12, 2012 The most important thing that has influences my life or have shape me to become whom I am today. My parents and my grandparent play a great deal in my life. My mother was the firm and structure one that showed us that respected and good behavior will keep you firmly grounded to who you will become today. My father was the financial and disciplinary in the family. My dad made sure that every bill was paid and all our needs were met. My grandparent would tell us stories of their past and that played a great deal on rearing us into become good people. The media was never to influences by them as much but are great in giving information about my surrounding. It a very good educational way of learning the things that goes on in and around the world today. My parent really did not allow is to watch television much, however we used to sit around and listen to the radio as a family. I thought that was a great time for family and way for us to be good listener. I was influence a few times by my peers. I played hooky from school and found out that most of those girls had boyfriends, and they were going to things that I knew was not correctly right. I promise myself that I would never do that again, and it was a good lesson. I never told my parent because I would have upset them. Second was I got pregnant at and early age had a daughter and...

Words: 453 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Observational Research Paper

...Running head: GOALS OF EXERCISING Men & Women achieving Goals of Exercising Trina M. Kimbrough University of Memphis Abstract Exercising is vital as we all know. It matters whether you eat healthy and exercise today. A healthy lifestyle is so important, it’s vital that people incorporate exercising into their diet. When a person eats healthy they don’t look forward to having too many ailments and being screen by a physician as much. Of course health and genetics play a major role in our lives, that’s why it’s even more important to try and maintain a healthy lifestyle. Most valid part of being healthy is not causing the body more harm with unhealthy foods and drugs. The objective for this observation is to attain which gender has the ability to exercise at least 30 minutes in a day. Also, is this the reason why so many women outlive their spouses? Male and female adults (N=50) observing male and female going inside a coed gym. The gym members use a key coded method as they walk inside to start their regimen. Many of the gym members (participants) knew where they wanted to go and what they needed to do. Men & Women achieving Goals of Living Healthy There have been many studies that say women live longer than men. Harvard researchers studied people who live 100 years and more. Perls(1998) a geriatrician at Harvard Medical School. Women’s life span depends on the balance of two forces, a geriatrician at Harvard Medical School. One is the revolutionary......

Words: 1571 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Observational Research Report of Starbucks

...Observational Research Report YEUNG Ching Hei, ZHU Xiaoming Introduction The research was conducted from 12:38 pm to 1:38 pm on a Monday in the Starbucks coffee shop on HKUST campus. We basically observed inside the shop for one hour and recorded customers’ gender, age, companion and what products they bought. 86 customers’ behaviors were recorded. By analyzing the data, we find out some interesting phenomenon and therefore list out some suggestions to interested parties at the end of the report. Observations and Analysis Among the 86 consumers, 40 are under 30 years old, 39 aged 31 to 50, and 7 are older than 50. The temperature on the day of observation was 31 °C, but the hot drinks consumed were almost as much as the iced ones(29 cups of hot drinks versus 38 cups of iced drinks). Most of the young generation (20-30 years old) will buy the iced drinks, the other usually will choose hot drinks. It shows that drinking hot drink is the culture of the older generation which is independent of the weather. Also, the second possible reason behind is the use of air-conditioner. So that, most of the people do not rely on the drinks to cool down. Only limited amount of yogurt was offered daily, and the main consumer group of this specific product was found to be young females (5 out of 7 in their 20s and 2 others in their 30s). Yogurt attracts a lot of young generation because of its late arrival in Hong kong.It is alos recognized as a healthy food in Hong Kong. As......

Words: 697 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Discussion Board - Observational Study and Questionnaires

...In this discussion I will give a brief summary on two types of data collection methods and give examples of pros and cons for each method. OBSERVATIONAL STUDY Observational study is a method of data collection that involves a process of watching any given type of situation and recording the data that is observed. Depending on how and what data is being observed depends on the type of tool the researcher will want to use in order to collect their information. The researcher conducting this type of study is a passive observer and does not tamper in any way with the variable of interest or any factors that may affect it. When recording observation data, you have to remember that all answers are from your own perception and there is no right or wrong answer. In the observational study that I researched, researchers wanted to know if CCBs associated with LUTS in males. This was conducted on 38 males which ranged from the ages of 46 to 89 years old, with the median age being 67 for about five years. According to the study, calcium channel blockers associated to 100% of the lower urinary tract symptoms within a 38 males. A few disadvantages of the observational data method are that some of the research conducted can be subject to the researcher’s biases. This is mainly due to the perception of the researcher. The researcher may also miss important milestones that may need it to have been observed. Because of the fact there is limited control with this method; people......

