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Instructor Course
Student Guide



Instructor and Classroom Preparation


Classroom Management


Course Introduction




Introduction to Lesson Planning


Anticipatory Set


Learning Objectives
Writing Questions and Objectives Using
Bloom’s Taxonomy


Input and Modeling
Implications of Short-Term Memory Research
Implications of Long-Term Memory Research
Presentation Skills: Verbal, Vocal, Visual
Presentation Skills: Questioning


Guided Practice
Cooperative Learning
Learning Styles/Modalities: Multiple Intelligences


Independent Practice
Differentiated Instruction












Course Overview

Lesson Planning

Class Schedule
• Start Time
• Lunch
• Dismissal
• Breaks
Class Agenda: what topics are taught on what days

Anticipatory Set
Input and Modeling
Check for Understanding
Guided Practice
Independent Practice

(Sousa, 2011)
The instructor is given what to teach, and he/she chooses how to teach it.
We intend not to overwhelm students with information, and we will learn why in later lessons on memory.


Reliable Sources

Quick reference guides
Training manuals
Manufacturer’s website or customer service
Coworkers, other Subject Matter Experts (SMEs)

Instructor Notes


4 or less main points (McArdle, 1993); 5-9 chunks or individual pieces of information (Woolfolk, 2001; M. L. Tate, personal communication, 2007)
Cues rather than whole sentences (McArdle, 1993)
Notes on slideshow presentation or index cards
Answers to questions students will likely ask based on past experience, including question parking lots from previous classes (Phillips, 2012;
Caico, 2006)
Explanations, possibly including analogies, for anticipated areas of confusion (Phillips, 2012; Caico, 2006)

The Who, What, When, Where, Why, and How of Classroom


Who will I teach? (MOS, experience, # of students)
Who is the point of contact (POC) for them?
What will I teach?
When will I teach? (days, start, end, lunch, breaks)
Where will I teach? (Visit site the day prior to class.)
Why do students need to know this information?
How and when will I receive equipment/materials for training? Is it all operational? What is my contingency plan for any problems such as equipment failure?
How will I teach students what they need to learn?


Prerequisites are requirements prior to the course and may consist of courses that should be completed beforehand or knowledge/experience that will allow the course to flow smoothly. Communicate these expectations to the training coordinator so that he/she will select qualified candidates for the course. If certain students do not meet the prerequisites, as determined by a pre-course survey, introductions, a written test, and/or an observation, these students may be better suited for a lower-level class before taking the current class. An organization chooses students whose training with be an asset to them, so ensuring that all participants meet the prerequisites is of utmost importance.

Action for Struggling Students
For students who are far behind and struggling, suggest the prerequisite course. Another option is to contact the training coordinator, who can rework the class roster if he/she so desires, especially if many students do not meet the prerequisites.
(Phillips, 2012; Caico, 2006)


Tips for Organizing Materials

List materials in the lesson plan.
Set out materials in advance of class, preferably the day prior to instruction. Test equipment for functionality.
In a virtual classroom, test streaming video, screen sharing and a highlyvisible cursor (Phillips, 2012).
If traveling to a training site, arrange to set up the materials at least the day prior to class if possible, or if not, coordinate setup with the point of contact (POC) and provide him/her with a checklist (Phillips, 2012; Caico,
Materials may be located at each student’s desk, at each group, or at a designated location in the classroom.

Instructor Materials

Slideshow presentation with images since 83% of learning is gained visually (McArdle, 1993) but not so many images as to be distracting
(Phillips, 2012; Caico, 2006)
Computer with appropriate software and files


Projector, remote for projector
Presenter for advancing slides
Notes on slideshow presentation or on index cards
Dry erase markers, eraser
Flip chart, markers
Index cards of printed words for word wall (posted vocabulary words)
Class roster for taking attendance

Student Materials


Book or quick reference guide provided by the organization
Workbook or handouts provided by the organization
Supplements provided by the instructor
Pen, pencil, highlighter
Computer with appropriate software and files, possibly in a shared folder

In general, avoid delays and continue teaching. Wait time will only decrease time allotted for mastering learning objectives and potentially lead to disciplinary issues.

Inoperable Equipment: Attempt to fix the problem in a matter of a few minutes. If a quick fix is not possible, proceed with the contingency/ backup plan, one that is as close as possible to the original delivery method. For example, if the projector bulb burns out, distribute paper backups of the slideshow presentation or use the books or other readily available materials.
Uncomfortable Environment: An instructor is responsible for maintaining a comfortable environment that is conducive to learning. Gauge the comfort of the students by surveying them or observing their behavior such as fanning or pulling on a jacket. Base the environment on the majority.
Broken air conditioning or heat can impair students’ learning, so take measures to fix the problem immediately by calling maintenance.

(Phillips, 2012; Caico, 2006)


Theater/Classroom: facing screen and sometimes instructor
Conference Table/Rounds: promotes small-group discussions
U-Shape (facing inward): promotes whole-class discussions
U-Shape (facing outward): focuses attention on labs

(McArdle, 1993; Phillips, 2012)


Heterogeneous Grouping

Places learners of varying abilities together. More advanced learner can scaffold* less advanced student’s learning experience.
Good for cooperative learning** during Guided Practice, especially when the instructor assigns jobs to every group member to hold them accountable for participating.
Learners who participate in the lesson can help motivate apathetic students (Phillips, 2012).

Homogeneous Grouping

Places learners of like abilities together.
Good for instructor assistance during Independent Practice.

*Scaffolding will be covered in more detail in the Guided Practice section of
Lesson Planning and Presentation.
**Cooperative Learning will be covered in more detail in the Guided Practice section of Lesson Planning and Presentation.


2x6 Rule

2x width of screen is distance from screen to 1st row
6x width of screen is distance from screen to last row

(McArdle, 1993)






Positive attitude: Remain positive; never criticize materials, facilities, students, instructors, instructional designers, etc. Students may complain a little, as long as they are not disrupting class. Also refrain from offensive remarks. Humor: Humor can create a positive morale, as long as it is not offensive.
Students’ sense of humor varies, so if they do not laugh, just keep teaching. Helpful and supportive: Help students meet the learning objectives by offering guidance during learning activities, and be supportive of their progress with specific, encouraging feedback. If a student is not participating or looks confused, go over to the student, inquire about his/ her progress, and offer assistance. Guide the student through part of the activity and then let him/her finish the work independently. Be quick to help rather than quick to reprimand, which will increase the students’ desire to cooperate.
Welcoming of questions: Welcome all questions and respond without any indication of judgment.


Manageable workload: Give students a workload that will challenge but not frustrate them. Differentiation is key.* Also give students regular breaks to assist in their retention of the information and increase their motivation, supported by the primacy-recency effect (students remember best what they learn first and last).

(Phillips, 2012; Caico, 2006)
*Differentiation will be covered in more detail in the Differentiated Instruction chapter, located in the Independent Practice section of Lesson Planning and Presentation.


Expectations: State expectations/code of conduct during introduction.
Consequence(s): State consequence(s) for not abiding by code of conduct. Reward(s): State reward(s) for abiding by code of conduct.

