Premium Essay

Operant Conditioning and Our Behaviors

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By 15086269d
Words 706
Pages 3
Operant Conditioning and Our Behaviors

What are the factors affecting people’s responses will or will not tend to be repeat? Edward Thorndike had found the theory in his cat experiment. Thorndike stated the law of effect and explained in what situation, animals and humans will tend to repeat their behavior or not. Base on the law of effect, a behaviorist, B.F. Skinner gave ”Operant Conditioning” its name. Operant Conditioning can be a method of improving humans’ or animals’ learning that occur though reinforcement and punishment.
Operant Conditioning defines that actions that are followed by reinforcement will be strengthened and makes it more likely to recur. Similarly, the punishment added will weakens a response and makes it less likely to recur. These two components are divided into positive and negative. Moreover, both of these two components are divided into primary level and secondary level. Primary reinforcers can fulfill a physiological need by inherently reinforcing like food, water and comfort temperature. Secondary reinforcers are stimuli that have acquired reinforcing properties though associations with other reinforcers, for instance, awards, money and praise. Besides, primary punishers is an event that is innately punishing , for example cold and shock. Secondary punishers are the event have acquired punishing properties through associations with other punishers.
Operant Conditioning usually appearing in our daily life and it can be an efficient method to improve our learning. Take my brother as an example, in order to encourage by brother revision actively and put more attention in his studying, my parents and teachers will give him some snacks like candies and praise him when he can get a good performance during the examination or dictation. The teachers will stick a big sticker on his cover page of dictation book. My bother…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Learning Experience

... Classical Conditioning There are two main explanations of how organisms learn. The first explanation is known as classical conditioning. The second explanation is known as operant conditioning. These two types of learning are exhibited in our everyday lives through our home, school, and school. Classical conditioning was discovered by Iran Petrovich Pavlov. He was originally a physiologist whose main focus was the digestive system (Anderman, 2009). His discovery was made during a study on the salivation of dogs when given food. Pavlov observed that the dogs began salivating at the sound of the scientist’s footsteps and at their appearance into the room (Anderman, 2009). This led Pavlov to study the phenomenon further. The experiments that Pavlov was originally observing were based on the set of unconditioned stimulus and its unconditioned response. What is meant by conditioned is that the response is automatic and based on instinct. To compliment this name the stimulus is known as the unconditioned stimulus (Anderman, 2009). With Pavlov's new observations a new set of stimulus and response was found. This new set is known as the conditioned stimulus and the conditioned response. What is meant by conditioned response here is that the response was learned. The stimulus begins as neutral and causes no conditioned response. However, if the neutral stimulus can be associated with another stimulus, then it becomes a conditioned stimulus. Classical conditioning can be......

Words: 1545 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Phobias, Addictions, Conditioning

...Phobias, Addiction, Conditioning Amy A. Schroeder University of Phoenix General Psychology 300 Belky Schwartz March 16, 2014 Phobias, Addiction, Conditioning Phobias, addictions born that way or are we taught these characteristics through different forms of conditions that occur throughout our lives, in this paper I will be exploring these ideas. Distinguish between classical and operant condition, explain what extinction means and how it is achieved it is achieved in both classical and operant conditioning, explore how phobias can be developed through classical conditioning, and how addiction can be developed through operant conditioning. Classical conditioning is probably most recognized in the field of behaviorism, and the work of Ivan Pavlov, Pavlov's dog. Classical conditioning was discovered completely on accident, just as many of the world's great scientific endeavors. Pavlov noticed that when he came into a room that his dogs were in they would begin to salivate, even if he were not feeding them. This leads him to explore what was happening on a deeper level, and ultimately leads to a great scientific discovery. Classical conditioning occurs when there is an association between environmental and naturally occurring stimulus, eventually, after conditioning only one stimulus will need to occur for the desired result. In Pavlov's study, the food was the unconditioned stimulus, and the salvation was the unconditioned response. Using a bell as a neutral......

Words: 948 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Conditioning

...such as “I”, “my” “mine”, and “our”, “ours” “us”, “we” or any similar pronouns. | | When explaining studies, I have written in the past tense. | How Organism Learn: Classical & Operant Conditioning Applying Operant & Classical Conditioning to Human Behavior Rae Loulache Endicott College Conceptual Issues in ABA ABA510-ZB01 12-21-15 Classical conditioning developed by the findings of laying the foundations for behaviorism (Ivan Pavlov). From this, other behaviorists argued psychology should be indicative of predicting and controlling overt behavior using the conditional reflex. (Watson, 1994). Classical conditioning as discussed by (Clark, 2004) was in the areas of physiology and digestion. Nevertheless, in his acceptance speech he referred only to the phenomenon of conditional reflexes. The paradigm as defined by (Colman, 2009) is one of the two key processes of learning, the other being operant conditioning. In classical conditioning the pairing of a conditioned stimulus creates a conditioned response. (Clark, 2004) describes the process and components. The unconditioned stimuli (US) produced an unconditioned response (UR). Pavlov did not teach this pairing to the animal; it was a biologically natural reflex. The dog saw food (US) and salivated (UR). In order to induce a conditioned reflex Pavlov paired neutral stimuli, in this case a bell, with the meat powder. Acquisition is the root of learning in classical conditioning whereby the CS is......