Words: 827 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Mr Lee

...The Anatomy and Physiology of Clinical Research Stephen B. Hulley, Thomas B. Newman, and Steven R. Cummings This chapter introduces clinical research from two viewpoints, setting up themes that run together through the book. One theme is the anatomy of research-what it's made of. This includes the tangible elements of the study plan: the research question, design, subjects, measurements, sample size calculation, and so forth. An investigator's goal is to create these elements in a form that will make the project fast, inexpensive, and easy. The other theme is the physiology of research-how it works. Studies are useful to the extent that they yield valid inferences, first about what happened in the study sample and then about generalizing these events to people outside. the study. The goal is to minimize the errors, random and systematic, that threaten conclusions based on these inferences. Separating these two themes is artificial in the same way that the anatomy of the human body does not make much sense without some understanding of its physiology. But the separation has the same advantage: It clarifies our thinking about a complex topic. . THE ANATOMY OF RESEARCH: WHAT IT'S MADE OF The structure of a research project is set out in its protocol, the written plan of the study. Protocols are well kn~wn as devices for seeking grant funds, but they also have a vital scientific function: helping the investigator to organize her research in a logical, focused, and efficient......

Words: 4678 - Pages: 19

Free Essay

Dsfsdf

...conducted (1978–2008). A summary risk estimate was calculated using a random-effects meta-analysis model. Results: Twenty-seven peer-reviewed manuscripts were included. The rate of enlarged puncture and/or leakage around the prosthesis was reported in 23 articles (range, 1% to 29%; summary risk estimate, 7.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.8% to 9.6%). Temporary removal of the prosthesis and TEP- site injections were the most commonly reported conservative treatments. Prosthetic diameter (p =.076) and timing of TEP (p = .297) were analyzed as risk factors; however, radiotherapy variables were inconsistently reported. Conclusions: The overall risk of enlarged puncture seems relatively low, but it remains a rehabilitative challenge. Future research should clearly establish risk factors for enlarged puncture and optimal conservative management. Keywords: tracheoesophageal puncture, total laryngectomy, enlarged tracheoesophageal puncture, complications, leakage Enlarged Tracheoesophageal Puncture after Total Laryngectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Introduction: The gold standard for voice restoration after total laryngectomy is tracheoesophageal puncture (TEP). The TEP is a small surgically created fistula in the tracheoeosphageal (TE) wall that may be created at the time of the total laryngectomy (primary TEP) or later after the patient has healed from surgery (secondary TEP). A...

Words: 6352 - Pages: 26

Premium Essay

Empathy and Social Learning

...Running Head: EMPATHY AND SOCIAL LEARNING Developing Empathy: Nurturing Through Social Learning Abstract This paper explores the Social Learning Theory and how prosocial behavior, specifically empathy, is cultured through observation, modeling and imitation. Empathy is defined through a review of Bandura’s Bobo Doll experiment, Jeremy Sloan’s article on developing empathy and the impact it has on animals in our world, and an assessment of empathy in future criminal justice professionals. All provide evidence and data to support the finding that adults have lasting influence on children and how ones behavior is formed. Empathy is a vital trait and it’s a primary requisite for successfully managing daily experiences. Key words: Empathy, Modeling, Social Learning, and Development Introduction The development of empathy allows us the innate ability to relate to another’s experiences, motives and feelings. It is the foundation of compassion and caring, and is monumental in many of life’s challenges and successes. It is what allows us to learn from others and become responsible, caring adults. Many significant professions require empathy: medical care, fire rescue, education, criminal justice, and most importantly parenting. Tragic events such as slavery and the Holocaust illuminate the significance of empathy, it’s part in humankind’s wellbeing, and how requisite it is to encourage healthy development of the trait (Sajo, 2011). It is therefore of......