Documentation is important, especially when speaking with a student’s chain of command.
• Documentation of behavior
• Documentation of class time missed


Strategies are leveled according to the severity of a students’ actions or repeated disregard of expectations, from the least confrontational approach to most. Please note: Approved discipline strategies may vary; contact the site lead or your point of contact to discuss consequences for offending students.


Class leader: Some instructors like to assign the highest-ranking soldier in class to maintain discipline. Be careful not to let this soldier’s reprimands be distracting nor detract from the instructor’s command over the class.
Proximity: Stand near the misbehaving student(s).
Restate expectations: Remind students of the appropriate behavior such as talking quietly (Phillips, 2012). Also state the reason why, preferably including how it benefits them: The quieter students are, the better other students can concentrate, and the faster we can all complete the task at hand. Separate offending students: For example, if two students constantly talk and therefore distract those around them, separate these two students.

Conference: Talk with the misbehaving student privately outside the classroom door, preferably during a break (Phillips, 2012). Remind him/ her of the learning goals and of the classroom expectations. Warn him/ her that continuing to break the rules may result in a referral back to his/ her unit. In addition to conferencing with students, conference with others who are distracting the class. If people are conversing loudly outside the classroom door, politely ask them to lower their voices as students are trying to concentrate. It is the instructor’s responsibility to minimize distractions both inside and outside the classroom.
Refer student to site lead: As a last resort, send the student to the site lead, who may call the student’s unit to inform them of his/her noncompliance with classroom expectations and lack of initiative in meeting the learning objectives. If a student is continually rude, inappropriate/harassing, and/or continually disruptive, he/she may be asked to leave (and see the site lead) so as to maintain morale for the rest of the class (Phillips, 2012).


Capable: Students need to feel capable of completing the work required of them.
Connect: Students need to be able to connect with the instructor and with other students.
Contribute: Students need to be able to contribute to their learning experience, which follows the Constructivist Theory of Learning.*

(Albert, 1996)
*The Constructivist Theory of Learning will be covered in more detail in the
Anticipatory Set section of Lesson Planning and Presentation.



Active: distracting actions
Passive: slow pace


Ignore the student.
Use proximity. (Stand near the student.)
Restate expectations.
Express understanding of the behavior.
Redirect the student’s attention to the learning activity.
Praise students who are behaving appropriately.
Change the student’s seating assignment.

(Albert, 1996)



Active: temper tantrums and verbal tantrums
Passive: quiet noncompliance


Walk away from the student.
Send the student on a break.
Talk with the student in private, restating expectations and warning him/ her about the consequences.

(Albert, 1996)



Active: physical and psychological attacks
Passive: appearing apathetic, unwilling to participate

Interventions (same as Power Behavior)

Walk away from the student.
Send the student on a break.
Talk with the student in private, restating expectations and warning him/ her about the consequences.

(Albert, 1996)



Active: frustration tantrum
Passive: procrastinates or does not complete work, may appear to have learning disability


Differentiate instruction and teach to a variety of learning styles.
Provide assistance and encouragement.
Offer tutoring before and after class.
Group students heterogeneously.

(Albert, 1996)



Active: complaining in class, paying attention to another activity such as a cell phone, holding sidebar conversations irrelevant to the learning objective(s), falling asleep, or a look of apathy/not caring
Passive: ignoring the instructor, failing to complete any work


Stress the importance of the information (Phillips, 2012).
Pair the student with a capable and caring student (Phillips, 2012).
Hold the student accountable for work by recording work completed and submitting the report to an authority via the site lead.
Report the student to the site lead so that he/she may call an authority and release the student to his/her unit.

(Added by M. Spillers; apathetic behavior is not one of the behaviors defined by L. Albert. Motivation is mentioned by Phillips (2012).)






Course Overview for Instructor Course


Welcome/Greeting and Introduction of Instructor
• Good morning, and welcome to the CECOM FSB Instructor
• Instructor Introduction
• Education
• Experience
Purpose of the Course: become an even better instructor by learning educational research
Student Introductions
• What student instructs
• Prior experience with instructing
• What student expects to learn
• Group students heterogeneously (pair student who has little to no teaching experience with student who has at least some teaching experience). Safety and Facilities
• Emergency exits, fire extinguisher
• Bathrooms
• Smoking area, coffee station, etc.

Classroom Rules/Expectations
• Rule from Bryan Ayer: Do not let anything be a distracter.
• Remain attentive and quiet.
• No texting nor emailing. Turn phones to vibrate. Emergency calls: step out of classroom; all other calls: ignore.
• No tobacco products.
• Participate. (Procedural/muscle memory is strong.)
• Follow along; do not work ahead.
• Relevant questions can be answered immediately; questions that require a more in-depth answer can be addressed during breaks or after class.
• Ask students if anyone has a scheduled appointment, leave, etc. during the class week. (They will know right away.) Absences will be noted in instructor’s log, and supervisor may receive a phone call to verify student’s whereabouts.
• Consequences
• Implied: Supervisor and Bryan Ayer will be informed of student’s progress.
• Explicit/direct: 1st offense: warning; 2nd offense: instructor will immediately notify Bryan Ayer of offenses.
• Folder with study guide, syllabus, and CD of documents (book, workbook, etc.)
• Writing utensils: pen, pencil, highlighter
• Survey/look over documents on CD.
Course Schedule
• Start: 08:00
• Lunch: 12:00 to 13:00;
• End: 17:00
• 5-10-minute breaks about every hour
Course Agenda (what topics are taught on what days)
• Monday – Wednesday: Lessons on educational research and plan for recorded lesson
• Thursday: Rehearsal for video presentation
• Friday: Final video presentation
• Educational Research Exam
• CTT+ Practice Exam

According to M. Knowles’s work on the adult learning theory or andragogy, adults like to know what to expect, so a course overview eases their anxiety
(Phillips, 2012).


A pre-assessment will determine students’ current knowledge of the course content and will therefore indicate which objectives to focus on and which objectives to skim over during the course. Another advantage of a preassessment is that when compared to a summative/cumulative assessment, student progress can be measured.


Final assessment: The pre-assessment could be a shortened version of the final assessment.
Differentiation: The instructor can utilize the results to differentiate the course for learners (tiering instruction for different levels of learners)
(Willoughby, 2005).
Purpose: A pre-assessment can be a humbling experience for overlyconfident students, and the test helps all students set a purpose for learning. Growth: Indicator of student growth from beginning to end of course

Types of Pre-Assessments
• Pre-course survey: Prior to arriving or once at the training facility on Day 1, students may fill out a pre-course survey to give the instructor a sense of the students’ relevant experiences.
• Introductions: Students may tell the instructor and the other students their job title and their experience with the material to be covered.
• Written test: Written tests provide concrete evidence of students’ current knowledge and are beneficial at the close of the course for comparing to the summative assessment and thereby measuring students’ progress.
(Phillips, 2012; Caico, 2006)


Instructor may end pre-assessment early if students are unable to complete tasks. If any student is able to complete the task, he/she may
• Serve as assistant instructor.
• Read TMs to advance his/her knowledge of the radios.
• Discuss with the unit about sending another student in his/her place.
• Discuss with the unit about enrolling the student in another course.







