Operation Research & Methods

In: Business and Management

Submitted By toochev91
Words 5165
Pages 21
Operational Research Models and Methods in CIM1
Abstract : Many models and methods of Operational Research can be adapted for industrial applications. In this chapter, we show on one hand the main problems of a manufacturing system and, on the other hand, how they can be ranged in a hierarchical order, derived from a CIM architecture (from the strategic decisions to the production constraints). Then, we present an Operational Research tool for solving each of these problems.

1 Introduction
Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS) are nowadays installed in the mechanical industry, especially in car factories. However, the market constraints impose to always improve the production system and the whole production organization. The concepts developed by Taylor and applied at the beginning by Ford are progressively abandoned and replaced by the Just-In-Time concept and the Computer Integrated Manufacturing philosophy (CIM). One of the aims of the CIM philosophy is to provide an integrated information system which avoids the rigid separations between the different functionalities of a complete production system. With such integrated information systems, the loss of time on one hand between the customer order and the part delivery, on the other hand between the product design and its manufacture will be drastically reduced. To understand the complete production system, it is relatively easy to find in the scientific literature excellent general books explaining the different aspects of the Production and Operations Management (POM) ([1], [2], [3], [4], [5]). It is more difficult to discover a writing dedicated to use of Operational Research (OR) models and methods in the industrial context [6]. And it is quite impossible to find a book which offers a good balance between POM and OR … In this chapter, we will show how a CIM architecture can be partially decomposed along two…...

Similar Documents

Research Method

... behaviour and peer pressures, for instance. Interestingly, few of the attributions mentioned by the students relate to the notion of reward, or the value of learning a foreign language. Another research by Ireland (1998) reveals that individuals perceive the causes of success and failure differently. In addition, it is suggested that any future research should focus on attributions made for unsuccessful outcomes since it is most likely to produce non-motivated behaviour in subsequent learning. Overall, failure in English learning seems to be a serious issue for students of English and in the Thai educational system. However, little attention has been paid to investigating Thai students’ perceptions regarding their perceived failure outcomes. Methods This qualitative study is based on an interpretive approach concerned with subjective meaning in a particular context (Cresswell, 1997). The research questions were developed from a particular context and the collected data analysed inductively. The results were mainly derived from interviews, while the questionnaires merely helped to select the participants with good grades in English but perceived themselves as failed learners in English. According to the grading system in Thai universities, students who obtain grades of A, B+, and B are considered as excellent, very good, and good respectively. Thus, this standard was employed to judge students with these grades as high achievers or successful learners. Participants 125 Thai...

Words: 6537 - Pages: 27

Research Method

...F Q RESEARCH METHODS TOPIC 2 OPTIMISATION 1. Multi Variables Optimisation 2. Constrained Optimisation I 3. Constrained Optimisation II Reading: Jacques Ian (2006), Mathematics for Economics and Business, 5th Edition Prentice Hall - Chap 5.1, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6 & Appendix 3 Chiang, A and Wainwright, K (2005), Fundamental methods of mathematical economics, Mc Graw Hill - Chap 12.1, 12.2, 12.3 1. Multi Variables Optimisation Refresher: Optimisation of a function  Suppose have a function like this: f(x) = 2x + 10  If want to optimise the function, follow a few steps:  Step 1: Differentiate the function: f'(x) (also denoted fx or dy/dx)  Step 2: Set the differential equal to zero: f '(x) = 0.  Step 3: Solve for value of x  To establish what type of turning point(s) you have found, steps 4 & 5  Step 4: Find the second differential: f''(x) (also denoted fxx or d2y/dx2)  Step 5: Evaluate the second differential at the turning point(s). • If f ''(x) > 0, you have a minimum point. • If f ''(x) < 0, you have a maximum point. • If f ''(x) = 0, you may have a point of inflection. 1. Multi Variables Optimisation 1.0 Differentiation  Many relationships involve more than two variables. E.g. Demand for a good is a function of its price, advertising, price of other goods, etc  E.g. y = f(x1, x2, …, xn)  Interested in impact of change in one/all of the variables on y  Since there are more than just 1 variable, we distinguish between partial derivative and total...

Words: 3198 - Pages: 13

Operation Research

...Cases in Operation Management Semester 4 PGDBA (Operations) Page 1 Question-: 1 The “Quality Auto Works” is a manufacturer of auto parts. All the auto parts being manufactured in the industry are required to be phosphated for surface protection. Presently other small units are done this phosphated work. Quality Auto Work is now thinking of installing its own phosphating plant and is interested about knowing about following. (A) Should the install new plant or continue the present practice of subcontracting? For finding out whether the firm should do the phosphating work by own or it should contract other for the some one, we have to compare both the cost which are as follows. Annual Cost of subcontracting Cost of purchase =6.25x12000x12 =9, 00,000/- Cost of Transportation Total Cost =1800x12=21600/- =9, 21,600 Annual cost for installing own phosphating plant: Installation cost of plant: 2, 80,000x0.2452= 68,656/- Labor cost Benefit to labor Power Raw material : 8000x12 = : 96000x40/100 = : 12,000x0.23x12 = : 12000x0.45x12 = 96,000/- 38,400/- 33,120/- 64,800/- Total cost of installing = 3, 00,976...