Words: 2089 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Data Collection Methods

...different data collection method used in another study. (Be sure to cite the article which must be from one of AIU’s full-text databases) Paragraph 4: Again, using the knowledge you learned from the textbook, discuss the pros and cons of the data collection method. (Cite the textbook) In this discussion I will give a brief summary on two types of data collection methods and give examples of pros and cons for each method. OBSERVATIONAL STUDY Observational study is a method of data collection that involves a process of watching any given type of situation and recording the data that is observed. Depending on how and what data is being observed depends on the type of tool the researcher will want to use in order to collect their information. The researcher conducting this type of study is a passive observer and does not tamper in any way with the variable of interest or any factors that may affect it. When recording observation data, you have to remember that all answers are from your own perception and there is no right or wrong answer. In the observational study that I researched, researchers wanted to know if CCBs associated with LUTS in males. This was conducted on 38 males which ranged from the ages of 46 to 89 years old, with the median age being 67 for about five years. According to the study, calcium channel blockers associated to 100% of...

Words: 964 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Psychology Assignment

...Albert Bandura – Social Learning Theory Social Learning Theory is also called observational learning. This learning is proving that learning is a cognitive process that takes place in a social context and can occur purely through observation or direct instruction, even in the absence of motor reproduction or direct  Albert Bandura says that people learn from 3 different strategies and they are; Observation, Imitation and modelling; a saying for this is ‘monkey see, monkey do’ because ‘children see’ and ‘children do’. This saying explains everything in 4 simple words. Bandura’s social learning theory explains human behaviour in cognitive, behavioural and environmental influences. Everyone and everything around us has an impact on how we all behave. Bandura particularly focused on how aggression progresses in children. Bandura says that childrens behaviour is influenced and learned by observing whats going on around them in the environment that they are in. Children also observe the way people behave around others and are influenced by them in good ways and bad ways, this is shown by the bobo doll experiment. Children are especially influenced by the role models in this society, at first they will observe everything they do such as their behaviour and further down the line they will start to copy what they do and reinact it themselves. Sometimes this could be a good thing sometime this could be a bad thing. He also looks at how we are affected by the rewards and......

Words: 8024 - Pages: 33

Premium Essay

Comparison of Restaurants

...recurring costs are substantial. 2. Comparison One – Brotzeit VS Malones Irish Restaurant & Bar 2.1 Sales/Revenue Monetary gains are a good measure of success and a highly tangible KPI. Due to high start-up and recurring costs of the chosen outlets, increased revenue and hence profit would increase success and sustainability. Brotzeit takes the forefront for this aspect based not simply on their price points but also the consumption and revenue . Based on our observational research, Malones offers a set lunch at approximately $7 (includes main course, soup of the day and a non-alcoholic beverage) , which is extremely affordable compared to their regular prices where starters are $8 and above. Brotzeit does not run any set promotions. However, Brotzeit had (??%) more customers than Malones during the lunch peak hour from 12-3pm and a (??%) more sales of alcoholic beverages which is a high component of revenue for restaurant bars due to highly taxed alcohol in Singapore. Based on the calculations made from the observational study conducted on a typical day , the revenue of Brotzeit was significantly more than that of Malones. Brotzeit’s success is evident as they had hit their sales target for the lunch period while Malones did not. 2.2 Online Reviews Consumers of society today are highly tech savvy and 90% use the...

Words: 474 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Bega School Girl Murders

...The Bega schoolgirl murders relate to the abduction, rape and murder of two New South Wales schoolgirls, sixteen year old Nichole Collins and fourteen year old Lauren Barry, that occurred in Bega, New South Wales on the sixth of October, 1997. The two girls were abducted by Leslie Camilleri and Lindsay Beckett, who subjected them to repeated sexual assaults and rapes on more than five separate occasions whilst they were being driven through New South Wales and Victoria. The two girls were both stabbed and killed in Fiddler's Green Creek in Victoria; the order from Camilleri that was carried out by Beckett (CrimeUncovered, 2013) The two men spotted the girls walking along a road near their camp site, and offered them a ride. According to Beckett, the girls agreed and willingly got in the car. The men then proceeded to each pull out a knife in order to scare the girls into cooperating. There were approximately five stops as they drove, each being an opportunity to sexual assault the two school girls. In total, the trip took just over twelve hours before they reached Fiddler's Green Creek. Camilleri ordered Beckett to kill both of them however Beckett protested in that it was unfair that he had to kill them both. He eventually complied when Camilleri threatened to stab him if he did not do what he was told. Beckett attempted to drown Lauren Barry, however he stabbed her in the neck after a struggle. He slashed Nichole Collins' throat several times, but when this did not......