Words: 5151 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

Phobias and Addiction

...Bowden Phobias and Addictions There two ways that one learns behaviors and actions, classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning revolves around the idea that one learns certain behaviors, whereas aberrant conditioning revolves around one naturally responding to stimuli. Classical conditioning leads to phobias by the way of learning. For example, if a dog bites someone, they might develop a fear of dogs. They might also become weary for their entire life and never be able to approach another dog without feeling immense fear that they might get bitten again. People do not generally develop fears when they have no prior, negative correlation between an object and the feeling of fear. Something must stimulate a person to evoke a feeling of fear. There are different phobias that can be excluded from classical conditioning as a reason behind the development of such phobias. Phobias that are not rationalized can include a fear of heights or fear of an inanimate object such as pickle. Just because someone is afraid of heights does not mean that have fallen from a great height, it is a non-rationalized fear. A fear of pickles does not mean that someone had to have had a bad experience about them; it just means that there is an unknown reason as to why they fear this object. There is no presence of classical conditioning apparent in these phobias. Extinction within classical conditioning refers to a process in which a classical conditioned response is......

Words: 2426 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Behavioral Learning

...Behavioral Learning Kerry Jefferson PSY 331 Julia N. Tannehill Apr 22, 2013 I introduction What we know about behavior is that it can be changed by learning. But, the sad thing is that it can be lost if we do not use these new develop skills. The way we learn is by seeing, touching, hearing, tasting, and smelling. Our five basic senses help us to experience change, without them learning would be difficult. There are three major theories that help contribute to the learning process, classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and neobehaviorism. Although they share some similarities, they are different when it comes to performance. Classical conditioning is learning that comes from experience, operant conditioning is behavior that has been reinforce through some type of punishment, and neobehaviorism is a phenomena that cannot be measured and observed directly. But these three theories have theorist who have found ways to demonstrate them in their studies. classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and neobehaviorism are theories that help shape our learn process through performance. II Body Paragraph # 1: classical conditioning Topic Sentence 1: Classical conditioning is a form of learning in which an organism comes to associate certain events. It was revealed by Ivan Petrovich Pavlov a psychologist from Russia. Pavlov had a passion for physiology; it stuck with him throughout his life. He also developed surgical procedures......

Words: 1587 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Phobias and Addictions

... Phobias and Addictions Chantel Billingsley PSY/300 May 30, 2014 Brian Hawkins Abstract This paper provides a broad overview of phobias and addictions. The difference between classical conditioning and how it relates to phobias will be dicussed, as well as operant conditioning and how it develops into addictions. Distinguishing between classical and operant conditioning, will show the differences between the two. I will cover what extinction means and how it is achieved in both types of conditioning. "Phobia" means "morbid fear" in greek (What is Phobia, 2014). Fear is a natural response to a genuine danger. Phobias are the emotional and physical reactions to feared objects or situations; this fear becomes irrational and excessive. Feelings of horror, panic and terror may occur. Reactions become automatic and uncontrollable, taking over a person's thoughts and sometimes causing physical symptoms. These symptoms can include rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, trembling and overwhelming desire to avoid the feared object or situation. There are three major categories of phobias. First category called specific phobias focuses on certain objects, animals, people and situations. Some of the most recognized phobias fall under this category; the fear of heights (acrophobia), the fear of spiders (arachnophobia) and the fear of enclosed spaces(claustrophobia). The second major category is the fear of open spaces (agoraphobia)....

Words: 1345 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Phobias and Addiction

...class, has an assignment of writing a paper regarding phobias and addictions. It includes the meanings and the differences between classical conditioning and operant conditioning. The paper explains what phobias are as compared to addictions and how each of them affects behavior in individuals. It also explains what classical conditioning means to phobias as well as what operant conditioning means to addictions. Phobias and Addictions Every person is in one way or another, conditioned by either operant or classical conditioning. Phobias develop through classical conditioning, whereas addictions develop through operant conditioning. The classical conditioning theory involves learning a new behavior via the process of association, (McLeod, 2012). Operant conditioning is the other type of conditioning whereas an individual learns through a reward system. It is more or less association made between behavior and consequence of that behavior. Phobias and addictions develop through these two types of conditioning. Phobias develop through classical conditioning and addictions through operant conditioning. Through the past decades, psychologists studied these two relationships to develop a more understanding of these emotional disorders. Phobias and addictions are negative behaviors and usually come from classical conditioning or operant conditioning. Phobias happen out of a fear of something and addictions happen because an individual becomes controlled by an activity or habit.......