Job Instruction Training (JIT) was used to train factory workers during World
War II.
• Demonstration
• Performing task with guidance
• Performing task independently
(McArdle, 1993)


Bolded sections of the lesson plan are similar to Job Instruction Training
Note: This lesson plan model is a good guideline. However, some parts can be rearranged or excluded.
Example 1: Guided Practice and Independent Practice may loop if the lesson is long.
Example 2: Input and Modeling may be substituted for exploration/discoverybased learning (to be more similar to the 5 E’s Model).
(Sousa, 2011; Wolfe, 1987)


Appropriate Modifications
Instructors are given what to teach, and they decide how to teach it. Remain as true as possible to what the course designers have created, especially the learning objectives, but modify as necessary to aid student understanding without criticizing the materials. Above all, honor an organization’s requests for training, as the organization funds the training and is using the training to improve its workforce.
• Adding/Supplementing Information: Use supplements or verbally interject pertinent information, activities, and so on that are missing from the course.
• Deleting Information: Deleting information can negatively impact the rest of the course if future content hinges on the content deleted. If necessary, just skim over information that the organization requested deleting or that students already know to avoid such a problem and also to ensure that the students know the information.


• Changing Information: The amount of changes that can be made to a course depends on the amount of time available prior to a course’s start date.
If weeks or months are available, different courseware can be used or courseware can be modified and printed. If changes need to be made during the class, distribute supplements or verbally note the information. During class, assess how students are progressing and adjust the course as needed to ensure students’ mastery of all learning objectives.
• Suggesting Revisions: The focus of training should always be the edification of the student. If one instructor notices changes that could be made to the courseware to improve it for his/her future classes and the classes of fellow instructors, these changes should be brought to the attention of the course designer. (Phillips, 2012)






Examples of Ways to Gain Student Attention
1. Video: Safety precautions should be taken when handling BA-5590/U and
BA-2590/U batteries, and here is the main reason. (Show a video of a
BA-5590 battery exploding.)
2. Demonstration: Adam L’Herault and Keith Ayer used a 7800H radio to call a student’s cell phone.
3. Novel story or facts: Hedy Lamarr, a beautiful Hollywood actress, invented frequency hopping with George Antheil, a player piano maker and composer.
4. Real-life scenario or subject matter expert (SME): The fan is broken in your CPU and it is therefore overheating. You open up the CPU. How do you repair or replace the fan?
5. Question(s) to activate prior knowledge: How many of you have operated the 152? The 117G has similar programming menus.


Jean Piaget’s Constructivist Theory of Learning

• Organizing new information is an innate human function.
• Scheme: comparable to file folder; students build schemes in which to store information
• Assimilation: filing information in existing scheme/file folder
• Accommodation: creating new scheme/file folder in which to file information Disequilibrium: lack of balance between new information and what is known (Woolfolk, 2001)
M. Knowles supports the Constructivist Theory of Learning in his writing on
Andragogy, saying that adults desire to be in control of creating their own learning (Phillips, 2012).







According to Bloom (1956), “The whole cognitive domain of the taxonomy is arranged in a hierarchy, that is, each classification within it demands the skills and abilities which are lower in the classification order” (p. 120).


Highest 3 categories (Analyzing, Evaluating, Creating) are called HigherOrder Thinking Skills (HOTS) (Stowe, 2013).


Definitions (Bloom, 1956)
• Remembering: memory of information, recalling facts
• Understanding: stating information in one’s own words, based on information given
• Applying: using information in a new situation
• Analyzing: breaking down and examining components for relationship and organization
• Evaluating: determining effectiveness or usefulness based on criteria • Creating: combining information from multiple sources to develop a unique product

Anderson, a student of Bloom’s, and Krathwohl, a member of the panel with Bloom, revised the taxonomy and published their work in 2001
(Krathwohl, 2002).
• They renamed the categories to be verbs rather than nouns.
• They also reordered the highest 2 categories.

Court Case Analogy
• Remembering: Police officers at crime scene gather evidence; stenographer takes notes
• Understanding: witnesses submit statements and testify
• Applying: lawyers and judge use knowledge of laws and Supreme Court case rulings to set precedence for present case
• Analyzing: criminal investigator/detective examines evidence and determines events surrounding crime
• Evaluating: jury finds defendant guilty or not guilty based on evidence
• Creating: judge sentences defendant if found guilty; forensic artist molds representation of victim’s face


(Crump, 2013)
Knowledge/Remembering “includes those behaviors and test situations which emphasize the remembering, either by recognition or recall, of ideas, material, or phenomena” (Bloom, 1956, p. 62).


(Crump, 2013)
Comprehension/Understanding “include[s] those objectives, behaviors, or responses which represent an understanding of the literal message contained in a communication,” and “the thinking is based on what is given” (Bloom,
1956, p. 89).


(Crump, 2013)
Application/Applying involves a new situation in which a student will “apply the appropriate abstraction without having to be prompted as to which abstraction is correct or without having to be shown how to use it in that situation” (Bloom,
1956, p. 120).


(Crump, 2013)
Analysis/Analyzing “emphasizes the breakdown of the material into its constituent parts and detection of the relationships of the parts and of the way they are organized” (Bloom, 1956, p. 144).


(Crump, 2013)
Evaluation/Evaluating “is defined as the making of judgments about the value, for some purpose, of ideas, works, solutions, methods, material, etc.” and
“involves the use of criteria as well as standards” (Bloom, 1956, p. 185). An opinion expresses a like or dislike, whereas a judgment is accompanied by an examination and an explanation why.


(Crump, 2013)
Synthesis/Creating is “defined as the putting together of elements and parts
[from many sources] so as to form a whole…combining them in such a way as to constitute a pattern or structure not clearly there before” (Bloom, 1956, p.


Objectives should be clear and measurable goals. (“Understand” is not measurable. Objectives should specify what the learner will be able to do by the end of the lesson.)

ABCDs of Behavioral Objectives


Audience (Who? Learner, soldier, etc.)
Behavior (What will the learner do?)
Condition (materials or situation)
Degree (level of mastery)

(Boone & Boone, 2005)


Synthesis/Creating is “defined as the putting together of elements and parts
[from many sources] so as to form a whole…combining them in such a way as to constitute a pattern or structure not clearly there before” (Bloom, 1956, p.


Comprehension/Understanding “include[s] those objectives, behaviors, or responses which represent an understanding of the literal message contained in a communication,” and “the thinking is based on what is given” (Bloom,
1956, p. 89).


Knowledge/Remembering “includes those behaviors and test situations which emphasize the remembering, either by recognition or recall, of ideas, material, or phenomena” (Bloom, 1956, p. 62).


Evaluation/Evaluating “is defined as the making of judgments about the value, for some purpose, of ideas, works, solutions, methods, material, etc.” and
“involves the use of criteria as well as standards” (Bloom, 1956, p. 185). An opinion expresses a like or dislike, whereas a judgment is accompanied by an examination and an explanation why.


