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Operational Environment Analysis

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Understanding the Operational Environment in Mosul, Iraq
SFC Leclerc, Silas
Master Leaders Course 005-18

Understanding the Operational Environment in Mosul, Iraq In today?s modern battlefield, it takes a unique understanding of the operational environment and all the aspects that go along with it. As stated by Thomas Ricks in his book on Major General David Petraeus? leadership, ?The first and foremost task of a commander is to understand, with a steady head, the nature of the conflict in which he is engaged? (Knowlton, 2010 p. 5). On 6 February 2003, he got orders to deploy and by 21 March 2003, he was crossing the border from Kuwait to Iraq with 18,000 troops (Lundberg, 2006 p.1). By April 2003, MG Petraeus was in Nineveh
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The term PMESII-PT means political, military, economic, social, information, infrastructure, physical environment, and time. The political aspect of the operational environment is a huge undertaking because to be successful in counterinsurgency commanders have to pay attention to past, present, and future of local government officials as well as local tribe leaders and respected elders. When it comes to the military, the commander needs to understand not only his capabilities but joint and host nation?s capabilities as well. Commanders must understand how the economic structure relates to the success of the mission. They need to take into account variables such as raw energy, government and taxation policies, and local corruption. Social variables consist of the understanding of different cultures and the proper way to interact with them within the region. Information variables are the collection of data from commanders based on surveillance, reconnaissance, and local civilian intelligence. Many commanders use infrastructure understanding to win the hearts and minds of the region. It deals with the conditions of basic commodities like water, sewage, medical, and schools. Commanders based their operations with the intelligence collected for the physical environment. Key elements of the physical environment include weather, …show more content…
(2012). ADRP 5-0 The Operations Process (5th ed., pp. 1-88). Washington, DC: Department of the Army.
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, H. (2017). ADRP 3-0 Operations (3rd ed., pp. 1-82). Washington, DC: HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY.
Gordon, M. (2003). THE STRUGGLE FOR IRAQ: RECONSTRUCTION; 101st Airborne Scores Success In Northern Iraq. nytimes. Retrieved 4 September 2003, from
Knowlton, W. (2010). The Surge: General Petraeus and the Turnaround in Iraq. National Defense University Industrial College of the Armed Forces, 1, (pp. 1-47).
Lundberg, K. (2006). The Accidental Statesmen: General Petraeus and the City of Mosul, Iraq. John F. Kennedy School of Government Case Study, C15-06-1834.0., (pp.

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