Words: 1112 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Addiction and Phobias

...usually harmful. Classical and operant conditioning involves a way for a person to learn or acquire new behaviors. Classical conditioning is a learned response; as to operant conditioning is a behavior that is controlled by the environment. A phobia or addiction can develop through any of these two learning process. Classical conditioning can teach a fear on someone from an early age. For instance; a child who has a fear spiders, learned though a past experience, this experience formed a negative response in the child, that now every time a child is exposed to a spider it has taught him to react with fear of being bitten. Since operant conditioning is a learned sense that has been obtained through the environment, can develop a compulsive behavior on someone and therefore create an addiction. Through classical conditions, phobias can be developed, and addictions can be a consequence from operant conditioning. “Learning refers to any enduring change in the way an organism responds based on its experience. Learning theories assume that experience shapes behavior that learning is adaptive and that only systematic experimentation can uncover laws of learning. Principles of association are fundamental to most accounts of learning” (Kowalski, & Westen, 2009). The classical conditioning process involves a learning process that “occurs through associations between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus.”(Cherry. 2009.) Classical conditioning can contribute to......

Words: 856 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Behavior in Children

...Intro Behavior in children can be complex as well as unpredictable. Adults can be the ideal role models however there are times children will display behaviors that are unwanted. The parents then have to find a way to modify and stop this undesirable behavior. This essay will discuss three ways to modify behavior in children: Motivation, Operant Conditioning and Classical Conditioning (positive and negative reinforcement with or without stimulus).Also included in this will be how these methods are used and which method is most effective. Motivation Motivation itself can be very rewarding from success in any accomplishment. This can be used for children and behavior. Behavior can be changed thru motivation such as the child getting a reward for good behavior. “Piaget discovered that children act on their own in the world and eventually will discover how the world works and what all is in it for them” (Olson & Hergenhahn, 2013). As Piaget suggested, when a child discovers what is in it for them they will willingly want to change the undesired behavior. Children are often swayed and motivated by rewards. If they know they will get something for displaying good behavior the undesired behavior will become less and less. Eventually the behavior will become extinct if the parent uses the motivator in a lengthier time frame. One must understand that children have psychological needs and motives. According to Deckers, “ For human motivation, biological and psychological......

Words: 1162 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Addictions and Phobias

...we do. Maybe our behaviors are the results of the type of family we come from, cultural, our environment or the examples set before us. All these situations can play apart in shaping the behaviors we exhibit; this process is known as conditioning, which is a form of learning. Classical conditioning is a learned process by which a response is prompted by an outside stimulus or the thought of such stimulus. For example, experimenter presented a small child with a white rat, a dog, and a few other furry items. Initially the child showed no fear of the items. Whenever the child would reach out for the white rat the experimenter would hit a metal pipe behind the child resulting a fear response in the child. As a result the child associated the frightening sound with reaching for the white rat. When experimenter later presented the same white rat the child once reached for with no fear he cried, and was fearful of the rat. The same fearful reaction was evoked when experimenters presented the child with other white furry items (Kowaski & Westen, 2004). The process of classical conditioning can cause the development of phobias, as with the case of the small child and the rat. Even though the startling sound that initially scared the child was no longer present just the sight of the rat evokes the same fearful reaction once evoked by the startling noise. Although classical conditioning can be weakened by a process called extinction. Extinction in our example would......

Words: 1175 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Phobias and Addictions

...being under water"; "a phobia of germs.” An addiction is the fact or condition of being addicted to a particular substance, thing, or activity. Phobias and addictions are related to classical and operant conditioning. Phobias and addictions are two emotional difficulties, which theorists can account for. Phobias can be acquired through classical conditioning by pairing a neutral stimulus with something that causes pain. Phobia responses can be permanent unless the organism is subjected to the extinction process. In the extinction process, one must confront the fear without the presence of the unconditioned stimulus. For example, in Watson’s experiment, Little Albert developed a phobia of white rats (and other furry objects) as a result of pairing the white rat with a loud bang. The phobia could have been extinguished by repeatedly exposing Little Albert to the white rat without the loud bang. Another way to extinguish a phobia is through counter conditioning. In counter conditioning, the conditioned stimulus is paired with a pleasant stimulus. Little Albert could have extinguished his phobia of the white rat by pairing it with something pleasant (e.g., food, praise) ("Phobias,” 2010). Ivan Pavlov is known for his theory of classical conditioning. This can be thought of as a reaction learned through the pairing of stimuli (motivations). During his study of dogs, Pavlov noted that when dog food is presented, the dogs begin to......