Application/Applying involves a new situation in which a student will “apply the appropriate abstraction without having to be prompted as to which abstraction is correct or without having to be shown how to use it in that situation” (Bloom,
1956, p. 120).


Analysis/Analyzing “emphasizes the breakdown of the material into its constituent parts and detection of the relationships of the parts and of the way they are organized” (Bloom, 1956, p. 144).





Amygdala Facts

The amygdala is named because of its shape; amygdala is Greek for almond
(Amygdala, 2013).
Decides what information is important and decides whether or not to pay attention. New information elicits stored memories, especially through olfactory nerves
(sense of smell).
Affected by emotion; example: fear can dramatically decrease retention, which is supported by Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs that ranks “Safety” as a more basic need than “Need to Know and Understand” (Woolfolk, 2001, p. 371).

(Mathison, 2005)

Implications for the Classroom


Instructor states purpose of lesson; why information is important.
Instructor stresses importance of information to students so that students’ amygdalas will pass along information to eventually be stored in long-term memory. Instructors should create a positive learning environment.
Instructor should stick to the learning objective.

Hippocampus Facts

The hippocampus is named because of its shape; hippocampus is Greek for seahorse (Hippocampus, 2013).
Passes information from short-term memory to long-term memory
(Mathison, 2005).

Implication for the Classroom
If the instructor can convince students that information is important, then students’ amygdalas will hold information in short-term memory and hippocampuses will pass information to long-term memory.


Memory Overview

Short-term memory (or working memory) is like a table. (Papers represent the information.)
Long-term memory is like a filing cabinet with labeled file folders.

(Woolfolk, 2001)

Implications for the Classroom


During class, students hold information in working memory and then file information away in long-term memory.
An organized delivery of the information, including slides and handouts, will assist students in filing away this information.
Previewing the information will assist students in creating file folders in which to store the data.


Capacity and Duration Research
Capacity of short-term memory: 5-9 individual pieces of information or 5-9 chunks of information (or 7 +/- 2 pieces or chunks of information, as Miller stated it)
(Miller, 1956; M. L. Tate, personal communication, 2007)

Implication for the Classroom
Instructor should present no more than 5 – 9 pieces of information at one time and then follow the presentation with a learning activity. Avoid long lectures since students will not be able to retain all the information.


Capacity and Duration Research
Primacy/recency effect: person remembers best what he/she learns first and last (Sousa, 2011)

Implications for the Classroom
• Instructor should minimize information in the middle by presenting very few pieces of information at one time.
• Instructor could preview information and review information so that what’s first and last are the most important parts of the lesson.
• Students should have breaks to create beginning and ending points for lessons. 85

Capacity and Duration Research
Duration of short-term memory: about 5-20 seconds before information is passed to long-term memory or forgotten
(Baddeley, 1986)

Implications for the Classroom


Instructor should speak using short sentences, sentences that last no more than 5-20 seconds.
Get to the point quickly, within 20 seconds.
Instructor should ensure that the lesson is organized so that students appropriately file the small pieces of information.

Retention Research

Maintenance Rehearsal (repetition)
• Saying information over and over again (in articulatory loop), then forgetting • Information is less likely to pass to long-term memory.
Elaborative Rehearsal
• Associating new information with existing information
• Information is more likely to be retained in long-term memory since a link is formed between new and old information.

(Craik & Lockhart, 1972)

Implication for the Classroom
Relate new information to information students already know through comparisons/analogies. 87

Attention Research

Attention must be maintained to keep information in short-term memory
(Anderson, 1995).
New information requires full attention; familiar information requires only partial attention and allows for multi-tasking (Anderson, 1995).
Attention span (M. L. Tate, personal communication, 2007)
• 1 minute per year of age (5-year-old = 5-minute attention span)
• Maximum of 20 minutes

Implications for the Classroom


Students should pay attention to pass information from sensory memory to short-term memory.
Students should give their undivided attention to the task, especially if they are learning new information.
Instructor should keep lectures to less than 20 minutes.
Instructor should plan for a task to take 20 minutes or less and shift gears after 20 minutes. Example: Instructor transitions to a different task twice an hour and gives students a break once an hour. Instructor could help students pace their work, such as tell them to finish up one section of work and move on to the next.

Attention Research
• Need: purpose
• Novelty: new or different
• Meaning: connected to real life
• Emotion: passion, enthusiasm
(Tate, 2012)
According to M. Knowles, adults must have a need for the information if they are to learn it, and their need is directly linked to the content’s relevance in their lives, or meaning (Phillips, 2012).

Implications for the Classroom
• Need: Instructor states purpose of learning information. Example:
Communications on the battlefield are crucial to survival and to a successful mission. Also, students may have 152s in their vehicles when they deploy.
• Novelty: Instructor includes interesting facts about the topic, equipment, etc. Example: Frequency hopping was invented by a beautiful Hollywood actress and a player piano maker.


• Meaning: Instructor informs students of how learning is relevant to their jobs, which is imperative for adults. Example: OTARs can update keys without driving over roads that are potentially covered in IEDs.
• Emotion: Instructor speaks with enthusiasm about the topic, equipment, etc. Example: The Harris 117G has amazing data capabilities with ANW2: simultaneous data and voice communications, emailing, chatting, and streaming video.


Research on Causes of Forgetting

Interference: New information supplants old information in working memory Decay
• Loss of information over time (described by common phrase “Use it or lose it.”)
• One cause: loss of attention

(Woolfolk, 2001, pp. 249-250)

Implications for the Classroom

Instructor limits information he/she presents to capacity of short-term memory: 5-9 chunks of information (Miller, 1956; M. L. Tate, personal communication, 2007).
Instructor maintains attention of students through need, novelty, meaning, and emotion (Tate, 2012).
Instructor minimizes distractions.
Instructor continuously reviews information with students.







Learning occurs when information passes from short-term memory to longterm memory (Woolfolk, 2001).

Sensory memory: perception from senses of sight, smell, taste, hearing, and touch
Short-term memory/working memory: temporary storage for information
Long-term memory: permanent storage for information
Explicit memory: consciously recalling information
Declarative memory: remembering information including facts and events; must be refreshed often to be maintained
Episodic memory: remembering past events
Semantic memory: remembering facts; any information that was not an experience Implicit memory: unconsciously recalling information
Procedural memory: remembering actions

(Woolfolk, 2001; Mastin 2010)

Implication for the Classroom
If students maintain attention, data passes from working memory to long-term memory. 97

Episodic Memory (events/experiences)

Events, especially experiences in own life
Relate to episode of a television show: a set of events in the characters’ lives (Woolfolk, 2001)

Implication for the Classroom
Instructor tells short stories about his/her own experiences, such as experiences with teaching or experiences operating equipment in the Army.


Semantic Memory (meaning of facts)

Propositional Network: related ideas that are stored in long-term memory like a web
Images: mental pictures formed via perceptions (information gained through senses), either stored as
• Pictures or
• Propositions (single pieces of information, meaning only) and then converted into pictures
Schemas: means of organizing information, both images and propositions (Woolfolk, 2001)

Implications for the Classroom

Instructor states several analogies to create more links to information in students’ long-term memory.


