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National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
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NIOSH logo
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the U.S. federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness. NIOSH is part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
NIOSH is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with research laboratories and offices in Cincinnati, Ohio; Morgantown, West Virginia; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Denver, Colorado; Anchorage, Alaska; Spokane, Washington; and Atlanta, Georgia.[1] NIOSH is a professionally diverse organization with a staff of 1,400 people representing a wide range of disciplines including epidemiology, medicine, industrial hygiene, safety, psychology, engineering, chemistry, and statistics.
The director of NIOSH is John Howard.
The Occupational Safety and Health Act, signed by President Richard M. Nixon, on December 29, 1970, created both NIOSH and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). NIOSH was established to help ensure safe and healthful working conditions by providing research, information, education, and training in the field of occupational safety and health. NIOSH provides national and world leadership to prevent work-related illness, injury, disability, and death by gathering information, conducting scientific research, and translating the knowledge gained into products and services.[2]
Contents
[hide] * 1 Strategic goals * 2 NIOSH authority * 3 NIOSH publications * 4 NIOSH education and research centers * 4.1 Current education and research centers * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links
Strategic goals[edit]
NIOSH abides by a strategic plan for meeting institutional goals and allocating resources. The Institute has three overarching goals:[3] * Conduct research to reduce work-related illnesses and injuries * Promote safe and healthy workplaces through interventions, recommendations and capacity building * Enhance global workplace safety and health through international collaborations
The goals are supported by NIOSH's program portfolio. The portfolio categorizes Institute efforts into 8 groups representing industrial sectors. The program portfolio further subdivides efforts into 24 cross sectors.
NIOSH authority[edit]
Unlike its counterpart, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, NIOSH is not a regulatory agency. It does not issue safety and health standards that are enforceable under U.S. law. Rather, NIOSH's authority under the Occupational Safety and Health Act [29 CFR § 671] is to "develop recommendations for health and safety standards", to "develop information on safe levels of exposure to toxic materials and harmful physical agents and substances", and to "conduct research on new safety and health problems". NIOSH may also "conduct on-site investigations (Health Hazard Evaluations) to determine the toxicity of materials used in workplaces" and "fund research by other agencies or private organizations through grants, contracts, and other arrangements".[4]
NIOSH was intended to function as an agency at the same level as, and independent from, the Centers for Disease Control. NIOSH was initially placed within the Centers for Disease Control in order to obtain administrative support from the Centers until NIOSH was ready to assume those responsibilities for itself; the Centers, however, never relinquished control and the original intent of the Act never came to pass.[citation needed]
Also, pursuant to its authority granted to it by the Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, NIOSH may "develop recommendations for mine health standards for the Mine Safety and Health Administration", "administer a medical surveillance program for miners, including chest Xrays to detect pneumoconiosis (black lung disease) in coal miners", "conduct on-site investigations in mines similar to those authorized for general industry under the Occupational Safety and Health Act; and "test and certify personal protective equipment and hazard-measurement instruments".[4]
NIOSH publications[edit]
Alerts are put out by the agency to request assistance in preventing, solving, and controlling newly identified occupational hazards. They briefly present what is known about the risk for occupational injury, illness, and death.
Criteria Documents contain NIOSH's recommendations for the prevention of occupational diseases and injuries. These documents are submitted to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or the Mine Safety and Health Administration for consideration in their formulation of legally-binding safety and health standards.
Current Intelligence Bulletins analyze new information about occupational health and safety hazards.
The National Agricultural Safety Database is published by NIOSH and contains citations and summaries of scholarly journal articles and reports about agricultural health and safety.
The Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) program publishes occupational fatality data. Data is used to publish fatality reports by specific sectors of industry and types of fatal incidents.[5]
The NIOSH Power Tools Database contains sound power levels, sound pressure levels, and vibrations data for a variety of common power tools that have been tested by NIOSH researchers.
NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods' contain NIOSH's recommendations for collecting air samples.
NIOSH education and research centers[edit]
Main article: NIOSH Education and Research Centers