Words: 2791 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Thesis

...Eulogio “Amang” Rodriguez Institute of Science and Technology EARIST Manila Campus Nagtahan, Sampaloc Manila College of Public Administration and Criminology THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF WORKING STUDENTS IN EULOGIO “AMANG” RODRIGUEZ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (EARIST) SY: 2014-2015 A Thesis presented to: Prof. Cinderella U. Reginio Eulogio ‘’Amang’’ Rodriguez Institute of Science and Technology EARIST Manila Campus Nagtahan, Sampaloc Manila In Partial Fulfillment of the requirements for Technical Writing Presented By: Group 2 Students of Bachelor of Science in Public Administration II-3 1. Aplacador, Rose Jane E. 2. Bayanay, Madel G. 3. Buce, Sheena M. 4. Cuenta, Robby Mae L. 5. Dizon, Gelly S. 6. Lachica, Donnalyn B. 7. Manalo, Jollibe C. 8. Ola, Reynier O. 9. Paguinto, Katherine T. 10. Patal, Einiel L. 11. Patlonag, Marryrose R. 12. Perante, John Rey Danniel N. 13. Prado, Daisy N. 14. Soriano, Aldrin S. 15. Trongco, Florante C. September 2015 Eulogio “Amang” Rodriguez Institute of Science and Technology EARIST Manila Campus Nagtahan, Sampaloc Manila College of Public Administration and Criminology APPROVAL SHEET In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Technical Writing, this thesis entitled The Academic Performance of Working Students in Eulogio “Amang” Rodriguez Institute of Science And Technology (EARIST) SY: 2014-2015, has been prepared and submitted by......

Words: 11290 - Pages: 46

Premium Essay

Yolo

...RESEARCH: CYBERBULLYING Members: Tapay,Daniel Breyton Reyes,Clark Lloveras,Marielle Sangalang,Maica Nchama,Julian Miguel Chapter I: Introduction According to Belsey (2004) "cyberbullying involves the use of information and communication technologies to support deliberate, repeated, and hostile behavior by an individual or group that is intended to harm others" (Belsey, 2004). In 2006, the National Crime Prevention Council worked with Harris Interactive Inc., to create a study on cyberbullying. The study found that 43% of the 824 middle school and high school-aged students surveyed in the United States had been cyberbullied in the past year (cited in Moessner, 2007). The Pew Internet and American Life Project on cyberbullying conducted a similar study in 2006 which found that one out of three teens have experienced online harassment (cited in Lenhart, 2007). Pew also found that the most prevalent form of cyberbullying was making private information public; which included e-mails, text messages, and pictures (cited in Lenhart, 2007). The findings ofthe Pew research also indicated that girls are more likely to be part of cyberbullying than boys. Older girls, between the ages of 15 and 17, are the most likely to be involved in some form of cyberbullying, with 41 % of those surveyed indicating that they have been involved in some type of cyberbuUying (cited in Lenhart, 2007). Cyberbullying is different from traditional bullying due to the anonymity that......

Words: 985 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Psychology Aggression

...Social Learning Theory (SLT) suggests that children learn aggressive behaviour by observing others acting aggressively. They also learn under what situations people are likely to be rewarded for their aggressive behaviour or punished (this is known as vicarious reinforcement). As a result, they learn how to perform aggressive acts when appropriate (i.e. when rewards will follow), and will learn not to perform aggressive acts when they will be punished for it. For social learning to take place, the child must form a mental representation of the behaviour as well as an expectancy of any future outcome of them performing that behaviour. If opportunities for aggressive behaviour arise in the future, the child may display that behaviour provided the expectation of reward is greater than the expectation of punishment. SLT is supported by Bandura et al., who found that children who observed a model behaving aggressively towards a Bobo doll were more likely to reproduce the same behaviours when they were later allowed to interact with the doll; the children even improvised their own aggressive actions towards the doll. This was particularly the case when they saw the adult rewarded for their aggressive behaviour, thus supporting the claim that the expectation of reward influences the likelihood of a behaviour being performed. However, this study lacks validity because the children may have been aware of what was expected of them, leading to them displaying demand......

Words: 672 - Pages: 3