Words: 826 - Pages: 4

Research Method

...RESEARCH METHOD This study utilized the descriptive method of research. As widely accepted, the descriptive method of research is a fact-finding study that involves adequate and accurate interpretation of findings. Descriptive research describes a certain present condition. Relatively, the method is appropriate to this study since it aims to describe the present condition of technical analysis as it is used in the stock market. The technique that was used under descriptive method is the normative survey approach and evaluation, which is commonly used to explore opinions according to respondents that can represent a whole population. The survey is appropriate in this study because it enables the researcher in formulation of generalizations. The purpose of employing the descriptive method is to describe the nature of a condition, as it takes place during the time of the study and to explore the cause or causes of a particular condition. The researcher opted to use this kind of research considering the desire to acquire first hand data from the respondents so as to formulate rational and sound conclusions and recommendations for the study. According to Creswell (1994), the descriptive method of research is to gather information about the present existing condition.  Since this study is focused on the perception or evaluation of the consultancy firm's effective human resource management, the descriptive method is the most appropriate method to use. Two types of data were used...

Words: 356 - Pages: 2

Research Method

...Question3 Introduction For a firm to excel in market, searching ideas for innovation of firm’s products or services is essential. One of the ways that a firm can adopt is research approach. Marketing research enable markets to predict how consumers would react in the marketplace and understand why consumer made this purchase decision. The following is the research approaches that can use by Amway to adopt in searching ideas for innovation of firm’s products or services. Observational research Observational research helps marketers gain an in-depth understanding of the relationship between people and product by watching the consumer buying and using the products. By observing the customers, company can get information by identify consumer subconscious felling and underlying motivations. For example, Amway can assign some employees in the store to act as a customer and stand close with the customer to observe the customer’s facial expression and listen the conversation between the customers. Through the observation, Amway understand that the current customers prefer to have 3 in 1 shampoo rather than 2 in 1 shampoo which is only shampoo with conditioner. Thus, Amway can produce 3 in 1 shampoos which include shampoo, conditioner and treatment for customer. Focus group research A focus group is a group of people, normally 8 to 10 member, who are carefully selected based on a similar characteristics and brought together to discuss a same topic. For example, Amway can...

Words: 561 - Pages: 3

Applied Operation Method Case

...Table of Contents: 1. Company Profile……………………………………………………………………. 3 2. Corporate Policy & Goal………………………………………………….. ……. 4 3. The Production Process…………………………………………………..……… 5 4. Issues & Pain Points ……………………………………………………………... 6 5.1 Uncertainty in Demand…………………………………… ………………… 7 5.2 Wide Variety of Products……………………………………………………. 7 5. Recommendations………….……………………………………………………. 8 6.3 Comprehensive method of estimating customer demand………………… 8 6.4 Reduce the Variety of Breads ………………………………………………. 9 6.5 Reorganize the Menu …………………………………… ………………….. 10 6. Conclusion………….……………………………………………………………. 11 7. Appendix…………………………………………………………………………… 13 1. Company Profile Great Harvest Bread Company- Fresno is a franchise bakery that bakes a variety of fresh bread and sweets daily. Since the Fresno Branch opened over 11 years ago, the store mills their own wheat on-site every day and use the flour within 48 hours of milling it, ensuring that customers will receive the entirety of the whole-wheat kernel with every bite they take. They make different types of bread every day, and a new menu is introduced every month. Great Harvest Fresno have set the bar of quality as high as it can get for their customers, promising their clients a fresh loaf of bread when they eat it in the store or take it home.  Making bread from scratch is a philosophy that separates the Great Harvest Company from most other...

Words: 2179 - Pages: 9

Research Method

...Project Report Research Methods CMP 551-A Fall 2014 Team # 4 Praveen Kumar Chundi #7 Sowmya Eruvuri #8 Nisith Harsha Kondapalli #12 Sudeep Taneti #25 Anuroop Vanam #28 Virginia International University Statement of Research Problem How to choose right technology to best develop a software? How the resulted analysis drive the project? Will the technology supports the system and easy to integrate the different modules? Deciding the Right platform and application development environment to develop a software and doing the right analysis which best develops the system provided the right resources. Selecting the right technology not only helps to best develop the system but also to provide necessary assistance and training for the deployed product later. This coheres the importance of analyzing the technologies before entering the development phase. Many systems fail or delayed because of not selecting the right technology for their projects in different stages like development, data Integration, Support, Training etc. For this we select different software solutions, analyze the problem and the selected technologies to solve that. Observing the development time. Measuring the maintenance costs and support capabilities. Example: A web application for online bus ticket booking system which is developed on different platforms by different software companies or individuals. We collect the information like duration for developing the system, resources and costs...