NIOSH Education and Research Centers are multidisciplinary centers supported by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health for education and research in the field of occupational health. Through the centers, NIOSH supports academic degree programs and research opportunities.[6] The ERCs, distributed in regions across the United States, establish academic, labor, and industry research partnerships.[7] The research conducted at the centers is related to the National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) established by NIOSH.[8]
Founded in 1977, NIOSH ERCs are responsible for nearly half of post-baccalaureate graduates entering occupational health and safety fields. The ERCs focus on industrial hygiene, occupational health nursing, occupational medicine, occupational safety, and other areas of specialization.[9] At many ERCs, students in specific disciplines have their tuition paid in full and receive additional stipend money. ERCs provide a benefit to local businesses by offering reduced price assessments to local businesses.
Current education and research centers[edit] * University of Alabama at Birmingham & Auburn University -Deep South Center for Occupational Safety & Health * University of California, Berkeley * University of California, Los Angeles * University of Cincinnati * Mountain & Plains ERC in Colorado * Harvard School of Public Health * University of Illinois at Chicago * University of Iowa * Johns Hopkins University * University of Michigan * University of Minnesota * Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai * University of North Carolina * University of South Florida * University of Texas * University of Utah -The Rocky Mountain Center for Occupational and Environmental Health * University of Washington * University of Kentucky and Eastern Kentucky University -Central Appalachian Regional ERC
See also[edit] * American Society of Safety Engineers * Back injury * Ergonomics * Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) * Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation and Prevention Program * Health Hazard Evaluation Program * Industrial and organizational psychology * National Fire Fighter Near-Miss Reporting System * National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory * NIOSH Education and Research Centers * NIOSH Power Tools Database * NORA, the National Occupational Research Agenda * Occupational health psychology * Occupational Safety and Health * Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) * Office of Mine Safety and Health Research * Prevention through design * SENSOR-Pesticides * Total Worker Health * World Trade Center Health Program
References[edit]
1. Jump up ^ NIOSH Divisions, Labs, and Offices 2. Jump up ^ About NIOSH. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. 3. Jump up ^ NIOSH Strategic Plan Outline 2004-2009. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 4. ^ Jump up to: a b National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (US) About NIOSH 5. Jump up ^ National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (US) NIOSH Publications by Category 6. Jump up ^ NIOSH Education and Research Centers (ERCs). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. July, 2008. Accessed February 13, 2009 7. Jump up ^ NIOSH ERC - Great Lakes Center. University of Illinois at Chicago. Accessed February 13, 2009 8. Jump up ^ Education and Research Center (ERC): About ERC. University of Cincinnati, Department of Environmental Health. September 15, 2008. Accessed February 13, 2009 9. Jump up ^ NIOSH Announces New Name for Centers to Reflect Education, Research Mission. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Update, January 22, 1998. Accessed February 13, 2009
External links[edit] | Wikimedia Commons has media related to National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. | * NIOSH Homepage * Global Environmental and Occupational Health e-Library online database of environmental health and occupational health and safety training materials * NIOSH Power Tools Database online database of sound and vibrations data for various power tools * Safe-in-Sound Excellence in Hearing Loss Prevention Award

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Pipeline

...Introduction Currently, the share of railways in carrying this load is around 70 per cent, followed by 25 per cent for pipelines and 5 per cent for roads. Railways and roads are inefficient modes of carrying petroleum products because they consume significantly more energy (320 BTU for railways and 1700 BTU for roads to move one tonne of petroleum products over one km) than pipelines for which the comparable figure is only 50-135 BTU. Clearly, pipeline transportation is the most efficient way of moving petroleum products and gases and, hence, is the preferred mode all over the world. In developed countries like the USA and the UK, almost all long distance transportation of petroleum products and gas takes place through pipelines. India is far behind these countries in realizing the full potential of pipelines because it does not have a well-developed pipeline network. A rapid development of pipelines, therefore, is essential to ensure that the share of this mode in the transportation of petroleum products and natural gas reaches the desired level. It is estimated that around Rs 30,000 crore are likely to be invested over the next 10-12 years in setting up pipeline networks for liquid petroleum products The efficient and effective movement of natural gas from producing regions to consumption regions requires an extensive and elaborate transportation system. In many instances, natural gas produced from a particular well will have to travel a great distance to reach its......

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