Instructor includes visuals on slideshow, in books, and on handouts to help storage of information (especially for Visual/Spatial learners*).
Instructor uses a mnemonic device to help students remember a list of items. Example: All People Seem To Need Data Processing is a mnemonic device for remembering the levels of the OSI model.
Instructor presents an organized lesson.
Instructor provides students with organized handouts/deliverables.

*Various learning styles/modalities will be covered in more detail in the Guided
Practice section of Lesson Planning and Presentation.


Procedural Memory (actions)

According to M. L. Tate, procedural memory is the strongest type of memory (personal communication, 2007).
Proverb attributed to Confucius: “I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand.”

Implication for the Classroom
Instructor plans hands-on activities, such as programming radios. These activities appeal especially to Kinesthetic/Bodily-Kinesthetic* learners.
*Various learning styles/modalities will be covered in more detail in the Guided
Practice section of Lesson Planning and Presentation.


Retrieving Information from Long-Term Memory: Act on information in some way.
• Elaboration: relating new information to existing information; more links = easier retrieval (Schunk, 2000)
• Organization: organization of schemes leads to easier retrieval of information (Woolfolk, 2001)
• Context: environment in which a person first learned the information; easier to retrieve information if in same or similar environment (Smith, Glenberg, & Bjork, 1978)

Implications for the Classroom


Activities for Elaboration
• Instructor uses analogies. Students create their own analogies, either unspoken or discussed with group or class. •

Activities listed by Woolfolk (2001)
• Paraphrasing
• Generating examples
• Teaching another student
• Drawing
• Dramatizing
• Application to another situation
Examples of Organization
• Instructor presents an organized lesson.
• Instructor provides students with organized handouts/deliverables
(that include graphic organizers).
Example of Context
• Students sit in the same seat throughout the course so that they will be more likely to retrieve what they learned during the assessment. • Students practice operating the equipment they will use when deployed, which follows the military adage “Train as you fight.”


Research on Causes of Forgetting

Interference: new information supplants old information
Time Decay: loss of information over time; described by common phrase
“Use it or lose it.”

(Woolfolk, 2001)

Implications for the Classroom


Instructor presents only pertinent information, data that is related to the learning objectives.
Instructor continuously reviews information during the course.
Students use the information in their jobs after the course and review every so often such as every month using handouts from the course. For certain tests, CompTIA requires students to renew their certifications after a designated number of years to prevent time decay.




Visual Message (instructor and visuals): 55% of what audience will believe
(McArdle, 1993)
• Body language
• Eye contact
• Posture
• Gestures
• Move around classroom; do not hide behind podium.
• Dress neatly/professionally.


Vocal Message (how content is stated): 38% of what audience will believe
(McArdle, 1993)
• Confidence
• Result of being an SME
• Self-fulfilling prophecy: If you think you will succeed, you will likely succeed. If you think you will fail, you will likely fail (Woolfolk,
• Exude confidence. Avoid negative fantasies (McArdle, 1993).
• Instructor’s attitude should be confident yet not condescending, helpful yet authoritative.
• Articulation (Phillips, 2012)
• Projection (Phillips, 2012)
• Voice inflection (Phillips, 2012)
• Opposite of monotonous speaking (such as Ben Stein)
• Convey enthusiasm for subject (McArdle, 1993), which relates to emotion that will maintain student attention (Tate, 2012).


Verbal Message (content): 7% of what audience will believe (McArdle,
• Instructor should be a Subject Matter Expert (SME).
• Research answers to questions if don’t know or are unsure (Phillips,
2012). Fabricating an answer detracts from instructor credibility.



Expert-level knowledge: Is the instructor an SME who is able to answer relevant questions about the course topics? Does the instructor promptly research answers to questions he/she does not know?
Research: Does the instructor have sources relevant to the course topics to study beforehand and to reference during class?


Confidence: Does the instructor seem at ease leading the class in learning the objectives without being condescending?
Articulation: Does the instructor speak clearly, enunciating every letter?
Projection: Does the instructor speak loudly enough to be heard at all points in the room but not so loudly that it seems as if he/she is yelling?
Voice inflection: Is the instructor’s voice varied (such as in pitch and pace) and therefore interesting rather than monotonous?



Body language: Does the instructor maintain eye contact with students, stand up straight, and use a variety of gestures while speaking?
Movement around classroom: Does the instructor teach from different areas of the classroom but not pace around an area?
Neat/professional attire: Are the instructor’s clothes ironed, stain-free, and fitted but not revealing? Are the instructor’s hair and facial hair (if applicable) neatly groomed?

(McArdle, 1993; Phillips, 2012)





A variety of levels and types of questions challenge students and promote higher-order thinking skills.

Divergent/Open-Ended Questions
• Definition: Divergent/open-ended questions require more thought and higher-level thinking, more than one word or a yes-or-no response.
• Advantage: Student responses to divergent questions are good indicators of their learning. Use divergent questions if time allows to encourage discussion.

Convergent/Closed-Ended Questions
• Definition: Convergent questions require only lower-level thinking and can be answered with one word or a yes-or-no response.
• Advantage: Convergent questions are beneficial if class time is limited or to refocus a class.


• Definition: Probing questions follow less specific questions and seek more detail. • Advantage: Probing questions encourage higher-level thinking because students must justify their answers and provide more information.

• Definition: Clarifying questions seek to clear up any potential misunderstandings. • Advantage: Clarifying questions can check for understanding on challenging content. Guiding
• Definition: Guiding questions require the student to answer his/her own question. • Advantage: Guiding questions encourage students to remember previouslycovered content.

• Definition: Hypothetical questions ask “what if”; they present a potential scenario for the student to solve.
• Advantage: Hypothetical questions encourage students to apply their knowledge to their jobs and to think more critically.
(Phillips, 2012; Caico, 2006)


Whenever a student answers a question, whether correctly or incorrectly, express appreciation for the student’s participation and refrain from judgment.

After asking the class a question, Caico (2006) recommends pausing for 9 seconds to allow them time to think, time to hesitate in stating their answer in hopes that someone else will answer, and time to build the courage to speak.

Rephrase the question if the students did not understand the question or answered incorrectly.

Redirect the question to another student or to the class if the student does not respond, does not know the answer, or answers incorrectly. Redirect also when the content in question has already been covered. If redirecting the question is not desired, legitimize the student’s response and tell the class the correct answer.


If a student asks an irrelevant question, a highly in-depth question, or a question that requires research, place the inquiry in the question parking lot* to answer later, such as during break or after class.
(Phillips, 2012; Caico, 2006)
*A question parking lot will be covered in more detail in the Closure of Lesson
Planning and Presentation.






Sociocultural Theory of Learning
In the early 20th century, Lev Vygotsky wrote prolifically on the topic of psychology. Vygotsky believed that culture influences what students learn because of what a society values. He also wrote that students learn from adults and from more advanced peers. His theory can be applied to adult learners in that these students learn from the instructor and their more advanced classmates. Scaffolding is a term used by Vygotsky to describe the support a student receives when first learning a topic and how that support is gradually removed as the student is capable of doing more and more independently. Hunter’s lesson plan model includes scaffolding in the sections of Input and Modeling, Guided Practice, and Independent Practice.