Words: 1443 - Pages: 6

Research Method

...Same-Sex Relationships And Women With Intellectual Disabilities Tina Brazell South University This paper is to explore the research purpose, methods used, how the research was conducted, the results and the conclusion of a study done on Same-Sex Relationships and Women With Intellectual Disabilities. The study was conducted to examine the attitudes of women with intellectual disabilities towards homosexuality and gender role beliefs. To be able to develop a positive identity as gay or lesbian one first needs to know that such an alternative sexuality exists and second to be open in one’s attitudes towards it (Hunter 2007). Previous research has shown that people with intellectual disabilities have tended to hold at minimum negative and at most blatantly homophobic attitudes towards homosexuality (McCabe & Schreck 1992). The purpose of this study was two-fold. First it is to gain more insight about the current knowledge level and the attitudes in reference to same-sex relationships by women that have intellectual disabilities. Second, it is to examine to see if this sample of women with intellectual disabilities replicates previous research in examining if the relationship between stereo-typical beliefs and attitudes towards same-sex relationships have the same outcome. The methods used for this study begins with its design. The design was a cross sectional within a group, correlational design was employed using the data obtained from three self-report measures...

Words: 899 - Pages: 4

Research Method

... research project may also be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects, or the project as a whole. The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) aredocumentation, discovery, interpretation, or the research and development (R&D) of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences. There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, economic, social, business, marketing, practitioner research, etc. The Qualitative Report Volume 12 Number 3 September 2007 467-483 http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR12-3/yeager2 Linguistic Mechanisms Cause Rapid Behavior Change Part Two: How Linguistic Frames Affect Motivation Joseph Yeager and Linda Sommer Sommer Consulting, Inc., Newtown, Pennsylvania Written and spoken language contains inherent mechanisms driving motivation. Accessing and modifying psycholinguistic mechanisms, links language frames to changes in behavior within the context of motivational profiling. For example, holding an object like an imported apple feels safe until one is informed it was grown in a toxic waste dump. Instantly linguistic processing changes the apple’s meaning to dangerous. Qualitative data change from static into dynamic measures of motivational changes...

Words: 2238 - Pages: 9

Research Method

...Journal 1 Research Topic: Managerial stress in Hong Kong and Taiwan: a comparative study Motive : The purpose of this study is to investigate the occupational stress in managers in Hong Kong and Taiwan using the Occupational Stress indicator-2. The logical relationship between job satisfaction, mental and physical well-being as factors of stress. Setting : * Author : Oi-Ling Siu (Lingnan College, Hong Kong) Luo Lu (Kaoshiung Medical College, Kaushiung, Taiwan) Cary L. Cooper (Manchester School of Management, UMIST, Manchester, UK) * Place: 1) Hong Kong 2) Taiwan 3) United Kingdom * Time * Hong Kong : March to June 1997 * Taiwan : December 1996 to July 1997 Method : Quantitative * Self-administered questionnaire survey method Problem Statement * There has previously been little research done in managerial stress. Hong Kong Methods: * Distribute 1021 questionnaires to three groups of industrial and commercial managers * 280 sample * Convenient sampling (under non-probability sampling) * Random sampling method * Purposive sampling method Limitations or problems face: * 29 were incomplete and data cannot be used * Only 229 letters returned * 107 were unattended ones returned to sender ( due to change of address or closing down of the business) * Only 93 questionnaires completed ones * Result in response rate of 10.2...

Words: 765 - Pages: 4

Research Method

...Explain giving reasons, which is more important, applied or basic research PG 14 # 5 Research Methods * By totoqais * Oct 17, 2012 * 516 Words * 207 Views Chapter 1 : Q1. Why should a manager know about research when the job entails managing people, product, events, environments, and the like? Q2 .For What specific purposes is basic research important? Q3.When is applied research, as distinct from basic research, useful? Q4.Why is it important to be adept in handling the manager-researcher relationship? Q5.Explain, giving reasons, which is more important, applied or basic research. Q6.Give two specific instances where an external research team would be useful and two other scenarios when an internal research team will be deployed, with adequate explanations as to why each scenarios is justified for an external or internal team. Q7.Describe a situation where research will help you as a manager to make a good decision. Chapter 2 Q1 describe the hallmarks of scientific research. Q2 What are the steps in hypothetico -deductive research ? explain them, using an example not in the book. Q3 One hears the word research being mention by several groups such as research organization, college and university professors, doctoral students, graduate assistants working for faculty, graduate and undergraduate students doing their term papers, research departments in industries, newspaper reporters, journalists, lawyers, doctors, and many other professionals and...