Words: 965 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Classical Conditioning.

...Classical conditioning and operant conditioning are forms of associative learning. Classical conditioning is defined as a learning process in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response. In classical conditioning the stimulus triggers the response of an organism. There are four concepts created by Pavlov that give classical conditioning a better understanding. The unconditioned stimulus triggers the unconditioned response. This means that without learning a stimulus can produce any reflex. The Neutral stimulus is a stimulus that does not affect the unconditioned response. The unconditioned stimulus is then paired with the neutral stimulus and presented to the organism. This transforms into a conditioned stimulus. This means that the previous neutral stimulus is presented to the organism it causes an unconditioned response. Whereas operant conditioning is a form of associative learning in which the consequences of a behavior change the probability of the behaviors occurrence. In operant conditioning there is positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement that are both used to increase good behavior. There are also negative reinforcers and negative punishment to decrease bad behavior. These types of learning are part of our everyday lives and many times we fail to notice. Here are some of the examples of classical and operant conditioning that are used in the media. Many ads and commercials......

Words: 1001 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Operant Conditioning

...Operant Conditioning Pamela Combs PS124: Introduction to Psychology Kaplan University June 9, 2014 Operant conditioning is a method of learning base upon a system of rewards and punishments to change behavior. In other words, psychologist use positive and negative reinforcement or positive and negative punishment to change behavior using a basic cause and effect method. Psychologist Edward L. Thorndike was the first to study operant behavior and was later expanded on by psychologist B. F. Skinner. Skinner was a behaviorist that believed that to understand behavior you must look at the causes of actions, and its consequences. Skinner’s theory explains how we acquire the range of learned behaviors we display each and every day. Two of the four components used in operant conditioning are positive and negative reinforcement, which is used to increase a desired behavior. Positive reinforcement is defined in our text and there is really no better way to explain it, as the strengthening of a response by presenting a typically pleasurable stimulus after the response. (Stangor, 2010, p. 204). An example of using positive reinforcement is that I gave my child a prize after he got a good grade in his class. Another example is that I received praise for doing a good job at work. Ethical concerns when using this method is one might come to expect a reward for the certain desired behavior. Negative reinforcement is defined as the strengthening of a response by removing a......

Words: 575 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Learning Experience Paper

...Learning Experience Paper Learning Experience Paper Introduction Psychology has become interesting to me due to my current class of Intro to Psychology. In this paper, I will be discussing my learning experiences with the perspective of using classical and operant conditioning. I will also discussing how using cognitive-social learning theory could have occurred. Learning a fear We all learn to be afraid of something or things in our lives. These fears can be learned at a young age and throughout our lives. However, these fears can also be unlearned over time. I learned at a young age to fear or dislike eating any kind of fish or food that was able to “swim”, sea foods. At the age of seven, my sister and I were placed in a foster home. This foster home had specific rules that I did not understand back then but now as an adult with children I do, to an extent. According to (Carpenter, 2013), Classical conditioning is learning through involuntarily paired associations. This occurs when a neutral stimulus becomes paired with an unconditioned stimulus to elicit a conditioned response. In regards to classical conditioning, my fear of eating fish or sea foods can be traced back to when I was in a foster home at age seven. One night for dinner, my foster mom made a fish dinner. Growing up I was always taught to eat all of my food on my plate that was just what we did. However, this particular night I could not do this. I was always one to try new......

Words: 827 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Phobias and Addictions

...through classical conditioning. According to Barlett (2013) “addiction is defined as the need for and use of a habit forming substance despite knowledge that the substance is harmful” (p. 349). Additions can be developed through operant conditioning. Phobias and addictions are different forms of behaviors just as classical and operant conditioning are responses learn responses. Extinction is also a form of classical conditioning. Both classical and operant conditioning differ in how an individual responds. Phobias and Addictions Phobias are human developed fears. They are fears seem irrational or harmless to other individuals. Phobias can be developed through classical conditioning according to Kowaski and Westen (2011) “In classical conditioning, an environmental stimulus leads to a learned response, through pairing of an unconditioned stimulus with a previously neutral conditioned stimulus” (p. 169). An environmental stimulus anything in an individual’s surroundings that may affect them. A neutral conditioned stimulus is when a response does not happen automatically. This means that an environment that may not affect others has the potential to leave a person frightened based on a negative experience. For example, if a woman got bitten by a dog running towards her as a child, she is more likely to fear a dog running towards her as an adult. The woman may develop a phobia of dogs. Addictions are not part of classical conditioning. Classical conditioning is how......

Words: 824 - Pages: 4