Constructivist Theory of Learning
Working with a group allows students to construct their own learning rather than being explicitly told information by the instructor, a method that adults prefer according to M. Knowles, as described in Piaget’s Constructivist Theory of Learning. Cooperative learning is a valuable means of learning since it mimics working with a team of coworkers on the job.
(Woolfolk, 2001; Phillips, 2012)


Options for Student Jobs in Groups
Students may have one job, or some or all students in the group may have more than one job if feasible.
• Encourager: persuades noncontributing group members to participate
• Gate Keeper: ensures all group members are contributing equally
• Coach: explains aspects of topic that are confusing to the group (perfect job for advanced learners)
• Taskmaster: ensures the group is focused on the learning activity
• Recorder: writes down the information
• Materials Monitor: retrieves and returns materials
(Kagan, 1994)

Directions and Support for the Learning Activity

Prior to setting students to work, clearly explain the learning activity, what is expected of students, and answer any questions.
Quickly demonstrate a task if necessary before students work together in their groups.
During the activity, walk around the room to monitor groups for their understanding and offer assistance as needed.

(Phillips, 2012; Caico, 2006)


Overview of Cooperative Learning Strategies

Think-Pair-Share: Students think to themselves, discuss with a partner, and then contribute to a class discussion.
Learning Together: Students complete one product together.
Reciprocal Questioning: Students ask each other questions about the lecture. Scripted Cooperation: Both students complete a task, one student summarizes, the other student verifies, and they then switch roles.
Jigsaw and Jigsaw II: Group members number off and split up into their study groups, and then they present what they learned to their original groups. Student Team Achievement Divisions (STAD): The instructor assesses current student understanding of objectives and then assesses their growth via a test after an activity.
Teams-Games-Tournament (TGT): The instructor assesses current student understanding of objectives and then assesses their growth via a game after an activity.
Group Investigation: Students complete a project by dividing the work among themselves and/or working together. Groups manage themselves.

(Johnson & Johnson, 1998; Lyman, 1981; Sharan & Sharan, 1990; Slavin,
1978; Woolfolk, 2001)


Level of Difficulty: Beginner
Description: Students think to themselves, discuss with a partner, and then contribute to a class discussion.
Example: Students Think-Pair-Share what could be the problem if a 152 radio beeps during transmission. They conclude that the problem could be receive only, data mode, or no encryption.
(Lyman, 1981)


Level of Difficulty: Beginner
Description: Students complete one product together.
Example: Each team programs a 7800W, connects all the cables, and assembles the antenna.
(Johnson & Johnson, 1998)


Level of Difficulty: Beginner
Description: Students ask each other questions about the lecture.
Example: After the instructor’s lecture on satellite communications
(SATCOM), students ask each other questions about this operating mode.
(Woolfolk, 2001)


Level of Difficulty: Beginner
Description: Both students complete a task, one student summarizes, the other student verifies, and they then switch roles. Variation proposed by M.
Spillers: One student completes a task, the other student gives feedback, and then the students switch roles.
Example: Two students use their Simple Key Loader (SKL) to set up their radio for sending an Over-the-Air-Rekey (OTAR). Student 1 reads the directions while Student 2 operates the SKL and the radio. Once the radio is ready to transmit the OTAR, Student 2 restates the steps involved, and
Student 1 verifies the steps’ accuracy. When the same group is preparing to receive an OTAR, Student 2 may read the directions while Student 1 operates the SKL and the radio. Once the radio receives the OTAR, Student 1 restates the steps involved, and Student 2 confirms the accuracy of these steps.
(Woolfolk, 2001)


Level of Difficulty: Proficient
Description: Group members number off and split up into their study groups, and then they present what they learned to their original groups.
Example: Students in a group number off 1-4. The topic students are learning is frequency hopping, and each group learns about its own subtopic. All 1s read about net IDs, 2s read about late net entry, 3s read about a loadset, and
4s read about troubleshooting common problems with frequency hopping.
Then original groups reassemble. Student 1 teaches the group what he/she learned about net IDs, Student 2 teaches the group what he/she learned about late net entry, and so on.
(Woolfolk, 2001)


Level of Difficulty: Proficient
Description: The instructor assesses current student understanding of objectives and then assesses their growth via a test after an activity.
Example: Students in an A+ class take a multiple-choice quiz at the beginning of the course. Then, after instruction on one chapter, students quiz each other on the topics they covered in the class. Students independently take another multiple-choice test, and the instructor compares the students’ scores to their pre-assessment scores from the morning of Day 1.
(Slavin, 1978)


Level of Difficulty: Proficient
Description: The instructor assesses current student understanding of objectives and then assesses their growth via a game after an activity.
Example: Students complete a fill-in-the-blank pre-assessment at the start of a radio course. After learning about the 148 JEM, the 152, and the 117G, teams of students compete in a Jeopardy! game to review aspects of all 3 radios. (Slavin, 1978)


Level of Difficulty: Advanced
Description: Students complete a project by dividing the work among themselves and/or working together. Groups manage themselves.
Example: In a Network + class, students learn about IP addresses. They decide to study the subtopic of assigning IP addresses to a network. Student
1 is an expert on the subtopic, so he/she guides group members in writing on the poster the 4 most important facts. Student 2 references the textbook and web sources to supply additional details. Student 3 plans a demonstration for the group presentation. Lastly, the group puts Student 4’s artistic abilities to work by delegating him/her to draw a diagram on the group’s poster. Once time has expired, the groups present their findings to the whole class.
(Sharan & Sharan, 1990)





People are talented in different ways. Typically, schools teach to the linguistic and logical-mathematical intelligences. However, to reach more learners, instructors can employ these two and the other 7 intelligences defined by
Howard Gardner, intelligences that include the elements of the VAKT Model.

VAKT Learning Styles/Modalities

Visual: seeing
Auditory: hearing
Kinesthetic: moving
Tactile: touching, manipulating

(Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Theory, 2013; Tate, 2003)


Preview of Intelligences

Linguistic: “word smart”
Logical-mathematical: “number smart”
Bodily-kinesthetic: “body smart”
Spatial: “picture smart”
Musical: “music smart”
Interpersonal: “people smart”
Intrapersonal: “myself smart”
Naturalist: “nature smart”
Existential: life smart

(Maund, 2013)


Edgar Allan Poe is famous for the poem “The Raven,” the short story “The TellTale Heart,” and many more works. Part of the first stanza of “The Raven” reads: Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered weak and weary,
Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore,
While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping,
As of someone gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door”
(The Raven, 2014).
Occupations: writer, orator, lawyer, journalist, librarian, commentator, administrator, salesperson, counselor, screenwriter, playwright, poet, advertising copywriter, public speaker, magazine editor, media consultant, web editor, television or radio presenter, language translator, teacher
School subject: English Literature
(Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Theory, 2013; Edgar Allan Poe,