Words: 1380 - Pages: 6

Research Method

...QUESTION NO 1 Why should a Manager know about research when the job entails managing people, products events, environments and the like? Answer: Research comes in many form, any person in any position should know how to research in order to get their job efficiently. If there is something you didn't know, you have to research it and study to know it better. This way you can manage well because you know what you are doing. Research is an inherent part of management. Quality research displays a well-organized cognitive and comprehensive skill necessary to succeed in a manager position. Also, a manager must be a jack of all trades, filling in various positions during times of crisis or emergency. The manager, while managing people, products, events, and environments will invariably face problems, big and small, and will have to seek ways to find long lasting effective solutions. This can be achieved only through knowledge of research even if consultants are engaged to solve problems. The primary purpose for applied research (as opposed to basic research) is discovering, interpreting, and the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe. Research can use the scientific method, but need not do so. The goal of the research process is to produce new knowledge, which takes three main forms (although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may be fuzzy) Exploratory...

Words: 1231 - Pages: 5

Operation Research

...STEP 1 | Identify | Low Oil Price In Malaysia | STEP 2 | Dissect | 1. Definition of oil and gas 2. The cause to low oil price 3. The impacts of low oil price to Malaysia economy 4. To know about the advantages and disadvantages of low oil price | STEP 3 | Select | Impacts of low oil price in Malaysia | STEP 5 | Formulate objectives | Main objective is to determine the impact of low oil price in Malaysia Specific objectives: 1. To determine the effect low oil price on people economy 2. To determine whether oil price has long term effect or short term effect on economy | STEP 4 | Raise question | 1. What are the impacts of low oil price on nation economy 2. How does the oil price affect people economy 3. Is oil price has long term effect or short term effect on economy? | SEVEN-STEP APPROACH STEP 6 | Make sure | Assess the objectives in Step 5 in terms of: 1. The work involved: * Find out 5 articles in the internet * Find other related topic from internet such as definition of oil and gas , the cause of oil and gas and to know about the advantages and disadvantages of oil and gas 2. The time available * I did the research after class finish and completed the task given usually at night 3. The financial resources at disposal * I spend my money to print out the report and for references I just took from internet and library. There is no cost for references. 4. Knowledge and expertise in the areaMy...

Words: 402 - Pages: 2

Research Method

.... Today YouTube is considered the second largest search engine, just behind Google™. In the table below, you can see the distribution of traffic volume across 10 different countries for the month of February 2010. It took 38 years for television to reach 50 million viewers; four years for the Internet to reach 50 million people; 3 years for the iPod and less than one year for Facebook to reach 50 million people. At this writing there are over 550 million people who have accounts on Facebook. If Facebook were a country, it would be the third largest country in the world. Social Networks can no longer be ignored or considered just a social phenomenon. This “youthful revolution” has not gotten weaker but has taken on steam, into something that is being used by all industries and all ages with the fastest growing segment of users on Social Networks being women between the ages of 55 and 65. Yet in their short lifespan, Social Networks can be seen evolving and disappearing. They are started with a focus on a specific topic or area and then may evolve into something different. Once out for public consumption, a Social Network may capture our attention, but our attention needs constant stimuli to keep the attraction. Research on Social Networking and Learning by Audrey Watters on 21 Nov, 2010 Ah, education and technology news... where to begin. Arne Duncan and Bill Gates have......

Words: 1539 - Pages: 7

Research Method

..." (Batt and Colvin, 2011: 702), and they "could not gather objective performance data"(Batt and Colvin, 2011: 712), it would be beneficial to employ qualitative methods to develop quantitative measure to tap operational performance concept for the research context, for instance, conducting unstructured interview with some respondents (Dumka et al., 1998). Though, it is argued that qualitative methods could less the possibility to replicate the research and generalize its findings (Bryman and Bell, 2007). Implications Till date there is no research could be allocated that refer to this contemporary study or examine its methods and findings to bring their strength and weakness to lights. This study implies that organization might consider the appropriate alignment of HR practices with adopted business strategy; as ideal matches between them could be associated with lower turnover, higher morale and performance (Bird and Beechler, 1995). Unlike previous studies that argued quits and dismissals have different causes and effects, this study yields findings that oppose them as it shows that quits and dismissals share similar antecedents and consequences. Thus, organizations in which treat the turnover as a "strategic variable" (Batt and Colvin, 2011: 711), which can be adjusted by applying certain HR controls they possibly will be able to manage quits and dismissal rates and accordingly the performance. Limitations Authors point out some limitations related to......

Words: 967 - Pages: 4