Leonardo da Vinci wrote precise notes and drew detailed diagrams of human proportions (Vitruvian man), a helicopter, and more.
Occupations: mathematician, logician (gifted in logic), accountant, bookkeeper, statistician, sweet analyst, air traffic controller, astronaut, researcher, computer programmer, webmaster, computer game designer, data analyst, engineer, inventor, mortgage broker, police detective, scientist (biologist, forensic, physicist, chemist, astronomer, geologist, botanist, etc.), banker, negotiator or deal-maker, insurance broker, trouble-shooter, trades person
School subject: Math
(Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Theory, 2013; Leonardo da Vinci,


Maria Tallchief was a famous prima ballerina with the New York Ballet.
Occupations: athlete, dancer, actor, mechanic, craftsperson (i.e. sculptor), coach, professional athlete or sports analyst, acrobat, gymnast, dancer or choreographer, builder, hairdresser, lifeguard, magician, masseuse, stunt-person, dentist, surgeon, actor, adventurer (i.e. rock climber or diver), soldier, firefighter, driver, gardener, landscaper, chef
School subject: Physical Education
(Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Theory, 2013; Maria Tallchief, 2013)


I. M. Pei is a notable architect. One of his most famous designs is the glass pyramid in front of the Louvre.
Occupations: artist, scientist, illustrator, graphic designer, web designer, artist, sculptor, tour guide, cartographer (map-maker), photographer, film director/special effects editor, interior designer, painter and decorator, fashion designer, beauty consultant, builder, surveyor, sailor, architect, inventor, cartoonist, surgeon, pilot, landscaper, town-planner, engineer
School subject: Art
(Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Theory, 2013; I.M. Pei, 2013)


Vivaldi composed the famous “Four Seasons”, the most famous of which is
Occupations: composer, performer, musician, singer, songwriter, performer, music teacher, instrument maker, orchestral performer or conductor,
Foley artist, music critic, instrument tuner, composer, DJ, music producer/ editor, video/film designer, acoustic engineer, entertainer, party planner, voice coach
School subject: Music
(Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Theory, 2013; Antonio Vivaldi, 2013)


Nelson Mandela peacefully brought South Africa out of apartheid, or segregation. He exemplified the interpersonal intelligence in this quote: “If you want to make peace with your enemy, you have to work with your enemy.
Then he becomes your partner” (Remembering Nelson Mandela: 10 Timeless
Quotes, 2013).
Occupations: social studies teacher, actor, therapist, psychiatrist, salesperson, manager, interviewer, team leader, Human Resources (HR) professional, politician, criminologist, police officer, administrator, social worker, doctor or nurse, career, sociologist, psychologist, consultant, counselor, business owner, travel agent, hotel manager, waiter/waitress, organizer, advertising professional, home-care provider, coach, mentor
School subject: Social Studies
(Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Theory, 2013; Nelson Mandela,


Mahatma Ghandi led the Indian people in a peaceful and successful revolt against British colonization.
Occupations: actor, artist, small business owner/self-employed person, detective, film director, counselor, social worker, philosopher, theorist, inventor, planner, biographer, researcher, psychologist, personal trainer, writer
School subject: Study Hall
(Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Theory, 2013; Mahatma Ghandi,


Rachel Carson wrote Silent Spring, which denounced the use of chemicals, especially the pesticide DDT.
Occupations: botanist, landscaper, gardener, archaeologist, farmer, conservationist, biologist/marine biologist, animal trainer/handler, chef, environmental inspector, fisherman, photographer, veterinarian, zoo keeper or zoologist School subject: Science
(Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Theory, 2013; Rachel Carson, 2013)


Socrates formulated a method for teaching through questioning, now termed the Socratic Method.
Occupations: guidance counselor, philosopher, religious leader
School subject: Guidance Counseling
(Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Theory, 2013; Socrates, 2013)


Review of Intelligences

Linguistic: “word smart”
Logical-mathematical: “number smart”
Bodily-kinesthetic: “body smart”
Spatial: “picture smart”
Musical: “music smart”
Interpersonal: “people smart”
Intrapersonal: “myself smart”
Naturalist: “nature smart”
Existential: life smart

(Maund, 2013)


Learning Style that Each Strategy Addresses (Multiple
Intelligences; VAKT)


Brainstorming/discussion: Linguistic; Auditory
Drawing/artwork: Spatial; Kinesthetic and Tactile
Field trips: Naturalist; Kinesthetic and Tactile
Games: Interpersonal; Kinesthetic and Tactile
Graphic organizers/semantic maps/word webs: Logical-Mathematical and Spatial; Visual and Tactile
Humor: Linguistic; Auditory
Manipulatives/experiments/labs/models: Logical-mathematical; Tactile
Metaphor/analogy/simile: Spatial; Visual and Auditory
Mnemonic devices: Musical; Visual and Auditory
Movement: Bodily-Kinesthetic; Kinesthetic
Music/rhythm/rhyme/rap: Musical; Auditory
Project/problem-based instruction: Logical-Mathematical; Visual and
Reciprocal teaching/cooperative learning: Linguistic; Auditory
Roleplay/drama/pantomime/charades: Bodily-Kinesthetic; Kinesthetic


Storytelling: Linguistic; Auditory
Technology: Spatial; Visual and Tactile
Visualization/guided imagery: Spatial; Visual
Visuals: Spatial; Visual
Work study/apprenticeships: Interpersonal; Kinesthetic
Writing/journals: Intrapersonal; Visual and Tactile

(Tate, 2003)






Differentiation is varying the learning experience in order to meet the needs of each individual student, to ensure all students’ mastery of the learning objectives. According to Tomlinson (2003), “The goal of a differentiated classroom is to plan actively and consistently to help each learner move as far and as fast as possible along a learning continuum” (p. 2).


Student Traits

Readiness: student’s background
Interest: desire to learn
Learning profile: how a student learns best
Affect: how a student feels about learning

Classroom Elements

Content: materials students use to complete the assignment
Process: how students complete the assignment
Product: the assignment or assessment that students complete
Learning environment: where the learning takes place

(Tomlinson, 2003)


Content, process, product, and learning environment are aspects of the classroom to differentiate based on the student factors of readiness, interest, learning profile, and affect (Tomlinson, 2003). Every lesson does not need to be differentiated to this degree. At a minimum, the instructor should define what a below average, average, and above average student should be able to do by the end of the lesson. The instructor may choose to pass out these tiered assignments printed on paper or on index cards to the three levels of students. Also, some materials can be planned in advance and used for extended periods of time, such as folder activities or reading materials for early finishers.


Examples of General Differentiation Ideas

Pre-assessment: Pre-made multiple choice test for A+ class, 5 hardest questions from lesson on topic of printers
Tutoring: An instructor may offer to tutor students on the OSI model before and/or after class.
Independent work: Tiered assignments for below average, average, and above average learners on a particular topic such as subnet masking
Homogeneous grouping: Instructor may work with below average group to set up their ANW2 network
Heterogeneous grouping: A former radiotelephone operator (RTO) may guide an inexperienced student through programming a 119F.
Using various levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy: Lower-order for below average, middle for average, higher-order for advanced
Using various learning styles: View a video on how to set up 7800W antenna (spatial), read instructions (linguistic), set up antenna (bodilykinesthetic)



Open-ended assignments: Enact a scenario that would use information from class (editing frequency, receiving OTAR, late net entry, etc.)
Graphic organizers: Within basic structure, students expound as much as possible on topic such as a KWL chart on fiber optic cable assembly
Choice of assignment: Student chooses how to present OSI model: poster, demonstration of examples, acting out troubleshooting scenario
Tasks for early finishers: Training manuals (TMs) at location in room, folder activity of advanced programming of radio such as cold start on the
Post-assessment/summative assessment: Student chooses 4 out of 5 essay questions to complete, student chooses project




Evidence of Learning
Assessments measure student mastery and retention of learning objectives.
In special situations such as modification of courseware or lack of familiarity with terms, assessments may need to be modified for a class.

Types of Assessments
• Pre-assessment: A pre-assessment will indicate which objectives to focus on and which objectives to skim over during the course based on students’ existing knowledge. To determine student progress or growth, administer a pre-assessment and a post-assessment, also known as a summative or cumulative assessment.
• Formative assessment: Administer formative assessments during the class in order to gauge students’ mastery of learning objectives and then modify the remainder of the course to spend more time on the more challenging objectives if necessary.
• Summative/cumulative assessment: A summative or cumulative assessment administered at the end of the course indicates how much of the course content the students have mastered. In order to determine how much students have learned, the results can be compared to a pre-test.


Evaluating the Evaluation
• Ensure that tests adequately measure students’ mastery of learning objectives. • If many students have the same difficulties on the summative/final assessment, evaluate both the assessment and the teaching methods. Also plan to use formative assessments more effectively.
(Phillips, 2012; Caico, 2006)


Kirkpatrick’s Levels of Evaluation

Level 1: Reaction, measured through critiques
Level 2: Learning, measured through a summative assessment
Level 3: Behavior, measured through observations in class and at work
Level 4: Results, measured through analysis of company productivity
Level 5: Return on Investment (ROI) (Level added by Dr. J. Phillips), measured through analysis of company profits as compared to funds spent on training

(Phillips, 2012)


Types of Formal Assessment

Authentic assessment: Students complete the activity exactly how they learned it, such as loading COMSEC into a radio and programming presets; this type of assessment accurately tests skills
Fill-in-the-blank: Includes statements with one word missing; simple to create and simple to differentiate: word bank may be included for below average and average students but not for above average students
Multiple choice: Typically involves 4 answers similar in length, with 1 clearly wrong answer, 1 plausible answer, and 2 similar answers but one is more correct than the other; easy to grade and easy to analyze the results Essay: May be simple to create, but time-consuming to grade; checks for understanding better because option to guess is not available

(Phillips, 2012)


Types of Informal Assessments

Running record of observations: In order to assess students’ skills without administering a written test, observe students completing an activity defined by the learning objective and note their successes and/or challenges on a list, checklist, or chart, possibly on a seating chart for classes short in length. For example, write that a certain student is able to program single channel and SATCOM presets independently but neglected to set the time for the frequency hopping presets.
Questions: Asking students questions during the closure and also throughout the lesson is a quick method of assessing their retention of information covered. Be sure to ask questions of various levels of learners rather than just the advanced learners in order to more accurately gauge students’ mastery of learning objectives.
Surveys: Students can express their comfort level with material through surveys, such as on a scale of 1 to 4. However, this method of assessment is not as accurate as the other types of assessments.

(Tompkins, 2003; Phillips, 2012)


Guidelines for Feedback
• Effective feedback is specific in regard to the task that the student is completing. Effective feedback is more than just “Good job.”
• Offer guidance as needed.
• Effective feedback includes both positive notes and notes for changes or improvement, such as on a plus-delta chart.

Situations Warranting Feedback
• When students are completing a learning activity, walk around the room to provide feedback, both to confirm correct work and also to clarify any misunderstandings. • If a student supplies an incorrect answer or completes a task with mistakes, use it as a teachable moment, making any class-wide comments anonymous if possible. (Phillips, 2012; Caico, 2006)






Examples of Closure Components


Student presentations: Students may present the work they completed during the Guided or Independent Practice parts of the lesson. For example, groups may act out a scenario in which an over-the-air rekey
(OTAR) is beneficial.
Review questions or student discussion: In their groups, students may discuss important facts such as frequency range and capabilities of the
152 radio and then contribute these facts to the class’s list on the board or flip chart. The instructor may add any additional concepts missed.
Question parking lot: Within a day of the questions being asked, the instructor reads off one question at a time from the question parking lot on the board. The instructor then explains the answer to the question and cites the source such as the Harris TM for the 152.
Q&A session: The instructor asks for any further questions on the 152. A student might ask about selecting an option for the screen to be constantly backlit while in the Vehicular Adapter Unit (VAU). The instructor responds that the option to leave the screen continuously lit appears under the light menu on the 2 button, but only when the 152 is in the VAU.

Critiques*: Critiques are administered before students are dismissed on the last day and are useful for improving future courses. See the next page for further details about using critiques.
Certificates*: If applicable, distribute certificates at the end of a course.
To build morale and show an appreciation for learners, the instructor may ask students to walk to the front of the classroom to receive his/her certificate, at which time the instructor shakes the student’s hand and expresses gratitude for his/her participation.
Summary statement/segue: The summary should be a concise statement about the overall concepts covered and the purpose of the information
(McArdle, 1993). For example, a 152 class could close with the statement: “As your groups had stated, the 152’s capabilities include single channel, frequency hopping, and SATCOM, and its frequency range is 30MHz to 511.9MHz. Although it may include a plethora of menus, many soldiers report that the 152 is user-friendly once they have practiced operating it. The 152 is an important radio to learn how to operate since it is often found in vehicle mounts downrange.” If another lesson is to follow, the instructor should link the previous lesson to the upcoming lesson, either at the closure of the last lesson or at the start of the next one. At the end of the day, before lunch or break, or at the end of the entire course, the instructor can also include a friendly closing such as
“Thank you for your dedication in learning the material. Have a great lunch/break/weekend!” However, avoid ending the lesson or course with
“Thus concludes the lesson/course on _____.” or “Well, that’s it.”

(McArdle, 1993; Phillips, 2012)
*indicates an element of closure usually present only at the end of a course; all the other elements can be present at the end of every lesson.


Improving Instructor Performance

When passing out critique sheets, encourage comments and use them to improve teaching performance. If students found certain methods to be especially helpful, share this information with other instructors and course designers. Critiques should be anonymous to encourage honesty.
If a student criticizes the class during the course, conference with him/her to determine the areas of concern.
Schedule a peer evaluation to pinpoint areas of improvement. A peer evaluation involves a fellow instructor observing the class and then providing feedback during a private conference with the instructor.

Correcting or Improving Courseware

Students can note any errors, or information to be added, deleted, or changed so that course designers can modify the courseware as needed.
Students should be as specific as possible, such as including page numbers. Designers also need to know if all areas of the courseware adequately tied in to the learning objectives.

(Phillips, 2012; Caico, 2006)



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